Browsing by Subject "Phylogeny"

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  • Murillo-Ramos, Leidys; Brehm, Gunnar; Sihvonen, Pasi; Hausmann, Axel; Holm, Sille; Reza Ghanavi, Hamid; Õunap, Erki; Truuverk, Andro; Staude, Hermann; Friedrich, Egbert; Tammaru, Toomas; Wahlberg, Niklas (2019)
    Our study aims to investigate the relationships of the major lineages within the moth family Geometridae, with a focus on the poorly studied Oenochrominae-Desmobathrinae complex, and to translate some of the results into a coherent subfamilial and tribal level classification for the family. We analyzed a molecular dataset of 1,206 Geometroidea terminal taxa from all biogeographical regions comprising up to 11 molecular markers that includes one mitochondria) (COI) and 10 protein-coding nuclear gene regions (wingless, ArgK, MDH, RpS5, GAPDH, IDH, Ca-ATPase, Nex9, EF-1 alpha, CAD). The molecular data set was analyzed using maximum likelihood as implemented in IQ-TREE and RAxML. We found high support for the subfamilies Larentiinae, Geometrinae and Ennominae in their traditional scopes. Sterrhinae becomes monophyletic only if Ergavia Walker, Ametris Hubner and Macrotes Westwood, which are currently placed in Oenochrominae, are formally transferred to Sterrhinae. Desmobathrinae and Oenochrominae are found to be polyphyletic. The concepts of Oenochrominae and Desmobathrinae required major revision and, after appropriate rearrangements, these groups also form monophyletic subfamily-level entities. Oenochrominae s.str. as originally conceived by Guenee is phylogenetically distant from Epidesmia and its close relatives. The latter is hereby described as the subfamily Epidesmiinae Murillo-Ramos, Sihvonen & Brehm, subfam. nov. Epidesmiinae are a lineage of "slender-bodied Oenochrominae" that include the genera Ecphyas Turner, Systatica Turner, Adeixis Warren, Dichromodes Guenee, Phrixocomes Turner, Abraxaphantes Warren, Epidesmia Duncan & Westwood and Phrataria Walker. Archiearinae are monophyletic when Dirce and Acalyphes are formally transferred to Ennominae. We also found that many tribes were para- or polyphyletic and therefore propose tens of taxonomic changes at the tribe and subfamily levels. Archaeobalbini stat. rev. Viidalepp (Geometrinae) is raised from synonymy with Pseudoterpnini Warren to tribal rank. Chlorodontoperini Murillo-Ramos, Sihvonen & Brehm, trib. nov. and Drepanogynini Murillo-Ramos, Sihvonen & Brehm, trib. nov. are described as new tribes in Geometrinae and Ennominae, respectively.
  • Abdullah,; Henriquez, Claudia L.; Mehmood, Furrukh; Hayat, Aamir; Sammad, Abdul; Waseem, Shahid; Waheed, Mohammad Tahir; Matthews, Peter J.; Croat, Thomas B; Poczai, Péter; Ahmed, Ibrar (2021)
    Chloroplast (cp) genomes are considered important for the study of lineage-specific molecular evolution, population genetics, and phylogenetics. Our aim here was to elucidate the molecular evolution in cp genomes of species in the Dracunculus clade (Aroideae, Araceae). We report de novo assembled cp genomes for eight species from eight genera and also retrieved cp genomes of four species from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). The cp genomes varied in size from 162,424 bp to 176,835 bp. Large Single Copy (LSC) region ranged in size from 87,141 bp to 95,475 bp; Small Single Copy (SSC) from 14,338 bp to 23,981 bp; and Inverted Repeats (IRa and IRb) from 25,131 bp to 32,708 bp. The expansion in inverted repeats led to duplication of ycf1 genes in four species. The genera showed high similarity in gene content and yielded 113 unique genes (79 protein-coding, 4 rRNA, and 30 tRNA genes). Codon usage, amino acid frequency, RNA editing sites, microsatellites repeats, transition and transversion substitutions, and synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions were also similar across the clade. A previous study reported deletion of ycf1, accD, psbE, trnL-CAA, and trnG-GCC genes in four Amorphophallus species. Our study supports conservative structure of cp genomes in the Dracunculus clade including Amorphophallus species and does not support gene deletion mentioned above. We also report suitable polymorphic loci based on comparative analyses of Dracunculus clade species, which could be useful for phylogenetic inference. Overall, the current study broad our knowledge about the molecular evolution of chloroplast genome in aroids.
