Browsing by Subject "Physics"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 157
  • Vuoriheimo, Tomi (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a technique developed from mass spectrometry and it is able to measure single very rare isotopes from samples with detection capability down to one atom in 10^16. It uses an accelerator system to accelerate the atoms and molecules to break molecular bonds for precise single isotope detection. This thesis describes the optimization of University of Helsinki's AMS system to detect the rare radioactive isotope 14C from CO2 gas samples. Using AMS to detect radiocarbon is a precise and fast way to conduct radiocarbon dating with minimal sample sizes. Solid graphite samples have been in use before but as the ion source has been adopted to use also gaseous CO2 samples, optimizations must be made to maximize the carbon current and ionization efficiency for efficient 14C detection. Parameters optimized include cesium oven temperature, CO2 flow, carrier gas helium flow and their dependencies with each other. Both carbon current and ionization efficiency is looked at in the optimizations. The results are analyzed and discussed for further optimizations or actual measurements with gas. Ionization occurring in the ion source can be understood better with the results. Standard samples of CO2 were measured to determine the background and precision of the AMS system in gas use by comparing the results with literature. The current system was found to have tolerable background of 1.5% of the standard and the Fraction modern value of actual sample was 2.4% higher than values from literature. Ideas to improve background were discussed. A new theory of negative-ion formation in a cesium sputtering ion source by John S. Vogel is reviewed and taken into account in the discussion of optimization. Utilizing the theory, possible future upgrades to improve the ionization efficiency are presented such as cathode material choices to reduce competitive ionization and cesium excitation by laser.
  • Lahtinen, Aki (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Fuusioreaktiossa kaksi kevyttä ydintä yhtyy yhdeksi raskaammaksi ytimeksi ja samalla vapautuu energiaa. Fuusioreaktio tarvitsee tapahtuakseen hyvin korkean lämpötilan, minkä seurauksena aine on olomuodoltaan plasmaa. Esimerkiksi fuusioreaktoreissa käytettäväksi suunniteltu vedyn isotooppien deuteriumin ja tritiumin välinen reaktio vaatii tapahtuakseen plasman kuumentamista yli 100 miljoonan kelvinin lämpötiloihin. Tutkituin fuusioreaktorimalli on tokamak, jossa kuumaa plasmaa hallitaan toruksen muotoisessa kammiossa voimakkaiden magneettikenttien avulla. Plasmaa koossapitävästä magneettikentästä huolimatta plasmasta karkaa hiukkasia, jotka lopulta osuvat kammion pinnoille. Yksi tapa kammion pintoihin kohdistuvan lämpö- ja hiukkasvuon pienentämiseksi on suihkuttaa kammioon epäpuhtausatomeja tai -molekyylejä jäähdyttämään reunaplasmaa. Typpi on osoittautunut kiinnostavaksi vaihtoehdoksi tähän tehtävään. Typen kulkeutuminen ja kertyminen reaktorikammion sisällä vaatii kuitenkin vielä lisätutkimuksia. Typen harvinainen isotooppi 15N tarjoaa mahdollisuuden tutkia näitä kysymyksiä. Tyypillisesti tämä tehdään merkkiainekokeiden avulla, jolloin reaktorikammioon suihkutetaan valittua merkkiainetta tunnetuissa olosuhteissa ja kokeen jälkeen selvitetään merkkiaineen jakauma reaktorikammion pinnoilla. Tässä työssä keskityttiin seinätiiliin, jotka on irrotettu ASDEX Upgrade -fuusioreaktorista (AUG) vuosien 2010-2011 koekampanjan jälkeen. Kyseisen koekampanjan lopussa suoritettiin 15N-merkkiainekoe. Työssä tutkittiin tiilistä porattujen näytteiden 15N-pitoisuuksia lentoaika-rekyylianalyysilla (Time Of Flight Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis, TOF-ERDA), ydinreaktioanalyysilla (Nuclear Reaction Analysis, NRA) ja sekundääri-ionimassaspektrometrialla (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, SIMS). Vertailun vuoksi tutkittiin myös 15N:llä implantoituja testinäytteitä. Tutkielman alkuosassa esitellään lyhyesti tokamak-fuusioreaktorin toimintaa, plasman vuorovaikutusta reaktorin seinämän kanssa, typen käyttöä fuusioreaktoreissa, merkkiainekokeita sekä käytetyt mittausmenetelmät. Tutkielma loppuosa keskittyy suoritettuihin mittauksiin, niiden analyysiin ja tuloksiin sekä johtopäätöksiin. Tulosten perusteella mittausmenetelmien välillä on merkittäviä eroja AUG-näytteiden kohdalla, kun taas implantoiduille näytteille erot menetelmien välillä ovat pienet. Erot johtuvat todennäköisesti AUG-näytteiden epätasaisesta pintarakenteesta, minkä seurauksena typen jakauma näytteiden pintakerroksissa vaihtelee. TOF-ERDA:lla tutkittiin näytteistä mahdollisimman sileää pintaa luotettavan analyysin onnistumiseksi. NRA-mittauksissa protonisuihku kohdistui näytteen keskelle suuremmalle pinta-alalle. Suureen alueeseen sisältyy myös karkeampia kohtia, joihin merkkiaineen kertyminen on sileää pintaa suurempaa. Tämän seurauksena NRA:lla saadaan selvästi suurempia tuloksia 15N:n pintatiheydelle kuin TOF-ERDA:lla. Kvadrupolimassaspektrometrissa ilmenneiden ongelmien vuoksi SIMS-mittauksia suoritettiin vain yksi, minkä vuoksi optimaalisten asetusten löytäminen 15N:n mittaamiseen SIMS:llä vaatii vielä lisätutkimuksia.
