Browsing by Subject "Pineal region lesions"

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  • Choque-Velasquez, Joham; Resendiz-Nieves, Julio; Jahromi, Behnam Rezai; Colasanti, Roberto; Raj, Rahul; Vehviläinen, Juho; Tynninen, Olli; Collan, Juhani; Niemelä, Mika; Hernesniemi, Juha (2019)
    BACKGROUND: Pineal region tumors represent challenging surgical lesions with wide ranges of survival reported in different surgical series. In this article, we emphasize the role of complete microsurgical resection (CMR) to obtain a favorable long-term outcome of pineal region tumors. METHODS: We report a retrospective study of pineal region tumors operated on in Helsinki Neurosurgery between 1997 and 2015. Information was obtained from the hospital records, and an evaluation of the Finnish population register was conducted in July 2018 to determine the current status of the patients. RESULTS: A total of 76 pineal region tumors were operated on. The survival was 62% at a mean follow-up of 125 +/- 105 months (range, 0-588 months), and the disease-related mortality was limited to 14 patients (18.4%). Up to July 2018, 29 patients had died. Two patients died 1 and 3 months after surgery of delayed thalamic infarctions, 12 patients of disease progression, and 15 had non-disease-related deaths. Only 1 patient was lost in the long-term follow-up. Ten of 14 disease-related deaths occurred during the first 5 years of follow-up: 5 diffuse gliomas, 3 germ cell tumors, 1 grade II-III pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation, and 1 meningioma. CMR was linked to better tumor-free survival and long-term survival, with the exception of diffuse gliomas. CONCLUSIONS: CMR, in the setting of a multidisciplinary management of pineal region tumors, correlates with favorable survival and with minimal mortality. Surgically treated grade II-IV gliomas constitute a particular group with high mortality within the first 5 years independently of the microsurgical resection.
  • Choque-Velasquez, Joham; Resendiz-Nieves, Julio; Colasanti, Roberto; Collan, Juhani; Hernesniemi, Juha (2018)
    BACKGROUND: Vascular pineal malformations are rare and technically demanding lesions. Because the locations of these lesions, endovascular techniques and radiosurgery have been increasingly used in the recent decades to accomplish safe occlusion. Nevertheless, microsurgical treatment may be required sometimes. METHODS: We present a retrospective review of the vascular pineal malformations operated by the senior author. Moreover, we report illustrative cases for the various types of vascular lesions with a careful analysis of the different microsurgical stages. RESULTS: Eighteen patients with pineal vascular lesions were operated on between 1980 and 2015: 6 patients had vein of Galen malformations, 5 plexiform arteriovenous malformations, 6 cavernous malformations, and 1 patient had a ruptured medial posterior choroidal artery aneurysm. A complete resection and occlusion was possible in all vascular malformations. CONCLUSIONS: The pineal region is an infrequent but challenging location for vascular lesions. A careful and step-wise operative strategy for the different types of vascular lesion is paramount to accomplish an effective and safe microsurgical treatment when other alternatives fail or are not available.
  • Choque-Velasquez, Joham; Colasanti, Roberto; Resendiz-Nieves, Julio; Jahromi, Behnam Rezai; Tynninen, Olli; Collan, Juhani; Niemelä, Mika; Hernesniemi, Juha (2018)
    BACKGROUND: Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) is a rare grade II-III pineal lesion with peculiar histological and immunohistochemical features. These tumors mostly occur in adults, only rarely in children, with 19 cases reported up to now. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present a 3-year-old boy who underwent reoperation for a recurrent PTPR (grade II). Gross total resection of the lesion through an occipital interhemispheric approach with the patient in a sitting position was followed by adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Histological examination revealed tumor progression (grade III) and an MIB-1 proliferation index >25%. The patient continues to do well with no evidence of recurrence more than 3 years following surgery. A comprehensive literature review regarding the PTPR, including the current management in children, is reported. CONCLUSIONS: PTPRs are extremely rare in children, and immunohistochemistry is needed to differentiate them from other pineal tumors. These tumors show a high rate of recurrence, and a multidisciplinary management approach (microsurgical resection followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy) can help achieve a favorable outcome.
