Browsing by Subject "Physical activity"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 67
  • Laine, Merja K.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Kujala, Urho M.; Wasenius, Niko S.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Backmand, Heli M.; Peltonen, Markku; Mertsalmi, Tuomas H.; Sarna, Seppo (2014)
  • Dumuid, Dorothea; Stanford, Tyman E.; Pedisic, Zeljko; Maher, Carol; Lewis, Lucy K.; Martin-Fernandez, Josep-Antoni; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Fogelholm, Mikael; Standage, Martyn; Tremblay, Mark S.; Olds, Timothy (2018)
    Background: Daily activity data are by nature compositional data. Accordingly, they occupy a specific geometry with unique properties that is different to standard Euclidean geometry. This study aimed to estimate the difference in adiposity associated with isotemporal reallocation between daily activity behaviours, and to compare the findings from compositional isotemporal subsitution to those obtained from traditional isotemporal substitution. Methods: We estimated the differences in adiposity (body fat%) associated with reallocating fixed durations of time (isotemporal substitution) between accelerometer-measured daily activity behaviours (sleep, sedentary time and light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) among 1728 children aged 9-11 years from Australia, Canada, Finland and the UK (International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment, 2011-2013).We generated estimates from compositional isotemporal substitution models and traditional non-compositional isotemporal substitution models. Results: Both compositional and traditional models estimated a positive (unfavourable) difference in body fat% when time was reallocated from MVPA to any other behaviour. Unlike traditional models, compositional models found the differences in estimated adiposity (1) were not necessarily symmetrical when an activity was being displaced, or displacing another (2) were not linearly related to the durations of time reallocated, and (3) varied depending on the starting composition. Conclusion: The compositional isotemporal model caters for the constrained and therefore relative nature of activity behaviour data and enables all daily behaviours to be included in a single statistical model. The traditional model treats data as real variables, thus the constrained nature of time is not accounted for, nor reflected in the findings. Findings from compositional isotemporal substitution support the importance of MVPA to children's health, and suggest that while interventions to increase MVPA may be of benefit, attention should be directed towards strategies to avoid decline in MVPA levels, particularly among already inactive children. Future applications of the compositional model can extend from pair-wise reallocations to other configurations of time-reallocation, for example, increasing MVPA at the expense of multiple other behaviours.
  • Dumuid, Dorothea; Stanford, Tyman E; Pedišić, Željko; Maher, Carol; Lewis, Lucy K; Martín-Fernández, Josep-Antoni; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Fogelholm, Mikael; Standage, Martyn; Tremblay, Mark S; Olds, Timothy (BioMed Central, 2018)
    Abstract Background Daily activity data are by nature compositional data. Accordingly, they occupy a specific geometry with unique properties that is different to standard Euclidean geometry. This study aimed to estimate the difference in adiposity associated with isotemporal reallocation between daily activity behaviours, and to compare the findings from compositional isotemporal subsitution to those obtained from traditional isotemporal substitution. Methods We estimated the differences in adiposity (body fat%) associated with reallocating fixed durations of time (isotemporal substitution) between accelerometer-measured daily activity behaviours (sleep, sedentary time and light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) among 1728 children aged 9–11 years from Australia, Canada, Finland and the UK (International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment, 2011–2013). We generated estimates from compositional isotemporal substitution models and traditional non-compositional isotemporal substitution models. Results Both compositional and traditional models estimated a positive (unfavourable) difference in body fat% when time was reallocated from MVPA to any other behaviour. Unlike traditional models, compositional models found the differences in estimated adiposity (1) were not necessarily symmetrical when an activity was being displaced, or displacing another (2) were not linearly related to the durations of time reallocated, and (3) varied depending on the starting composition. Conclusion The compositional isotemporal model caters for the constrained and therefore relative nature of activity behaviour data and enables all daily behaviours to be included in a single statistical model. The traditional model treats data as real variables, thus the constrained nature of time is not accounted for, nor reflected in the findings. Findings from compositional isotemporal substitution support the importance of MVPA to children’s health, and suggest that while interventions to increase MVPA may be of benefit, attention should be directed towards strategies to avoid decline in MVPA levels, particularly among already inactive children. Future applications of the compositional model can extend from pair-wise reallocations to other configurations of time-reallocation, for example, increasing MVPA at the expense of multiple other behaviours.
  • Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Schlesinger, Sabrina; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Jochem, Carmen; Jenab, Mazda; Gunter, Marc J.; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Carbonnel, Franck; Fournier, Agnes; Kuehn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf; Pischon, Tobias; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; La Vecchia, Carlo; Masala, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Fasanelli, Francesca; Tumino, Rosario; Grioni, Sara; de Mesquita, Bas Bueno; Vermeulen, Roel; May, Anne M.; Borch, Kristin B.; Oyeyemi, Sunday O.; Ardanaz, Eva; Rodriguez-Barranco, Miguel; Chirlaque Lopez, Maria Dolores; Felez-Nobrega, Mireia; Sonestedt, Emily; Ohlsson, Bodil; Hemmingsson, Oskar; Werner, Marten; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Ferrari, Pietro; Stepien, Magdalena; Freisling, Heinz; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Ward, Heather; Riboli, Elio; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Leitzmann, Michael F. (2019)
    Background & Aims: To date, evidence on the association between physical activity and risk of hepatobiliary cancers has been inconclusive. Weexamined this association in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort (EPIC). Methods: We identified 275 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases, 93 intrahepatic bile duct cancers (IHBCs), and 164 non-gallbladder extrahepatic bile duct cancers (NGBCs) among 467,336 EPIC participants (median follow-up 14.9 years). We estimated cause-specific hazard ratios (HRs) for total physical activity and vigorous physical activity and performed mediation analysis and secondary analyses to assess robustness to confounding (e.g. due to hepatitis virus infection). Results: In the EPIC cohort, the multivariable-adjusted HR of HCC was 0.55 (95% CI 0.38-0.80) comparing active and inactive individuals. Regarding vigorous physical activity, for those reporting >2 hours/week compared to those with no vigorous activity, the HR for HCC was 0.50 (95% CI 0.33-0.76). Estimates were similar in sensitivity analyses for confounding. Total and vigorous physical activity were unrelated to IHBC and NGBC. In mediation analysis, waist circumference explained about 40% and body mass index 30% of the overall association of total physical activity and HCC. Conclusions: These findings suggest an inverse association between physical activity and risk of HCC, which is potentially mediated by obesity. Lay summary: In a pan-European study of 467,336 men and women, we found that physical activity is associated with a reduced risk of developing liver cancers over the next decade. This risk was independent of other liver cancer risk factors, and did not vary by age, gender, smoking status, body weight, and alcohol consumption. (C) 2019 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Sullivan, Samaah M.; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Barreira, Tiago V.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V.; Maher, Carol; Maia, Jose; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Tim; Onywera, Vincent; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Standage, Martyn; Tremblay, Mark S.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; ISCOLE Res Grp (2017)
    We investigated whether associations of neighborhood social environment attributes and physical activity differed among 12 countries and levels of economic development using World Bank classification (low/lower-middle-, upper-middle- and high- income countries) among 9-11 year old children (N=6161) from the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle, and the Environment (ISCOLE). Collective efficacy and perceived crime were obtained via parental/guardian report. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed with waist-worn Actigraph accelerometers. Neighborhood environment by country interactions were tested using multi-level statistical models, adjusted for covariates. Effect estimates were reported by country and pooled estimates calculated across World Bank classifications for economic development using meta-analyses and forest plots. Associations between social environment attributes and MVPA varied among countries and levels of economic development. Associations were more consistent and in the hypothesized directions among countries with higher levels economic development, but less so among countries with lower levels of economic development.