  • Halonen, Roope (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The first order phase transition, the nucleation process, of a thermodynamic system is one of the basic physical phenomena and it has significant relevance on several scientific fields. Despite the importance of the nucleation process, the theoretical understanding is still imperfect. The emergence of a new phase, liquid or solid cluster, in the metastable gas phase is mainly treated with classical nucleation theory (CNT) by using known macroscopic thermodynamic properties of the studied substance, but the theory often fails in predicting the nucleation process adequately. The failure of describing the nucleation event by CNT has shifted the theoretical focus on molecular-level nucleation studies to improve the prediction and understanding of the origin of the failure. This thesis examines one of the key assumptions behind CNT, the constrained equilibrium hypothesis, by approaching it from statistical mechanics and thermodynamic point of view. The main tools in this work are computational: both Monte Carlo (MC) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been used to simulate the homogeneous nucleation processes of Lennard-Jones argon. Two separate studies are presented: At first we compare the nucleation rates obtained by MC (based on thermodynamic equilibrium) and molecular dynamics simulations using the nonisothermal nucleation theory and then the constrained equilibrium hypothesis is invalidated by studying the kinetics of Lennad-Jones argon clusters from size of 4 up to 31 molecules at 50 K. In addition to the actual study, the thesis includes a systematic overview of the theoretical treatment of homogeneous nucleation from thermodynamic liquid drop model to applicable molecular-level simulation techniques.
  • Chen, Xuemeng (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    The study of air ions by applying air balance concept based on the Hyytiälä SMEAR II station measurement was performed in this work. Diurnal and seasonal variations in ion concentration and environmental ionizing radiation were studied by analysing data collected from long-term measurements. Total gamma radiation was the main source for ion production in the atmosphere, which can be attenuated by snow cover during winter periods. α and β emissions from radon decay process showed a share of about 20% in the production of total ion pairs, which were sensitive to variations in soil conditions. In general, more positive ions than the negative ones exist at ground level due to the earth electrode effect. Similar patterns were found in cluster ion concentration and the ion source rate derived from the total gamma radiation. On days with new particle formation (NPF), a relation was observed between cluster ion concentration, wind speed, temperature (T) as well as relative humidity (RH). A similar connection was also identified in ion source rate and ion production rate to T and RH. A high ion source rate derived from gamma dose rate was observed on non-event days and low on NPF days. The reversed case was found in the source rate derived from radon decay emissions. The ion production rate was typically higher on NPF event days than on non-event days. Two approaches were carried out in the determination of the ion production rate in the cluster size range by using an improved balance equation of air ions. The similar values obtained using these two approaches imply a balanced condition between ionizing source and the observed ion concentration. This suggests that measurement of air ions by the Balanced Scanning Mobility Analyser (BSMA) is likely to be reliable, though accurate parameterization for sub-0.8 nm ions is not available to the present knowledge. Moreover, the ion production rate and formation rate were found incomparable.