  • Skarp-de Haan, Caroline P. A.; Culebro, Alejandra; Schott, Thomas; Revez, Joana; Schweda, Elke K. H.; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Rossi, Mirko (2014)
  • Heikkila, Maria; Mutanen, Marko; Wahlberg, Niklas; Sihvonen, Pasi; Kaila, Lauri (2015)
    Background: Ditrysia comprise close to 99 % of all butterflies and moths. The evolutionary relationships among the ditrysian superfamilies have received considerable attention in phylogenetic studies based on DNA and transcriptomic data, but the deepest divergences remain for large parts unresolved or contradictory. To obtain complementary insight into the evolutionary history of the clade, and to test previous hypotheses on the subdivision of Ditrysia based on morphology, we examine the morphology of larvae, pupae and adult males and females of 318 taxa representing nearly all ditrysian superfamilies and families. We present the most comprehensive morphological dataset on Ditrysia to date, consisting of over 500 morphological characters. The data are analyzed alone and combined with sequence data (one mitochondrial and seven nuclear protein-coding gene regions, sequenced from 422 taxa). The full dataset consists of 473 exemplar species. Analyses are performed using maximum likelihood methods, and parsimony methods for the morphological dataset. We explore whether combining morphological data and DNA-data can stabilize taxa that are unstable in phylogenetic studies based on genetic data only. Results: Morphological characters are found phylogenetically informative in resolving apical nodes (superfamilies and families), but characters serving as evidence of relatedness of larger assemblages are few. Results include the recovery of a monophyletic Tineoidea, Sesioidea and Cossoidea, and a stable position for some unstable taxa (e.g. Epipyropidae, Cyclotornidae, Urodoidea + Schreckensteinioidea). Several such taxa, however, remain unstable even though morphological characters indicate a position in the tree (e.g. Immidae). Evidence supporting affinities between clades are suggested, e.g. a novel larval synapomorphy for Tineidae. We also propose the synonymy of Tineodidae with Alucitidae, syn. nov. Conclusions: The large morphological dataset provides information on the diversity and distribution of morphological traits in Ditrysia, and can be used in future research on the evolution of these traits, in identification keys and in identification of fossil Lepidoptera. The "backbone" of the phylogeny for Ditrysia remains largely unresolved. As previously proposed as an explanation for the scarcity of molecular signal in resolving the deeper nodes, this may be due to the rapid radiation of Ditrysia in the Cretaceous.
  • Castel, Guillaume; Tordo, Noel; Plyusnin, Alexander (2017)
    Because of the great variability of their reservoir hosts, hantaviruses are excellent models to evaluate the dynamics of virus-host co-evolution. Intriguing questions remain about the timescale of the diversification events that influenced this evolution. In this paper we attempted to estimate the first ever timing of hantavirus diversification based on thirty five available complete genomes representing five major groups of hantaviruses and the assumption of co-speciation of hantaviruses with their respective mammal hosts. Phylogenetic analyses were used to estimate the main diversification points during hantavirus evolution in mammals while host diversification was mostly estimated from independent calibrators taken from fossil records. Our results support an earlier developed hypothesis of co-speciation of known hantaviruses with their respective mammal hosts and hence a common ancestor for all hantaviruses carried by placental mammals. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Chen, Chi-Chuan; Hyvönen, Jaakko; Schneider, Harald (2020)
    The microsoroid ferns are one of the largest subfamilies of the Polypodiaceae with over 180 species mainly found in the humid forests of tropical Australasia. The phylogenetic relationships are still unclear, especially the delimitation of the genus Microsorum which has been recognized to be non-monophyletic. We analysed the microsoroid ferns using six chloroplast DNA regions (rbcL, rps4+rps4-trnS, trnL+trnL-trnF, atpA, atpB and matK) in order to present a robust hypothesis of their phylogeny. Our results suggest that they comprise up to 17 genera; of them, 12 agree with a previously accepted generic classification. Five tribes are proposed based on the phylogenetic relationships. Most of the species traditionally included in the genus Microsorum are found in six genera belonging to two tribes. In addition to the commonly used DNA markers, the additional atpA and matK are helpful to provide information about the phylogenetic relationships of the microsoroid ferns.