  • Teisala, Tiina; Mutikainen, Sara; Tolvanen, Asko; Rottensteiner, Mirva; Leskinen, Tuija; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Rusko, Heikki; Kujala, Urho M. (2014)
    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate how physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and body composition are associated with heart rate variability (HRV)-based indicators of stress and recovery on workdays. Additionally, we evaluated the association of objectively measured stress with self-reported burnout symptoms. METHODS: Participants of this cross-sectional study were 81 healthy males (age range 26-40 y). Stress and recovery on workdays were measured objectively based on HRV recordings. CRF and anthropometry were assessed in laboratory conditions. The level of PA was based on a detailed PA interview (MET index [MET-h/d]) and self-reported activity class. RESULTS: PA, CRF, and body composition were significantly associated with levels of stress and recovery on workdays. MET index (P < 0.001), activity class (P = 0.001), and CRF (P = 0.019) were negatively associated with stress during working hours whereas body fat percentage (P = 0.005) was positively associated. Overall, 27.5% of the variance of total stress on workdays (P = 0.001) was accounted for by PA, CRF, and body composition. Body fat percentage and body mass index were negatively associated with night-time recovery whereas CRF was positively associated. Objective work stress was associated (P = 0.003) with subjective burnout symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: PA, CRF, and body composition are associated with HRV-based stress and recovery levels, which needs to be taken into account in the measurement, prevention, and treatment of work-related stress. The HRV-based method used to determine work-related stress and recovery was associated with self-reported burnout symptoms, but more research on the clinical importance of the methodology is needed.
  • Takatalo, Jani; Karppinen, Jaro; Taimela, Simo; Niinimaki, Jaakko; Laitinen, Jaana; Sequeiros, Roberto Blanco; Paananen, Markus; Remes, Jouko; Nayha, Simo; Tammelin, Tuija; Korpelainen, Raija; Tervonen, Osmo (2013)
  • Leskinen, Tuija; Stenholm, Sari; Heinonen, Olli J.; Pulakka, Anna; Aalto, Ville; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi (2018)
    This study aims to examine the association between change in physical activity over time and accumulation of cardiometabolic risk factors. Four consecutive surveys (Time 1 to 4) were conducted with 4-year intervals in 1997-2013 (the Finnish Public Sector study). Physical activity of 15,634 cardio-metabolically healthy participants (mean age 43.3 (SD 8.7) years, 85% women) was assessed using four-item survey measure and was expressed as weekly metabolic equivalent (MET) hours in Time 1, 2, and 3. At each time point, participants were categorised into low (<14 MET-h/week), moderate (>= 14 to<30 MET-h/week), or high (>= 30MET-h/week) activity level and change in physical activity levels between Time 1 and 3 (over 8 years) was determined. The outcome was the number of incident cardiometabolic risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and obesity) at Time 4. Cumulative logistic regression was used for data analysis. Compared to maintenance of low physical activity, increase in physical activity from low baseline activity level was associated with decreased accumulation of cardiometabolic risk factors in a dose-response manner (cumulative odds ratio [cOR]= 0.73, 95% CI 0.59-0.90 for low-to-moderate and cOR= 0.67, 95% CI 0.49-0.89 for low-to-high, P for trend 0.0007). Decrease in physical activity level from high to low was associated with increased accumulation of cardiometabolic risk factors (cOR= 1.60, 95% CI 1.27-2.01) compared to those who remained at high activity level. Thus even a modest long-term increase in physical activity was associated with reduction in cardiometabolic risk whereas decrease in physical activity was related to increased risk.
  • Stenholm, Sari; Pulakka, Anna; Kawachi, Ichiro; Oksanen, Tuula; Halonen, Jaana I.; Aalto, Ville; Kivimaki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi (2016)
    Background: Retirement is a major life transition which may affect lifestyle. The aim of this study is to examine within-individual changes in physical activity during the transition from full-time work to retirement. Methods: The study population consisted of 9,488 Finnish public-sector employees who retired in 2000-2011 and who reported their leisure-time and commuting physical activity before and after retirement. On average, participants provided data at 3.6 (of the four) repeat examinations during 10 years before and 10 years after the retirement. Physical activity was self-reported and was expressed as weekly metabolic equivalent task (MET) hours. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine physical activity trajectories around retirement. Results: Among participants entering to statutory retirement physical activity first increased by 1.81 MET-hours (95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.20 to 2.42) during 4-year retirement transition, but then decreased by -1.80 MET hours (95 % CI -2.83 to -0.79) during the subsequent post-retirement period. Older retirement age, higher occupational status and fewer chronic diseases were associated with greater increase in physical activity during transition to statutory retirement. Conclusions: Statutory retirement appears to be associated with a temporary increase in physical activity. Future research should examine ways to maintain the increased activity level after retirement.