  • Kangasluoma, Juha (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    Uusien hiukkaslaskurien kehitys on luonut tarpeen tuottaa aerosoleja alle kahden nanometrin kokoluokassa. Kahden nanometrin kokoisten aerosolien tuottaminen ei ole uusi asia, mutta kyseisessä kokoluokassa esimerkiksi hiukkasten varaaminen ja epäpuhtaudet ovat merkittävässä roolissa. Sen vuoksi tämän työn mittauksissa on mukana myös massaspektrometri, jota ei aikaisemmin ole hyödynnetty hiukkaslaskurien kalibroinneissa. Tässä työssä tavoitteena oli tuottaa ja karakterisoida puhdas alle kahden nanometrin kokoinen aerosoli. Aerosolin tuottamiseen käytettiin uunia, kuumalankageneraattoria ja elektrosprayta. Elektrospraylla tuotetut hiukkaset olivat itsestään varattuja, muut tuotetut hiukkaset varattiin Am241 varaajalla. Liikkuvuusanalysaattori oli korkean resoluution Herrmann DMA (differential mobility analyzer), joka valitsee näytteestä halutun kokoiset hiukkaset ja sen resoluutio on noin 20. DMA:n jälkeen näyte johdettiin kolmelle mittalaitteelle, jotka mittasivat rinnakkain. Massaspektrometri, APi-TOF (atmospheric pressure interface, time of flight mass spectrometer) on hiukkasen lentoaikaa mittaava instrumentti, johon voidaan näyte johtaa suoraan ilmakehän paineesta. APi-TOF:n rinnalla mittasi elektrometri, joka mittaa näytteen kokonaisvarauksen, sekä PSM, joka oli mittausten kalibroitava instrumentti. Vaihtelemalla DMA:lla valittua liikkuvuutta saatiin selville hiukkasten pitoisuus, PSM:n havaintotehokkuus sekä massaspektri koon funktiona. Ammoniumsulfaatin kemialliseksi koostumukseksi määritettiin (HSO4)x(NH3)ySO4- ja (HSO4)x(NH3)yH3SO4+, natriumkloridin (NaCl)x(massa 106)yCl- ja (NaCl)x(massa 106)yNa+ ja volframioksidin H0-2WyOz(massa 88)0-2-. Positiivsen volframioksidin kemiallista koostumusta ei pystytty selvittämään. Positiivisesti varatut ammoniumsulfaatti, natriumkloridi ja volframioksidi olivat alle 1.5 nm:n koossa kontaminoituneet orgaanisilla yhdisteillä. Hopeanäytteestä tunnistettiin klusterit Agx-, missä x=7, 17, 19 ja Agy(massa 224)+ ja HAgy(massa 224)+. y on pariton kun klusterissa ei ole vetyä ja parillinen vedyn kanssa. Hopeaspektri oli kuitenkin pääosin kontaminoitunut hopean ja orgaanisten epäpuhtauksien klustereilla. PSM:n leikkausrajoiksi määritettiin 1.3, 1.6, 1.7, ja 1.7 nm:a negatiiviselle natriumkloridille, ammoniumsulfaattille, volframioksidille ja hopealle vastaavasti. Kaikkien positiivisten orgaanisten näytteiden leikkausraja oli noin 1.8 nm.
  • Pöyry, Paula (Helsingfors universitet, 2004)
    Annoksen ja pinta-alan tuloa (DAP, dose-area product) mittaavaa DAP-mittaria käytetään röntgendiagnostiikassa potilaan säteilyaltistuksen määritykseen. DAP-mittari on läpäisytyyppinen, tasomainen ionisaatiokammio, jolla voidaan mitata samanaikaisesti potilastutkimuksen kanssa. Röntgenlaitteessa oleva DAP-mittari tulisi kalibroida siten, että mittaustuloksena saadaan annoksen ja pinta-alan tulo potilaaseen kohdistuvassa säteilykeilassa. Mittareita voidaan kalibroida erilaisilla menetelmillä, mutta usein on tyydytty käyttämään mittarin valmistuksen yhteydessä tehtyä kalibrointia. Tässä työssä oli tarkoitus kehittää DAP-mittareille yhtenäinen ja toimiva kalibrointimenettely, jonka avulla mittaukset ovat jäljitettävissä kansainväliseen mittausjärjestelmään. Uudessa kalibrointimenettelyssä käyttöpaikalla suoritettava kalibrointi tehdään kalibroidulla DAP-mittarilla (vertailumittarilla), joka on säteilykeilassa samanaikaisesti kalibroitavan mittarin kanssa. Säteilyn käyttöpaikalla kalibroinnissa tarvittavat vertailumittarit kalibroidaan Säteilyturvakeskuksen (STUK) mittanormaalilaboratoriossa. Menetelmän kehittelyä varten DAP-mittareita tutkittiin laboratorioon rakennetulla mittausjärjestelyllä, jossa selvitettiin niiden toimintaa ja kalibrointiin vaikuttavia tekijöitä. Vertailumittarin kalibrointia varten tutkittiin kahta menetelmää, joissa todellinen annoksen ja pinta-alan tulo määritetään joko mittaamalla kalibroidulla DAP-mittarilla tai laskemalla ilmaan absorboituneen annoksen ja säteilykeilan poikkileikkauksen pinta-alan mitattujen arvojen tulo. Kahdella eri menetelmällä mitatut DAP-arvot poikkeavat useita prosentteja toisistaan. Aikaisempien tutkimuksien ja omien mittausten perusteella päätettiin, että vertailumittareiden kalibroinnissa käytetään mittanormaalina laboratorion kalibroitua DAP-mittaria. Kehitetyn menetelmän avulla mittanormaalilaboratoriossa kalibroitiin viisi vertailumittaria. Yhden vertailumittarin avulla kalibroitiin diagnostisten röntgenlaitteiden DAP-mittareita niiden omilla käyttöpaikoilla sairaalassa. Mittauksissa huomattiin, että tavanomainen paine- ja lämpötilakorjaus korjaa mittareiden näyttämää hieman liikaa. Siksi olosuhteiden vaihtelut vaikuttavat korjattuihin mittaustuloksiin ja kalibroinnin epävarmuuteen enemmän kuin aikaisemmin on arvioitu.