  • Liimatainen, Kare; Niskanen, Tuula; Dima, Bálint; Ammirati, Joseph F.; Kirk, Paul M.; Kytövuori, Ilkka (2020)
    So far approximately 144,000 species of fungi have been named but sequences of the majority of them do not exist in the public databases. Therefore, the quality and coverage of public barcode databases is a bottleneck that hinders the study of fungi. Cortinarius is the largest genus of Agaricales with thousands of species world-wide. The most diverse subgenus in Cortinarius is Telamonia and its species have been considered one of the most taxonomically challenging in the Agaricales. Its high diversity combined with convergent, similar appearing taxa have earned it a reputation of being an impossible group to study. In this study a total of 746 specimens, including 482 type specimens representing 184 species were sequenced. Also, a significant number of old types were successfully sequenced, 105 type specimens were over 50 years old and 18 type specimens over 100 years old. Altogether, 20 epi- or neotypes are proposed for recently commonly used older names. Our study doubles the number of reliable DNA-barcodes of species of C. subgenus Telamonia in the public sequence databases. This is also the first extensive phylogenetic study of the subgenus. A majority of the sections and species are shown in a phylogenetic context for the first time. Our study shows that nomenclatural problems, even in difficult groups like C. subgenus Telamonia, can be solved and consequently identification of species based on ITS barcodes becomes an easy task even for non-experts of the genus.
  • Zakham, Fathiah Ahmed Jnnaid; Jääskeläinen, Anne J; Castren, Janne; Sormunen, Jani J.; Uusitalo, Ruut; Smura, Teemu; von Troil, Gabriel; Kuivanen, Suvi; Sironen, Tarja; Vapalahti, Olli (2021)
    Borrelia miyamotoi is an emerging pathogen that shares high similarity with relapsing fever Borrelia, but has an atypical clinical presentation. Within the framework of tick-borne disease surveillance in Finland, human serum samples suspected for tick-borne encephalitis (n=974) and questing ticks (n=739) were collected from the capital region in Finland to determine the prevalence of B. miyamotoi. All tested human samples were negative and 5 (0.68 %) Ixodes ricinus ticks were positive for B. miyamotoi. Partial sequencing of the flagellin (flaB) gene of 3 positive samples and 27 B. miyamotoi-positive tick samples obtained from previous studies across Finland were amplified, sequenced, and included in the phylogenetic analysis. The phylogenetic tree revealed that most B. miyamotoi strains isolated from ticks in Finland share high similarity with other European strains, including strains related to human infection. Possible disease transmission may occur during exposure to tick bites. A single strain collected from an I. persulcatus tick in Pajujarvi grouped with an outlier of B. miyamotoi strains isolated from Russia and Far East Asian countries. Further studies should investigate the pathogen's role in human infection in Finland. Another important finding is the occurrence of I. persulcatus ticks (8%) collected by crowdsourcing from the coastal southern part of Finland. This suggests a regular introduction and a possible wide expansion of this tick species in the country. This could be associated with transmission of new pathogens.