  • Määttä, Suvi; Gubbels, Jessica; Ray, Carola; Koivusilta, Leena; Nislin, Mari; Sajaniemi, Nina; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Roos, Eva (2019)
    The physical environment in preschool, covering all indoor and outdoor equipment, and the surfaces of the preschool yard, may have a large potential for increasing children's physical activity (PA). However, it is less clear which specific physical environmental factors are associated with children's PA. Cross-sectional associations between the individual observed items (e.g. fixed and portable equipment, surfaces, terrain in the grounds) as well as composite scores for the PA equipment on the one hand, and children's PA, measured by accelerometers, on the other, were investigated in a sample of 3-6 year old children (N = 778) attending preschool in Finland. Having balance equipment and trampolines in group facilities, having balance equipment, gym mats and sticks in the gym and having skipping ropes, sand and mostly hilly terrain on the outdoor playground were associated with children's higher PA, regardless of gender. On the contrary, having gravel as the terrain in the playground and having a seesaw outdoors were associated with lower PA levels, regardless of gender. Four significant interactions with gender were found, but none of the environmental predictors remained significant in the post-hoc gender-stratified analyses. Variety in PA equipment and playground terrain may be beneficial for increasing children's PA in preschools. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Nuutinen, Teija; Lehto, Elviira; Ray, Carola; Roos, Eva; Villberg, Jari; Tynjala, Jorma (2017)
    To examine how clusters of energy balance-related behaviours (EBRBs), including sleep related factors, were associated with overweight among adolescents. In Finland, 4262 adolescents, aged 13-15, participated in the cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. The adolescents completed questionnaires assessing EBRBs [sleep duration, discrepancy and quality, physical activity (PA), screen time, junk food, fruit, and vegetable intake] and height and weight. Clusters were identified with kappa-means cluster analysis and their associations with overweight with logistic regression analyses. Common clusters for boys and girls were labelled "Healthy lifestyle" and "High screen time, unhealthy lifestyle". In addition, the cluster "Low/moderate screen time, unhealthy lifestyle" was identified among boys, and the cluster "Poor sleep, unhealthy lifestyle" among girls. Only girls in the cluster "High screen time, unhealthy lifestyle" were at increased risk for overweight. Girls, whose EBRB was characterized by high screen time and low PA, but not with poor sleep, were at increased risk for overweight. Future studies should examine ways to promote PA among adolescent girls with high interest in screen-based activities.
  • Leppänen, Marja H.; Ray, Carola; Wennman, Heini; Alexandrou, Christina; Sääksjärvi, Katri; Koivusilta, Leena; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Roos, Eva (2019)
    Background: Recent 24-h movement guidelines for the early years established recommendations for physical activity (PA), screen time (ST), and sleep. To date, few studies have focused on compliance with meeting the guidelines and their associations with health outcomes. Thus, we aimed to investigate: 1) compliance with the 24-h movement guidelines, and 2) associations between compliance and anthropometry in Finnish preschoolers. Methods: We utilized DAGIS survey data that were collected in 2015-2016 (N = 864). PA was assessed 24 h/day over 7 days using a waist-worn ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometer. ST and sleep were reported by the parents during the same 7 days. Anthropometry was assessed using body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) and waist circumference (WC, cm). Children were classified as meeting the guidelines if they averaged >= 180 min/day of PA, which consisted of >= 60 min of moderate-to-vigorous intensity; Results: Children were physically active on average 390 (+/- 46.2) min/day and spent 86 (+/- 25.5) min/day in moderate-to-vigorous PA. They spent 76 (+/- 37.4) min/day on ST and had on average 10:21 (+/- 0:33) h:min/day of sleep. The compliance rate in meeting all three movement guidelines overall was 24%. The highest compliance rate was found for PA (85%), followed by sleep (76%) and ST (35%). Meeting guidelines separately for PA or sleep, or for both, were associated with lower WC (PA: B = -1.37, p <0.001; Sleep: B = -0.72, p = 0.009; PA + Sleep: B = -1.03, p <0.001). In addition, meeting guidelines for sleep or for both PA and sleep were associated with lower BMI (Sleep: B = -0.26, p = 0.027; PA + Sleep: B = -0.30, p = 0.007). There were no significant associations found regarding ST. Conclusions: Meeting recommendations for PA and sleep may have an important role in supporting a healthy weight status in young children. However, there is still a need to improve compliance with the 24-h movement guidelines, especially for ST.