  • Rosta, Kawa (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Tässä työssä tarkastellaan annoksen ja pinta-alan tulon mittarin (DAP-mittarin) toimintaa ja käyttäytymistä pienissä säteilyannoksissa, jossa DAP-arvot ovat matalia. Lasten tutkimuksissa käytetään pieniä kuvausarvoja, jonka seurauksena lapsipotilaaseen kohdistuu matalia annoksia. Lasten thorax-tutkimuksissa potilaaseen kohdistuva keskimääräinen DAP-arvo on 19 mGy x cm^2. DAP-arvon tarkkuus matalissa annoksissa on tärkeä, sillä lapsuudessa saatu säteilyaltistus aiheuttaa suuremman riskin kuin vastaava altistus aikuisiässä. Lapset ovat säteilysuojelun kannalta erityisasemassa ja lasten tutkimusten oikeutusharkintaan ja optimointiin tulee kiinnittää erityistä huomiota. Tutkimuksessa DAP-mittarin tarkkuutta matalissa annoksissa tarkasteltiin käyttäen pinta-ala menetelmän kalibrointia. Kalibrointi tapahtui siten, että DAP-mittareita käytettiin kenttämittareina ja Raysafe Xi-annosmittaria vertailumittarina. Toisin sanoen DAP-mittarista saatuja arvoja tarkasteltiin vertaamalla niitä Raysafe Xi-annosmittarin arvoihin. DAP-mittari on kiinnitetty röntgenputken eteen ja pinta-ala menetelmässä annosmittari asetetaan röntgenputken alapuolelle säteilykeilaa vasten. Tällöin kuvaamisessa molemmat mittarit altistuvat säteilylle samanaikaisesti. Tulokseksi saatiin, että DAP-mittarit ovat kalibroitu korkean kuvausjännitteen, sähkömäärän ja ilman lisäsuodatuksen avulla, eikä kalibroinnissa ole otettu huomioon matalia annoksia. Tutkimalla DAP-mittarin tarkkuutta matalissa annoksissa huomattiin, että DAP-mittaria koskeva laitevaatimus, jossa näyttämä saa poiketa oikeasta arvosta enintään 25 %, ei toteudu AGFA DX-D600 ja FUJI FDR Acselerate röntgenlaitteella DAP-arvon ollessa 0-4 mGy x cm^2 välillä. Tällöin näiden kahden röntgenlaitteiden DAP-mittareista saadut DAP-arvot eivät ole luotettavia DAP-arvojen ollessa alle 4 mGy times cm^2.
  • Åhlgren, Elina Harriet (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    Graphene is the ultimately thin membrane composed of carbon atoms, for which future possibilities vary from desalinating sea water to fast electronics. When studying the properties of this material, molecular dynamics has proven to be a reliable way to simulate the effects of ion irradiation of graphene. As ion beam irradiation can be used to introduce defects into a membrane, it can also be used to add substitutional impurities and adatoms into the structure. In the first study introduced in this thesis, I presented results of doping graphene with boron and nitrogen. The most important message of this study was that doping of graphene with ion beam is possible and can be applied not only to bulk targets but also to a only one atomic layer thick sheet of carbon atoms. Another important result was that different defect types have characteristic energy ranges that differ from each other. Because of this, it is possible to control the defect types created during the irradiation by varying the ion energy. The optimum energy for creating a substitution for N ion is at about 50 eV (55%) and for B ion it is ca. 40% at about the same energy. Single vacancies are most probably created at an energy of about 125 eV for N (55%) and for B at ca. 180 eV (35%). For double vacancies, the maximum probabilities are roughly at 110 eV for N (16%) and at 70 eV for B (6%). The probabilities for adatoms are the highest at very small energies. A one atom thick graphene membrane is reportedly impermeable to standard gases. Hence, graphene's selectivity for gas molecules trying to pass through the membrane is determined only by the size of the defects and vacancies in the membrane. Gas separation using graphene membranes requires knowledge of the properties of defected graphene structures. In this thesis, I presented results of the accumulation of damage on graphene by ion irradiation using MD simulations. According to our results, graphene can withstand up to 35% vacancy concentrations without breakage of the material. Also, a simple model was introduced to predict the influence of the irradiation during the experiments. In addition to the specific results regarding ion irradiation manipulation of graphene, this work shows that MD is a valuable tool for material research, providing information on atomic scale rarely accessible for experimental research, e.g., during irradiation. Using realistic interatomic potentials MD provides a computational microscope helping to understand how materials behave at the atomic level.