  • Choque-Velasquez, Joham; Resendiz-Nieves, Julio C.; Jahromi, Behnam Rezai; Colasanti, Roberto; Raj, Rahul; Tynninen, Olli; Collan, Juhani; Hernesniemi, Juha (2019)
    BACKGROUND: Pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation (PPTIDs) are rare lesions with particular features compared with other pineal parenchymal tumors. METHODS: We present a retrospective review of patients with histologically confirmed PPTIDs who were operated on in our department between 1997 and 2015. A demographic analysis and an evaluation of preoperative status, surgical treatment, as well as immediate and long-term clinical and radiologic outcomes were conducted. RESULTS: Fifteen patients with PPTIDs were operated on between 1997 and 2015. Gross total removal was achieved in 11 cases; 2 patients underwent near-total resection, 1 partial resection, and 1 received brachytherapy after an endoscopic biopsy. Nine patients required external radiation therapy (4 due to a pleomorphic histology of their lesion including pineoblastoma features in 3 of them; 3 after a subtotal resection; and 2 for tumor recurrence). No patient received chemotherapy. The survival rate of our patients was 57.1% at a mean follow-up of 137.2 +/- 77.6 months (39-248 months). CONCLUSIONS: A proper multidisciplinary management of PPTIDs based on a gross total removal of the lesion, and an adjuvant radiotherapy in selected cases, may improve the overall survival of these aggressive tumors.
  • Choque-Velasquez, Joham; Resendiz-Nieves, Julio C.; Jahromi, Behnam Rezai; Colasanti, Roberto; Tynninen, Olli; Collan, Juhani; Niemelä, Mika; Hernesniemi, Juha (2019)
    Background Pineoblastomas are very rare malignant lesions with a bad prognosis and high mortality during the first five years from diagnosis. Report of cases We present a retrospective review of three patients with histologically confirmed pineoblastomas consecutively operated on between 1997 and 2015. One of our patients died >14 years after surgery, and the other 2 patients are still alive and in good condition without recurrence of the disease >12 years after surgery. All of them underwent gross total resection and craniospinal radiotherapy. Individualized scheme of chemotherapy was administered in two cases. The cornerstones for the surgical resection of pineoblastomas are reported. Conclusions A proper multidisciplinary management of pineoblastomas, which associates gross total microsurgical resection of the lesion and an adjuvant therapy determined by our neurooncology team based on accurate craniospinal adjuvant radiotherapy with boost of radiation on the tumoral bed, and when needed, an adequate but aggressive medulloblastoma-like chemotherapy, may improve the overall survival of these malignant lesions.
  • Choque-Velasquez, Joham; Colasanti, Roberto; Resendiz-Nieves, Julio C.; Gonzales-Echevarria, Kleber E.; Raj, Rahul; Jahromi, Behnam Rezai; Goehre, Felix; Lindroos, Ann-Christine; Hernesniemi, Juha (2018)
    BACKGROUND: The sitting position has lost favor among neurosurgeons partly owing to assumptions of increased complications, such as venous air embolisms and hemodynamic disturbances. Moreover, the surgeon must assume a tiring posture. We describe our protocol for the "praying position" for pineal region surgery; this variant may reduce some of the risks of the sitting position, while providing a more ergonomic surgical position. METHODS: A retrospective review of 56 pineal lesions operated on using the praying position between January 2008 and October 2015 was performed. The praying position is a steeper sitting position with the upper torso and the head bent forward and downward. The patient's head is tilted about 30 degrees making the tentorium almost horizontal, thus providing a good viewing angle. G-suit trousers or elastic bandages around the lower extremities are always used. RESULTS: Complete lesion removal was achieved in 52 cases; subtotal removal was achieved in 4. Venous air embolism associated with persistent hemodynamic changes was nonexistent in this series. When venous air embolism was suspected, an immediate reaction based on good teamwork was imperative. No cervical spine cord injury or peripheral nerve damage was reported. The microsurgical time was CONCLUSIONS: A protocolized praying position that includes proper teamwork management may provide a simple, fast, and safe approach for proper placement of the patient for pineal region surgery.
  • Choque-Velasquez, Joham; Resendiz-Nieves, Julio C.; Rezai Jahromi, Behnam; Colasanti, Roberto; Raj, Rahul; Lopez-Gutierrez, Kenneth; Tynninen, Olli; Niemelä, Mika; Hernesniemi, Juha (2019)
    Background: Microsurgical resection represents a well-accepted management option for symptomatic benign pineal cysts. Symptoms such as a headache, hydrocephalus, and visual deficiency are typically associated with pineal cysts. However, more recent studies reported over the past years have characterized additional symptoms as a part of the clinical manifestation of this disease and represent additional indications for intervention. Methods: We present a retrospective review of patients with histologically confirmed benign pineal cysts that were operated on in our department between 1997 and 2015. A demographic analysis, evaluation of preoperative status, surgical treatment, as well as immediate and long-term clinical and radiological outcomes were conducted. Results: A total of 60 patients with benign pineal cysts underwent surgery between 1997 and 2015. Gross total resection was achieved in 58 cases. All patients except one improved in their clinical status or had made a full recovery at the time of the last follow-up. The key steps for surgical resection of pineal cysts are reported, based on an analysis of representative surgical videos. Conclusions: We describe in this paper one of the largest series of microsurgically treated pineal cysts. In our opinion, judicious microsurgery remains the most suitable technique to effectively deal with this disease.