  • Leppänen, Marja H; Ray, Carola; Wennman, Heini; Alexandrou, Christina; Sääksjärvi, Katri; Koivusilta, Leena; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Roos, Eva (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Recent 24-h movement guidelines for the early years established recommendations for physical activity (PA), screen time (ST), and sleep. To date, few studies have focused on compliance with meeting the guidelines and their associations with health outcomes. Thus, we aimed to investigate: 1) compliance with the 24-h movement guidelines, and 2) associations between compliance and anthropometry in Finnish preschoolers. Methods We utilized DAGIS survey data that were collected in 2015–2016 (N = 864). PA was assessed 24 h/day over 7 days using a waist-worn ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometer. ST and sleep were reported by the parents during the same 7 days. Anthropometry was assessed using body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and waist circumference (WC, cm). Children were classified as meeting the guidelines if they averaged ≥180 min/day of PA, which consisted of ≥60 min of moderate-to-vigorous intensity; ≤60 min/day of ST; and 10–13 h/day of sleep. In total, 778 children (51% boys, mean age: 4.7 ± 0.9 years) were included in the study. The compliance with meeting the 24-h movement guidelines was calculated for each behavior separately and in combinations. Adjusted linear regression analyses were applied to examine associations of compliance with BMI and WC. Results Children were physically active on average 390 (±46.2) min/day and spent 86 (±25.5) min/day in moderate-to-vigorous PA. They spent 76 (±37.4) min/day on ST and had on average 10:21 (±0:33) h:min/day of sleep. The compliance rate in meeting all three movement guidelines overall was 24%. The highest compliance rate was found for PA (85%), followed by sleep (76%) and ST (35%). Meeting guidelines separately for PA or sleep, or for both, were associated with lower WC (PA: B = -1.37, p < 0.001; Sleep: B = -0.72, p = 0.009; PA + Sleep: B = -1.03, p < 0.001). In addition, meeting guidelines for sleep or for both PA and sleep were associated with lower BMI (Sleep: B = -0.26, p = 0.027; PA + Sleep: B = -0.30, p = 0.007). There were no significant associations found regarding ST. Conclusions Meeting recommendations for PA and sleep may have an important role in supporting a healthy weight status in young children. However, there is still a need to improve compliance with the 24-h movement guidelines, especially for ST.