  • Vigonski, Simon (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Atomistic simulations are a useful way to study nanoscale metal structures. At the nanoscale, the surface to volume ratio of the objects becomes large and surface effects start to play a critically important role. The internal stress near a surface can reach the GPa range and thus its effects should not be neglected when dealing with nanowires and other nanostructures. Similarly, surface diffusion of atoms is important in the manufacturing process and subsequent stability of nanostructures. In the study of vacuum breakdown on Cu surfaces, dislocation activity and surface atom diffusion are thought to play a role in the formation of field enhancing emitters. This work investigates a possible mechanism of nucleation of a nanofeature on metal surfaces under high electric fields in the presence of a near-surface defect, and the stability of Au nanowires with respect to surface diffusion. The simulation methods of molecular dynamics, kinetic Monte Carlo and finite elements are employed. A subsurface Fe precipitate is used as an example of subsurface extended defects, and the nucleation of dislocations in regions of high stress concentration is simulated. A process of forming a protrusion on the surface near the precipitate due to dislocation propagation is shown, as well as the possibility of forming new voids on the precipitate interface. Since atomistic simulations are heavily limited in size and time scales, larger scale simulations are conducted by using finite element modelling of nanoscale material behavior under external loading. However, such modeling requires the development of an accurate model of surface stress. In this work, a surface stress model is implemented into a continuum finite element model to enable faster calculations of more extensive nanoscale systems, as well as to combine the mechanical model with electrical effects in vacuum breakdown research. The internal stresses given by the model are validated in comparison with molecular dynamics simulations and against an analytical model of dislocation emission from a near-surface void. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation is a suitable tool to simulate diffusion processes. However, setting up KMC simulations requires a parametrization of atomic migration barriers. A consistent parametrization scheme, called the tethering method, is developed in the current work. The tethering method provides a robust automatic process to calculate migration barriers for on-lattice diffusion simulations. It allows the calculation of barriers for unstable processes, while having a minimal effect on stable barriers. The tethering method is used to create a parametrization for Au, which is used to simulate nanowire junction fragmentation. Nanowire junctions break up in a process similar to Rayleigh instability. In conjunction with experiments, it is shown that junctions fragment at a low temperature when nanowires themselves remain whole. Simulations demonstrate that the breakup can be explained by surface energy minimization due to atom diffusion and that the formation of a fragment at the nanowire crossing point is very reliable.
  • Pirttikoski, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    LHC is the highest energy particle collider ever built and it is employed to study elementary particles by colliding protons together. One intriguing study subject at LHC is the stability of the electroweak vacuum in our universe. The current prediction suggests that the vacuum is in the metastable state. The stability of the vacuum is dependent on the mass of the top quark, and it is possible that more precise measurement of the mass could shift the prediction to the border of the metastable and stable states. In order to measure the mass of the top quark more precisely, we need to measure the bottom (b) quarks decaying from it at high precision, as top quark decays predominantly into a W boson and a b quark. Due to the phenomenon called hadronisation, we can not measure the quarks directly, but rather as sprays of collimated particles called jets. The jets originating from b quarks (b jet) can be identified by b-tagging. The precise measurement and calibration of the b jet energy is crucial for top quark mass measurement. This thesis studies the b jets and their energy calibration at the CMS, which is one of the general purpose detectors along the LHC. Especially the b jet energy scale (bJES) is under the investigation and the various phenomena affecting to it. For example, large fraction of b jets contain neutrinos, which cannot be measured directly. This increases uncertainties related to the energy measurement. Also there are problems how precisely the formation and evolution of the b jets can be modelled by Monte Carlo event generators, such as Pythia8, which was utilized in this thesis. The aim of this thesis is to evaluate how big effect on the bJES is caused by the various different phenomena, which presumably weaken the precision of the b jet measurements. The studied phenomena are the semileptonic branching ratios of b hadrons, branching ratios of b hadron to c hadron decays, b hadron production fraction and parameterization of the b quark fragmentation function. The combined effect of all four different rescaling features mentioned above, suggests that bJES is known at 0.2% level. A small shift of -0.1% in the Missing transverse energy Projection Fraction (MPF) response scale is detected at low pt values, which vanishes as the pt increases. This improves remarkably 0.4-0.5% JES accuracy achieved during at CMS during Run 1 of the LHC. However, there are still many ways we can improve the performance presented here. Definitely there is a need for further studies of the rescaling methods before results could be utilized in the corrections of bJES to do precision measurement of the top quark mass.
  • Hakala, Jani (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    The most important parameters describing the aerosol particle population are the size, concentration and composition of the aerosol particles. The size and water content of the aerosol particles are dependent of the relative humidity of the ambient air. Hygroscopicity is a measure to describe the water absorption ability of an aerosol particle. Volatility of an aerosol defines how the aerosol particles behave as a function of temperature. A Volatility-Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (VH-TDMA) is an instrument for size-selected investigation of particle number concentration, volatility, hygroscopicity and the hygroscopicity of the particle core, i.e. what is left of the particle after the volatilization. While knowing these qualities of aerosol particles, one can predict their behavior in different atmospheric conditions. Volatility and hygroscopicity can also be used for indirect analysis of chemical composition. The aim of this study was to build and characterize a VH-TDMA, and report the results of its field deployment at the California Nexus (CalNex) 2010 measurement campaign. The calibration measurements validated that with the VH-TDMA one can obtain accurate volatility and hygroscopicity measurements for particles between 20 nm and 145 nm. The CalNex 2010 results showed that the instrument is capable in field measurements at varying measurement conditions; and valuable data about hygroscopicty, volatility and the mixing state of several types of aerosols were measured. The data obtained was in line with the observations based on the data measured with other instruments.