  • Hugenholtz, Floor; de Vos, Willem M. (2018)
    Since the early days of the intestinal microbiota research, mouse models have been used frequently to study the interaction of microbes with their host. However, to translate the knowledge gained from mouse studies to a human situation, the major spatio-temporal similarities and differences between intestinal microbiota in mice and humans need to be considered. This is done here with specific attention for the comparative physiology of the intestinal tract, the effect of dietary patterns and differences in genetics. Detailed phylogenetic and metagenomic analysis showed that while many common genera are found in the human and murine intestine, these differ strongly in abundance and in total only 4% of the bacterial genes are found to share considerable identity. Moreover, a large variety of murine strains is available yet most of the microbiota research is performed in wild-type, inbred strains and their transgenic derivatives. It has become increasingly clear that the providers, rearing facilities and the genetic background of these mice have a significant impact on the microbial composition and this is illustrated with recent experimental data. This may affect the reproducibility of mouse microbiota studies and their conclusions. Hence, future studies should take these into account to truly show the effect of diet, genotype or environmental factors on the microbial composition.
  • Malysheva, Vera; Spirin, Viacheslav; Miettinen, Otto; Kout, Jiří; Savchenko, Anton; Larsson, Karl-Henrik (2019)
    In the present paper, we select a neotype for Tremella cerasi and prove that it is conspecific with Ditangium insigne (the genus type of Ditangium). We argue that Ditangium should be restored as a correct genus for T. cerasi, while the currently used generic name Craterocolla is to be treated as its younger synonym. Morphological, ecological and genetic variability of Ditangium cerasi is discussed, and two other Ditangium species are described—D. altaicum, sp. nov. and D. incarnatum, comb. nov. In addition, Exidia fulva is combined in Globulisebacina.
  • Spirin, Viacheslav; Malysheva, Vera; Miettinen, Otto; Vlasak, Josef; Mendes Alvarenga, Renato Lucio; Gibertoni, Tatiana Baptista; Ryvarden, Leif; Larsson, Karl-Henrik (2019)
    The taxonomy of Protomerulius and Heterochaetella is revised based on DNA data and morphological evidence, and their type species, P. brasiliensis and H. dubia, are proved to be congeneric. As a consequence, H. dubia and related species, of which four are described as new, are placed in Protomerulius. Heterochaete microspora is also combined in Protomerulius, and the genus concept is redefined to encompass effused species with smooth or spiny hymenophore and monomitic hyphal structure. Psilochaete multifora, gen. and spec. nov. is a distant relative of Protomerulius spp. found in Norway. Heterochaetella cystidiophora is re-collected in Brazil and placed in the synonyms of Heterochaete sanctae-catharinae. This species does not belong to the Protomerulius-Heterochaetella lineage, and it is transferred to Metulochaete, gen. nov.
  • Spirin, Viacheslav; Volobuev, Sergey; Viner, Ilya; Miettinen, Otto; Vlasák, Josef; Schoutteten, Nathan; Motato-Vásquez, Viviana; Kotiranta, Heikki; Hernawati, Nana; Larsson, Karl-Henrik (2021)
    The taxonomy of Sistotremastrum (Trechisporales, Basidiomycota) is revised based on morphology and DNA data. The genus is shown to be polyphyletic, and therefore it is split into two units-Sistotremastrum s. str. and Sertulicium, gen. nov. (typified with Corticium niveocremeum). Sistotremastrum s. str. is retained for eleven species of which eight are described as new while Sertulicium encompasses at least six species, including one new to science. Both of these genera are only distantly related to other representatives of the Trechisporales. Additionally, a new poroid neotropical species, Porpomyces abiens (Hydnodontaceae), is described as morphologically similar to some members of Sistotremastrum s. str.