  • Swindell, Nils; Rees, Paul; Fogelholm, Mikael; Drummen, Mathijs; MacDonald, Ian; Alfredo Martinez, J.; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Boyadjieva, Nadka; Bogdanov, Georgi; Poppitt, Sally D.; Gant, Nicholas; Silvestre, Marta P.; Brand-Miller, Jennie; Schlicht, Wolfgang; Muirhead, Roslyn; Brodie, Shannon; Tikkanen, Heikki; Jalo, Elli; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet; Adam, Tanja; Vestentoft, Pia Siig; Larsen, Thomas M.; Raben, Anne; Stratton, Gareth (2020)
    Background Physical activity, sedentary time and sleep have been shown to be associated with cardio-metabolic health. However, these associations are typically studied in isolation or without accounting for the effect of all movement behaviours and the constrained nature of data that comprise a finite whole such as a 24 h day. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between the composition of daily movement behaviours (including sleep, sedentary time (ST), light intensity physical activity (LIPA) and moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA)) and cardio-metabolic health, in a cross-sectional analysis of adults with pre-diabetes. Further, we quantified the predicted differences following reallocation of time between behaviours. Methods Accelerometers were used to quantify daily movement behaviours in 1462 adults from eight countries with a body mass index (BMI) >= 25 kg center dot m(- 2), impaired fasting glucose (IFG; 5.6-6.9 mmol center dot l(- 1)) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; 7.8-11.0 mmol center dot l(- 1) 2 h following oral glucose tolerance test, OGTT). Compositional isotemporal substitution was used to estimate the association of reallocating time between behaviours. Results Replacing MVPA with any other behaviour around the mean composition was associated with a poorer cardio-metabolic risk profile. Conversely, when MVPA was increased, the relationships with cardiometabolic risk markers was favourable but with smaller predicted changes than when MVPA was replaced. Further, substituting ST with LIPA predicted improvements in cardio-metabolic risk markers, most notably insulin and HOMA-IR. Conclusions This is the first study to use compositional analysis of the 24 h movement composition in adults with overweight/obesity and pre-diabetes. These findings build on previous literature that suggest replacing ST with LIPA may produce metabolic benefits that contribute to the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, the asymmetry in the predicted change in risk markers following the reallocation of time to/from MVPA highlights the importance of maintaining existing levels of MVPA.
  • Swindell, Nils; Rees, Paul; Fogelholm, Mikael; Drummen, Mathijs; MacDonald, Ian; Martinez, J. A; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Boyadjieva, Nadka; Bogdanov, Georgi; Poppitt, Sally D; Gant, Nicholas; Silvestre, Marta P; Brand-Miller, Jennie; Schlicht, Wolfgang; Muirhead, Roslyn; Brodie, Shannon; Tikkanen, Heikki; Jalo, Elli; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet; Adam, Tanja; Vestentoft, Pia S; Larsen, Thomas M; Raben, Anne; Stratton, Gareth (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background Physical activity, sedentary time and sleep have been shown to be associated with cardio-metabolic health. However, these associations are typically studied in isolation or without accounting for the effect of all movement behaviours and the constrained nature of data that comprise a finite whole such as a 24 h day. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between the composition of daily movement behaviours (including sleep, sedentary time (ST), light intensity physical activity (LIPA) and moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA)) and cardio-metabolic health, in a cross-sectional analysis of adults with pre-diabetes. Further, we quantified the predicted differences following reallocation of time between behaviours. Methods Accelerometers were used to quantify daily movement behaviours in 1462 adults from eight countries with a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg·m− 2, impaired fasting glucose (IFG; 5.6–6.9 mmol·l− 1) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; 7.8–11.0 mmol•l− 1 2 h following oral glucose tolerance test, OGTT). Compositional isotemporal substitution was used to estimate the association of reallocating time between behaviours. Results Replacing MVPA with any other behaviour around the mean composition was associated with a poorer cardio-metabolic risk profile. Conversely, when MVPA was increased, the relationships with cardiometabolic risk markers was favourable but with smaller predicted changes than when MVPA was replaced. Further, substituting ST with LIPA predicted improvements in cardio-metabolic risk markers, most notably insulin and HOMA-IR. Conclusions This is the first study to use compositional analysis of the 24 h movement composition in adults with overweight/obesity and pre-diabetes. These findings build on previous literature that suggest replacing ST with LIPA may produce metabolic benefits that contribute to the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, the asymmetry in the predicted change in risk markers following the reallocation of time to/from MVPA highlights the importance of maintaining existing levels of MVPA. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01777893).