  • Kokkonen, Tommi; Mäntylä, Terhi (2018)
    One well-known learning obstacle is that students rarely use the concepts in the way that scientists use them. Rather, students mix up closely related concepts and are inclined towards matter-based conceptualisations. Furthermore, some researchers have argued that certain difficulties are rooted in the student's limited repertoire of causal schemes. These two aspects are conveniently represented in the recent proposal of the systemic view of concept learning. We applied this framework in our analyses of university students' explanations of DC circuits and their use of concepts such as voltage, current and resistance. Our data consist of transcribed group interviews, which we analysed with content analysis. The results of our analysis are represented with directed graphs. Our results show that students had a rather refined ontological knowledge of the concepts. However, students relied on rather simple explanation models, but few students were able to modify their explanations during the interview. Based on the analysis, we identified three processes of change: model switch, model refinement and model elaboration. This emphasises the importance of relevant relational knowledge at a later stage of learning. This demonstrates how concept individuation and learning of relational structures occurs (and in which order) and sets forth interesting research questions for future research.
  • Kylliäinen, Joonas (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    As the data traffic, as well as the speed demands, increases, the mobile networks require means for economically fulfil these demands. The solution comes from the cloud. In order to move the processing to the cloud, it must be carefully dimensioned to know how much resources each situation requires. This means there must be a way to calculate from the traffic the virtual machines required and the hardware resources the virtual machines need, when the cloud infrastructure used is OpenStack. This thesis provides two methods for calculating the virtual machines from the traffic profile. The first one is based on performance testing of the virtual network functions and the second one is based on machine learning technique called multiple linear regression analysis. Furthermore in this work, approximation algorithms are being used in order to solve multidimensional variates of classical optimization problems such as bin packing problem and subset sum problem. These algorithms are used to dimension required resources from the virtual machines to hardware and vice versa. The algorithms are bundled to a program with a graphical user interface to make as user friendly as possible.
  • Pöyry, Outi Irene (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    In the upgraded CMS pixel detector (phase II upgrade), the pixel size will become smaller due to the higher occupancy caused by higher luminosity of the LHC. This means that also the bump bonds between the sensor and the read-out circuit will become smaller, which results in smaller gap between the sensor and the ROC. This will increase the probability for electrical sparking that might destroy the ROC, the sensor or both. Jaakko Härkönen has suggested using alumina passivation on the modules for sparking prevention. In this thesis it was studied whether bonding is applicable on a surface having an alumina passivation. It was also of interest, which parameters of the bonder make stronger bonds. Bonding was tested on metal pads with different layer thicknesses of alumina: 0 nm, 10 nm, 15 nm, 20 nm and 25 nm. The strengths of the bonds were tested using the bond pull test. The results indicate that wire-bonding on alumina does well in pull-strength tests, though the bonds are slightly weaker than on surfaces with no alumina. Increasing bonding force seems to weaken the bonds, increasing bonding power, on the other hand seems to make stronger bonds. The conclusion of this thesis is that alumina is a viable choice for passivation, since it does not seem to have a negative effect on the module wire bonding.
  • Erkkilä, Kukka-Maaria (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Freshwaters are a source of carbon to the atmosphere in the form of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Global estimates of the freshwater contribution to the carbon budget are often based on a water boundary layer model (BLM) with gas transfer coefficient k calculated depending solely on wind speed. According to comparison studies, this model gives underestimated emissions and should not be used for more reliable results. A widely used flux measurement method over lakes is the floating chamber (FC) method. FC measures surface flux from a very small area of the lake, so it may not be representative of the whole ecosystem. Measurements are relatively cheap and easy, but also laborious and sporadic. Instead of measuring just a specific point on the lake, eddy covariance (EC) technique provides continuous flux measurements over a much larger source area (footprint). EC systems have been widely used over land areas, but are now growing their popularity in the lake community as well. The aim of this study was to compare EC, FC and BLM methods for CO2 and CH4 fluxes over a boreal lake. The measurements were made at a small dimictic Lake Kuivajärvi in Hyytiälä (Juupajoki, Southern Finland) during an intensive field campaign in September 2014. Manual FC measurements were done at four measurement spots in the EC footprint area 2-3 times a day for catching spatial and temporal variability. Gas transfer velocity for BLM was calculated according to three different parametrizations. Results indicate that BLM fluxes calculated based on water convection and wind driven turbulent gas exchange compare quite well with EC measurements while the model based solely on wind speed is a clear underestimate. FC measurements show about 1.7 times larger flux values than EC. The comparison is more clear for CH4 than CO2 fluxes. The greatest values of CH4 fluxes were measured near the shore, while CO2 flux did not show any spatial variability. After the lake started its autumn mixing, CH4 flux showed a diurnal variation with highest values measured during daytime. There was no diurnal variation before mixing. CO2 flux on the other hand showed diurnal variation only when calculated according to the BLM method.