  • Bell, Neil E.; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Mishler, Brent D.; Hyvonen, Jaakko (2014)
  • Poczai, Peter; Hyvönen, Jaakko; Symon, David E. (2011)
  • Lavikainen, Antti; Iwaki, Takashi; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Konyaev, Sergey V.; Casiraghi, Maurizio; Dokuchaev, Nikolai E.; Galimberti, Andrea; Halajian, Ali; Henttonen, Heikki; Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Itagaki, Tadashi; Krivopalov, Anton V.; Meri, Seppo; Morand, Serge; Nareaho, Anu; Olsson, Gert E.; Ribas, Alexis; Terefe, Yitagele; Nakao, Minoru (2016)
    The common cat tapeworm Hydatigera taeniaeformis is a complex of three morphologically cryptic entities, which can be differentiated genetically. To clarify the biogeography and the host spectrum of the cryptic lineages, 150 specimens of H. taeniaeformis in various definitive and intermediate hosts from Eurasia, Africa and Australia were identified with DNA barcoding using partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene sequences and compared with previously published data. Additional phylogenetic analyses of selected isolates were performed using nuclear DNA and mitochondrial genome sequences. Based on molecular data and morphological analysis, Hydatigera kamiyai n. sp. Iwaki is proposed for a cryptic lineage, which is predominantly northern Eurasian and uses mainly arvicoline rodents (voles) and mice of the genus Apodemus as intermediate hosts. Hydatigera taeniaeformis sensu stricto (s.s.) is restricted to murine rodents (rats and mice) as intermediate hosts. It probably originates from Asia but has spread worldwide. Despite remarkable genetic divergence between H. taeniaeformis s.s. and H. kamiyai, interspecific morphological differences are evident only in dimensions of rostellar hooks. The third cryptic lineage is closely related to H. kamiyai, but its taxonomic status remains unresolved due to limited morphological, molecular, biogeographical and ecological data. This Hydatigera sp. is confined to the Mediterranean and its intermediate hosts are unknown. Further studies are needed to classify Hydatigera sp. either as a distinct species or a variant of H. kamiyai. According to previously published limited data, all three entities occur in the Americas, probably due to human-mediated introductions. (C) 2016 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Flores, Jorge R.; Suárez, Guillermo M.; Hyvönen, Jaakko (2019)
    Morphological data has gained renewed attention and has been shown to be crucial in clarifying the phylogenetic relationship in a wide range of taxa. In the last decades, phylogenetic analyses of sequence-level data have radically modified the systematic schemes within bryophytes (early non-vascular land plants) and have revealed a widespread pattern of conflict with morphology-based classifications. Yet, a comprehensive evaluation of character conflict has not yet been performed in the context of combined matrices. In this study, we evaluate the impact of morphology on bryophyte phylogeny following a total-evidence approach across 10 published matrices. The analysed matrices span a wide range of bryophytes, taxonomic levels, gene sampling and number of morphological characters and taxa. Data conflict was addressed by measuring: (i) the topological congruence between individual partitions, (ii) changes in support values of the combined data relative to the molecular partition and (iii) clade stability. The association between these measures and the number of morphological characters per taxon (Nc/T ratio) and the proportion of non-fixed characters (i.e., inapplicable, polymorphic and missing data) was explored. In the individual partition analyses, the Nc/T ratio correlated positively with the topological congruence in six to seven datasets depending on the weighting scheme. The proportion of non-fixed cells had a minor influence on congruence between data partitions. The number of characters and proportion of non-fixed data varied significantly between morphological datasets that improved congruence between data types. This variation suggests that morphological datasets affect the results of combined analyses in different ways, depending on the taxa studied. Combined analyses revealed that, despite the low congruence values between partitions, integrating data types improves support values and stability. However, while non-fixed data had no negative effect on support values, stability was reduced as the proportion of non-fixed cells increased. Nc/T ratio was negatively associated with support values and it showed ambiguous responses in stability evaluations. Overall, the results indicate that adding morphology may contribute to the inference of phylogenetic relationships of bryophytes despite character conflict. Our findings suggest that merely comparing (a) morphology-based classifications with molecular phylogenies or (b) the outcome from individual data partitions can misestimate data conflict. These findings imply that analyses of combined data may provide conservative assessments of data conflict and, eventually, lead to an improved sampling of morphological characters in large-scale analyses of bryophytes.
  • Malysheva, Vera; Spirin, Viacheslav; Miettinen, Otto; Motato-Vasquez, Viviana; Hernawati,; Seelan, Jaya Seelan Sathiya; Larsson, Karl-Henrik (2018)
    Three species currently addressed to Protohydnum (Auriculariales) are studied with morphological and DNA methods. The genus Protohydnum is retained for the type species only, P. cartilagineum, recently re-collected in Brazil. The European species, P. piceicola, is not congeneric with P. cartilagineum and, therefore, placed in its own genus, Hyalodon, gen. nov. Another Hyalodon species, H. antui, is described from East Asia. The third member of Protohydnum sensu lato, P. sclerodontium from South-East Asia, is transferred to Elmerina.