  • Laine, M. K.; Kujala, R.; Eriksson, J. G.; Kautiainen, H.; Sarna, S.; Kujala, U. M. (2017)
    Aims Regular physical activity plays a major role, in both prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Less is known whether vigorous physical activity during young adulthood is associated with costs of diabetes medication in later life. The aim of this study is to evaluate this question. Methods The study population consisted of 1314 former elite-class athletes and 860 matched controls. The former athletes were divided into three groups based on their active career sport: endurance, mixed and power sports. Information on purchases of diabetes medication between 1995 and 2009 was obtained from the drug purchase register of the Finnish Social Insurance Institution. Results The total cost of diabetes medication per person year was significantly lower among the former endurance (mean 81 theta [95% CI 33-151 theta ]) and mixed group athletes (mean 272 theta [95% CI 181- 388 theta]) compared with the controls (mean 376 theta [95% CI 284- 485 theta]), (p <0.001 and p = 0.045, respectively). Of the former endurance athletes, 0.4% used insulin, while 5.2% of the controls used insulin (p = 0.018). Conclusions A career as former endurance, sprint, jumper or team game athlete seems to reduce the costs of diabetes medication in later life.
  • Konttinen, Hanna; van Strien, Tatjana; Männistö, Satu; Jousilahti, Pekka; Haukkala, Ari (2019)
    Background: Emotional eating (i.e. eating in response to negative emotions) has been suggested to be one mechanism linking depression and subsequent development of obesity. However, studies have rarely examined this mediation effect in a prospective setting and its dependence on other factors linked to stress and its management. We used a population-based prospective cohort of adults and aimed to examine 1) whether emotional eating mediated the associations between depression and 7-year change in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and 2) whether gender, age, night sleep duration or physical activity moderated these associations. Methods: Participants were Finnish 25- to 74-year-olds who attended the DILGOM study at baseline in 2007 and follow-up in 2014. At baseline (n = 5024), height, weight and WC were measured in a health examination. At follow-up (n = 3735), height, weight and WC were based on measured or self-reported information. Depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression Scale), emotional eating (Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18), physical activity and night sleep duration were self-reported. Age- and gender-adjusted structural equation models with full information maximum likelihood estimator were used in the analyses. Results: Depression and emotional eating were positively associated and they both predicted higher 7-year increase in BMI (R-2 = 0.048) and WC (R-2 = 0.045). The effects of depression on change in BMI and WC were mediated by emotional eating. Night sleep duration moderated the associations of emotional eating, while age moderated the associations of depression. More specifically, emotional eating predicted higher BMI (P = 0.007 for the interaction) and WC (P = 0.026, respectively) gain in shorter sleepers (7 h or less), but not in longer sleepers (9 h or more). Depression predicted higher BMI (P <0.001 for the interaction) and WC (P = 0.065, respectively) increase in younger participants, but not in older participants. Conclusions: Our findings offer support for the hypothesis that emotional eating is one behavioural mechanism between depression and development of obesity and abdominal obesity. Moreover, adults with a combination of shorter night sleep duration and higher emotional eating may be particularly vulnerable to weight gain. Future research should examine the clinical significance of our observations by tailoring weight management programs according to these characteristics.
  • Konttinen, Hanna; van Strien, Tatjana; Männistö, Satu; Jousilahti, Pekka; Haukkala, Ari (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Emotional eating (i.e. eating in response to negative emotions) has been suggested to be one mechanism linking depression and subsequent development of obesity. However, studies have rarely examined this mediation effect in a prospective setting and its dependence on other factors linked to stress and its management. We used a population-based prospective cohort of adults and aimed to examine 1) whether emotional eating mediated the associations between depression and 7-year change in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and 2) whether gender, age, night sleep duration or physical activity moderated these associations. Methods Participants were Finnish 25- to 74-year-olds who attended the DILGOM study at baseline in 2007 and follow-up in 2014. At baseline (n = 5024), height, weight and WC were measured in a health examination. At follow-up (n = 3735), height, weight and WC were based on measured or self-reported information. Depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression Scale), emotional eating (Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18), physical activity and night sleep duration were self-reported. Age- and gender-adjusted structural equation models with full information maximum likelihood estimator were used in the analyses. Results Depression and emotional eating were positively associated and they both predicted higher 7-year increase in BMI (R2 = 0.048) and WC (R2 = 0.045). The effects of depression on change in BMI and WC were mediated by emotional eating. Night sleep duration moderated the associations of emotional eating, while age moderated the associations of depression. More specifically, emotional eating predicted higher BMI (P = 0.007 for the interaction) and WC (P = 0.026, respectively) gain in shorter sleepers (7 h or less), but not in longer sleepers (9 h or more). Depression predicted higher BMI (P < 0.001 for the interaction) and WC (P = 0.065, respectively) increase in younger participants, but not in older participants. Conclusions Our findings offer support for the hypothesis that emotional eating is one behavioural mechanism between depression and development of obesity and abdominal obesity. Moreover, adults with a combination of shorter night sleep duration and higher emotional eating may be particularly vulnerable to weight gain. Future research should examine the clinical significance of our observations by tailoring weight management programs according to these characteristics.