  • Koskelo, Jaakko (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    Ioninesteet ovat suoloja, joilla on matala sulamislämpötila (alle noin 100 °C). Niillä on useita hyödyllisiä ominaisuuksia ja lukuisia mahdollisia sovelluksia. Tarkempi tieto ioninesteiden atomitason rakenteesta on kuitenkin tärkeää niiden ominaisuuksien ja mahdollisuuksien ymmärtämiseksi sekä sovellusten kehittämiseksi. Tässä työssä tutkittiin 1-3-dimetyyli-imidazoliumkloridia ([mmim]Cl), joka on molekyylimassaltaan kevyt prototyyppinen ionineste. Tässä tutkielmassa hyödynnettiin epäelastista röntgensirontaa uuden informaation saamiseksi. Epäelastisessa röntgensironnassa fotoni siroaa elektronisysteemistä luovuttaen sekä energiaa että liikemäärää. Fotonin epäelastista sirontaa kutsutaan Compton-sironnaksi, kun energian- ja liikemääränsiirto on suuri. Compton-sirontaa voidaan käyttää aineen atomi- ja molekyylitason rakenteen tutkimisessa, sillä Compton-sirontakokeissa määritettävä suure, Compton-profiili, on herkkä atomien välisen geometrian muutoksille. Mittaustulosten tulkinta on kuitenkin haastavaa ja laskennallisella mallintamisella on siinä suuri rooli. Tässä tutkielmassa laskettiin [mmim]Cl:n neste- ja kidefaasien isotrooppisten Compton-profiilien erotus (erotusprofiili). Tiettyjen oletusten ollessa voimassa Compton-profiili riippuu elektronien liikemäärätiheydestä, joten profiilit voidaan määrittää aineen perustilaa kuvaavien elektronirakennelaskujen avulla. Tässä tutkielmassa elektronirakennelaskuissa käytettiin Kohn-Sham-tiheysfunktionaaliteoriaa, periodisia reunaehtoja ja Gaussisia kantajoukkoja elektronitiloille. Lisäksi laskennan tarkkuuteen vaikuttavia tekijöitä arvioitiin. Liikemäärähilan tiheydellä sekä vaihto-korrelaatiofunktionaalin ja kantajoukon valinnalla havaittiin olevan suuri vaikutus laskettuun erotusprofiiliin. Nämä tekijät olivat selkeästi merkittävämpiä kuin nesterakenteiden äärellisestä määrästä johtuva tilastollinen epätarkkuus. Erotusprofiilin tulkitsemiseksi kiderakenteesta otettuun yhteen [mmim]Cl-ionipariin tehtiin muutoksia käytetyn nesterakenteen perusteella ja tarkasteltiin näiden muutosten vaikutusta Compton-profiiliin. Sekä molekylääristen ionien sisäisen rakenteen että ionien välisen geometrian muutosten havaittiin vaikuttavan merkittävästi laskettuun erotusprofiiliin. Tässä työssä esitetyt tulokset auttavat kokeellisen erotusprofiiliin tulkinnassa ja selittämisessä.
  • Aho, Noora (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Cytochrome bc1, also known as complex III, is the third enzyme of the electron transfer chain in cellular respiration, which is the main process generating energy in living cells. Complex III operates by oxidizing ubiquinol, and transferring two electrons to cytochrome c, while reducing ubiquinone. The electron transfer is coupled to proton translocation across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Thus, complex III contributes to generation of a proton electrochemical gradient, which is required for the function of ATP synthase. Cardiolipins (CLs), constituting up to 20 mol % of lipids in the inner mitochondrial membrane, have an important role in the structure and dynamics of the membrane, as well as in maintaining the correct function of the whole electron transfer chain. Cardiolipins are especially vulnerable to oxidation by reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to their dimeric structure with four doubly unsaturated acyl chains. Cytochrome bc1 is one of the main producers of ROS in mitochondria, increasing the exposure of tightly bound CLs to oxidation. Oxidative stress and CL oxidation have been associated with, for instance, programmed cell death and aging, and developing Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The objective of this thesis was to build a new computational model of cytochrome bc1 in a membrane, and to study the lipid interactions of complex III using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. A model system with a high-resolution structure of complex III, embedded in a multicomponent bilayer mimicking the inner mitochondrial membrane was constructed. Four atomistic simulations of 1 μs each were performed to reveal possible cardiolipin binding sites and to examine the effects of CL oxidation on the complex. Altogether, eight CL binding sites on cytochrome bc1 were found, out of which two have not been suggested previously. The key residues of each binding site were listed, to compare with earlier results, and to identify the new binding sites in detail. In order to investigate the effects of CL oxidation, carboxylic acid and hydroperoxyl groups were attached to the acyl chains of three crystallographically resolved CLs. The oxidized region of the CL tails changed the nature of interactions with the protein and the surrounding water. As the tail was oxidized, the results showed an increase in the number of water molecules surrounding it. Additionally, the oxidized tails were found to affect the configuration of CL by bending the tail towards the lipid headgroup, or by reaching out to the water interface of the opposite leaflet. Normally, the acyl chains of CL mostly interact with the nonpolar residues of the protein. After oxidation, the number of polar and charged amino acids in the vicinity of the acyl chain increased.