  • Chen, Ying; Korkeala, Hannu; Aarnikunnas, Johannes; Lindstrom, Miia (2007)
    Three Clostridium botulinum type E strains were sequenced for the botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) gene cluster, and 11 type E strains, representing a wide biodiversity, were sequenced for the bont/E gene. The total length of the BoNT/E gene cluster was 12,908 bp, and a novel gene (partial) designated orfx3, together with the complete orfx2 gene, was identified in the three type E strains for the first time. Apart from orfx3, the structure and organization of the neurotoxin gene cluster of the three strains were identical to those of previously published ones. Only minor differences (</=3%) in the nucleotide sequences of the gene cluster components were observed among the three strains and the published BoNT/E-producing clostridia. The orfx3, orfx2, orfx1, and p47 gene sequences of the three type E strains shared homologies of 81%, 67 to 76%, 78 to 79%, and 79 to 85%, respectively, with published sequences for type A1 and A2 C. botulinum. Analysis of bont/E from the 14 type E strains and 19 previously published BoNT/E-producing clostridia revealed six neurotoxin subtypes, with a new distinct subtype consisting of three Finnish isolates alone. The amino acid sequence of the subtype E6 neurotoxin differed 3 to 6% from the other subtypes, suggesting that these subtype E6 neurotoxins may possess specific antigenic or functional properties.
  • Spirin, Viacheslav; Malysheva, Vera; Schoutteten, Nathan; Viner, Ilya; Miettinen, Otto; Nordén, Jenni; Ryvarden, Leif; Kotiranta, Heikki; Verbeken, Annemieke; Weiss, Michael; Larsson, Karl-Henrik (2021)
    Taxonomy of Basidiodendron caesiocinereum complex is revised based on morphological and molecular methods (with the use of nc LSU rDNA, ITS and TEF1 regions). The basidiospore ornamentation is justified as a key morphological character for the species recognition in the group. As redefined here, B. caesiocinereum is an angiosperm-dwelling species with smooth basidiospores. Bourdotia cinerella and B. cinerella var. trachyspora are proved to represent separate species with warted basidiospores; they are reintroduced as Basidiodendron cinerellum and B. trachysporum. Additionally, eight new species related to B. caesiocinereum are described based on material from Eurasia, North America and Africa, and identity of B. spinosum from Oceania is discussed.
  • Spirin, Viacheslav; Malysheva, Vera; Haelewaters, Danny; Larsson, Karl-Henrik (2019)
    Stypella vermiformis is a heterobasidiomycete producing minute gelatinous basidiocarps on rotten wood of conifers in the Northern Hemisphere. In the current literature, Stypella papillata, the genus type of Stypella (described from Brazil), is treated as a taxonomic synonym of S. vermiformis. In the present paper, we revise the type material of S. papillata and a number of specimens addressed to S. vermiformis. As a result, the presumed synonymy of S. papillata and S. vermiformis is rejected and the genus Stypella is restricted to the single species S. papillata. Morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies of specimens from the Northern Hemisphere corresponding to the current concept of S. vermiformis uncovered three species from two newly described genera. S. vermiformis s.str. is distributed in temperate Europe and has small-sized basidia and basidiospores, and it is placed in a new genus, Mycostilla. Another genus, Stypellopsis, is created for two other species, the North American Stypellopsis farlowii, comb. nov., and the North European Stypellopsis hyperborea, sp. nov. Basidia and basidiospores of Stypellopsis spp. are larger than in Mycostilla vermiformis but other morphological characters are very similar. In addition, Spiculogloea minuta (Spiculogloeomycetes, Pucciniomycotina) is reported as new to Norway, parasitising basidiocarps of M. vermiformis and Tulasnella spp.