  • Ray, Carola; Kaukonen, Riikka; Lehto, Elviira; Vepsäläinen, Henna; Sajaniemi, Nina; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Roos, Eva (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Preschoolers’ energy balance-related behaviours (EBRBs) and self-regulation skills are important for their later health. Few preschool-based interventions aiming to promote preschoolers’ EBRBs and self-regulation skills, simultaneously reducing differences in EBRBs, due to children’s socio-economic status (SES) background, have been conducted. This study will present the Increased Health and Wellbeing in Preschools (DAGIS) intervention development process applying the Intervention Mapping (IM) framework. Methods The development of the DAGIS intervention study, a preschool level clustered randomized controlled trial (RCT), was based on the IM framework. The protocol in IM guides the development process of an intervention through six steps: needs assessment and logic model of the problem, programme outcomes and objectives, design of the programme, production, implementation plan, and evaluation plan. Results The needs assessment, part of the step 1 in IM, yielded the base for the DAGIS logic model of change. The model includes objectives related to changes in children’s EBRBs, self-regulation skills, and in psychosocial and physical environment that is determined by parents and early educators. A 22-week programme was developed, and materials for preschools and families were produced. A feasibility study of the recruitment processes, acceptability of the materials and methods, and implementation was conducted. The DAGIS intervention study was conducted September 2017–May 2018 as a clustered RCT including a comprehensive effectiveness and process evaluation. The process evaluation was run throughout the intervention targeting preschools and families. Conclusion A preschool-based family-involving programme was developed in the DAGIS intervention study by applying the IM protocol. It was a time- and resource-consuming process. However, the systematic planning, development, and running of the programme have reinforced a comprehensive evaluation, which is a strength in the intervention. The results from the evaluation will enhance the knowledge of how to promote EBRBs and self-regulation skills among preschoolers, and diminish SES differences in them. Trial registration ISRCTN57165350 (Prospectively registered January the 8th, 2015).
  • Yang, Xiaolin; Kaseva, Kaisa; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa; Pulkki-Raback, Laura; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Jokela, Markus; Hintsanen, Mirka; Hintsa, Taina; Kankaanpää, Anna; Telama, Risto; Hutri-Kahonen, Nina; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Tammelin, Tuija (2017)
    We examined associations between childhood temperamental activity, physical activity (PA), and television (TV) viewing over a 30-year period. The participants (1220 boys and 1237 girls) were aged 3, 6, 9, and 12 years in 1980 and were followed until 2011. Temperamental activity was evaluated by participants' mothers at baseline. The PA was assessed based on maternal ratings of the child from ages 3 to 6 and via self-report age from the age of 9 across all measurements. TV viewing was assessed using self-reports taken from 2001 to 2011. The associations between temperamental activity and the level and change of PA and TV viewing were determined using linear growth modeling stratified by gender and age group. High temperamental activity assessed from ages 9 to 12 was associated with high levels of childhood PA in both genders, but with a steeper decline in PA levels during the first 9 years of follow-up in boys. High temperamental activity assessed from ages 3 to 6 was associated with the decline of PA from childhood to youth in girls. High childhood temperamental activity was associated with decreased levels of PA in adulthood in men, but not in women. The associations between childhood temperamental activity and TV viewing during adulthood seemed to be positive but not consistently significant in all age and gender groups. High temperamental activity may contribute to the development of a physically inactive lifestyle. More evidence is needed with regard to gender differences among participants in similar study settings.