  • Fridlund, Christoffer (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Ion interaction with matter plays an important role in the modern silicon based micro- and nanoindustry. Ions accelerated to significant energies are able to penetrate into materials allowing for controlled tailoring of the materials' properties. However, it is extremely important to understand the nature of these interactions, and computer modelling is by far the most suitable technique for this purpose. The models used in ion irradiation software are either based on the binary collision approximation (BCA) or molecular dynamics (MD). The first mentioned is both the oldest and the most widely used one. There are three reasons for this: the simple idea, the fast calculation speeds, and the user-friendly graphical user interfaces distributed with the codes. However, there are still some pitfalls in accuracy compared to MD. MDRANGE, an ion range MD code, developed at the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Helsinki, combines the accuracy of MD with the speed of the BCA. If the tool is given a graphical user interface, it would become more appealing to scientists not familiar with programming. Different methods and techniques for calculating the penetration depths and ranges of kinetic ions in solids are presented in this work. They are accompanied by an overview of the mathematics allowing them to be as physically accurate as possible, over reasonable computation times. For both BCA and MD, generally, the computationally most demanding part is the calculation of the interactions between two or more particles. These interactions are handled through evaluation of potential functions developed especially for different combinations of atoms. The graphical user interface developed in this work is meant as a robust setup tool for use with MDRANGE. The separation of parameters into different panels and the main functionality of the different parts are presented in detail. It is possible to generate the three mandatory input files (coords.in, elstop.in, and param.in) with the tool. Out of these three files, param.in is the file in main focus when the application is used. In addition to the generation of the three files, there are also functions included for investigating range calculation results in real time during simulations. During the last five decades, there has been a huge development of the simulation models intended for ion irradiation processes. Even though BCA models excel in speed, they are not able to compete with MD in simulating many-body interactions for atoms with kinetic energies lower than 1 keV. MDRANGE was developed as a bridge between the two models to allow for faster MD calculations, comparable to BCA calculations, while still taking into account the many-body interactions for ions with lower speeds. With the graphical user interface, developed in this work, it will become even more appealing to scientists not familiar with programming, but still in need of an ion range calculation software.
  • Lehtamo, Sanna; Juuti, Kalle; Inkinen, Janna; Lavonen, Jari (2018)
    Background: There is a lack of students enrolling in upper secondary school physics courses. In addition, many students discontinue the physics track, causing a lack of applicants for university-level science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) programmes. The aim of this research was to determine if it is possible to find a connection between academic emotions in situ and physics track retention at the end of the first year of upper secondary school using phone-delivered experience sampling method. We applied experience sampling delivered by phone to one group of students in one school. The sample comprised 36 first-year upper secondary school students (median age 16) who enrolled in the last physics course of the first year. Students' academic emotions during science learning situations were measured using phones three times during each of four physics lessons. Results: The logistic regression analysis showed that lack of stress predicted retention in the physics track. Conclusions: Via questionnaires delivered by phone, it is possible to capture students' academic emotions in situ, information on which may help teachers to support students emotionally during their physics studies. In addition, reflecting their situational academic emotions, students could perhaps make better-informed decisions concerning their studies in STEM subjects.
  • Lehtamo, Sanna; Juuti, Kalle; Inkinen, Janna; Lavonen, Jari (Springer International Publishing, 2018)
    Abstract Background There is a lack of students enrolling in upper secondary school physics courses. In addition, many students discontinue the physics track, causing a lack of applicants for university-level science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) programmes. The aim of this research was to determine if it is possible to find a connection between academic emotions in situ and physics track retention at the end of the first year of upper secondary school using phone-delivered experience sampling method. We applied experience sampling delivered by phone to one group of students in one school. The sample comprised 36 first-year upper secondary school students (median age 16) who enrolled in the last physics course of the first year. Students’ academic emotions during science learning situations were measured using phones three times during each of four physics lessons. Results The logistic regression analysis showed that lack of stress predicted retention in the physics track. Conclusions Via questionnaires delivered by phone, it is possible to capture students’ academic emotions in situ, information on which may help teachers to support students emotionally during their physics studies. In addition, reflecting their situational academic emotions, students could perhaps make better-informed decisions concerning their studies in STEM subjects.