Browsing by Subject "Placenta"

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  • Czamara, Darina; Dieckmann, Linda; Roeh, Simone; Kraemer, Sarah; Rancourt, Rebecca C.; Sammallahti, Sara; Kajantie, Eero; Laivuori, Hannele; Eriksson, Johan G.; Räikkönen, Katri; Henrich, Wolfgang; Plagemann, Andreas; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Braun, Thorsten; Entringer, Sonja (2021)
    Background Glucocorticoids (GCs) play a pivotal role in fetal programming. Antenatal treatment with synthetic GCs (sGCs) in individuals in danger of preterm labor is common practice. Adverse short- and long-term effects of antenatal sGCs have been reported, but their effects on placental epigenetic characteristics have never been systematically studied in humans. Results We tested the association between exposure to the sGC betamethasone (BET) and placental DNA methylation (DNAm) in 52 exposed cases and 84 gestational-age-matched controls. We fine-mapped associated loci using targeted bisulfite sequencing. The association of placental DNAm with gene expression and co-expression analysis on implicated genes was performed in an independent cohort including 494 placentas. Exposure to BET was significantly associated with lower placenta DNAm at an enhancer of FKBP5. FKBP5 (FK506-binding protein 51) is a co-chaperone that modulates glucocorticoid receptor activity. Lower DNAm at this enhancer site was associated with higher expression of FKBP5 and a co-expressed gene module. This module is enriched for genes associated with preeclampsia and involved in inflammation and immune response. Conclusions Our findings suggest that BET exposure during pregnancy associates with few but lasting changes in placental DNAm and may promote a gene expression profile associated with placental dysfunction and increased inflammation. This may represent a pathway mediating GC-associated negative long-term consequences and health outcomes in offspring.
  • Dieckmann, Linda; Lahti-Pulkkinen, Marius; Kvist, Tuomas; Lahti, Jari; DeWitt, Peter E; Cruceanu, Cristiana; Laivuori, Hannele; Sammallahti, Sara; Villa, Pia M; Suomalainen-König, Sanna; Eriksson, Johan G; Kajantie, Eero; Raikkönen, Katri; Binder, Elisabeth B; Czamara, Darina (BioMed Central, 2021)
    Abstract Background Epigenetic clocks have been used to indicate differences in biological states between individuals of same chronological age. However, so far, only few studies have examined epigenetic aging in newborns—especially regarding different gestational or perinatal tissues. In this study, we investigated which birth- and pregnancy-related variables are most important in predicting gestational epigenetic age acceleration or deceleration (i.e., the deviation between gestational epigenetic age estimated from the DNA methylome and chronological gestational age) in chorionic villus, placenta and cord blood tissues from two independent study cohorts (ITU, n = 639 and PREDO, n = 966). We further characterized the correspondence of epigenetic age deviations between these tissues. Results Among the most predictive factors of epigenetic age deviations in single tissues were child sex, birth length, maternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal mental disorders until childbirth, delivery mode and parity. However, the specific factors related to epigenetic age deviation and the direction of association differed across tissues. In individuals with samples available from more than one tissue, relative epigenetic age deviations were not correlated across tissues. Conclusion Gestational epigenetic age acceleration or deceleration was not related to more favorable or unfavorable factors in one direction in the investigated tissues, and the relative epigenetic age differed between tissues of the same person. This indicates that epigenetic age deviations associate with distinct, tissue specific, factors during the gestational and perinatal period. Our findings suggest that the epigenetic age of the newborn should be seen as a characteristic of a specific tissue, and less as a general characteristic of the child itself.
  • Huuskonen, Pasi; Keski-Nisula, Leea; Heinonen, Seppo; Voutilainen, Sari; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Pekkanen, Juha; Lampi, Jussi; Lehto, Soili M.; Haaparanta, Hannariikka; Elomaa, Antti-Pekka; Voutilainen, Raimo; Backman, Katri; Kokki, Hannu; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Paananen, Jussi; Vähäkangas, Kirsi; Pasanen, Markku (2018)
    Background: A Finnish joint research effort Kuopio Birth Cohort (KuBiCo) seeks to evaluate the effects of genetics, epigenetics and different risk factors (medication, nutrition, lifestyle factors and environmental aspects) during pregnancy on the somatic and psychological health status of the mother and the child. Methods: KuBiCo will ultimately include information on 10,000 mother-child pairs who have given their informed consent to participate in this cohort. Identification of foetal health risk factors that can potentially later manifest as disease requires a repository of relevant biological samples and a flexible open up-to-date data handling system to register, store and analyse biological, clinical and questionnaire-based data. KuBiCo includes coded questionnaire-based maternal background data gathered before, during and after the pregnancy and bio-banking of maternal and foetal samples that will be stored in deep freezers. Data from the questionnaires and biological samples will be collected into one electronic database. KuBiCo consists of several work packages which are complementary to each other: Maternal, foetal and placental metabolism and omits; Paediatrics; Mental wellbeing; Prenatal period and delivery; Analgesics and anaesthetics during peripartum period; Environmental effects; Nutrition; and Research ethics. Discussion: This report describes the set-up of the KuBiCo and descriptive analysis from 3532 parturients on response frequencies and feedback to KuBiCo questionnaires gathered from June 2012 to April 2016. Additionally, we describe basic demographic data of the participants (n = 1172). Based on the comparison of demographic data between official national statistics and our descriptive analysis, KuBiCo represents a cross-section of Finnish pregnant women.
  • Huuskonen, Pasi; Keski-Nisula, Leea; Heinonen, Seppo; Voutilainen, Sari; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Pekkanen, Juha; Lampi, Jussi; Lehto, Soili M; Haaparanta, Hannariikka; Elomaa, Antti-Pekka; Voutilainen, Raimo; Backman, Katri; Kokki, Hannu; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Paananen, Jussi; Vähäkangas, Kirsi; Pasanen, Markku (BioMed Central, 2018)
    Abstract Background A Finnish joint research effort Kuopio Birth Cohort (KuBiCo) seeks to evaluate the effects of genetics, epigenetics and different risk factors (medication, nutrition, lifestyle factors and environmental aspects) during pregnancy on the somatic and psychological health status of the mother and the child. Methods KuBiCo will ultimately include information on 10,000 mother-child pairs who have given their informed consent to participate in this cohort. Identification of foetal health risk factors that can potentially later manifest as disease requires a repository of relevant biological samples and a flexible open up-to-date data handling system to register, store and analyse biological, clinical and questionnaire-based data. KuBiCo includes coded questionnaire-based maternal background data gathered before, during and after the pregnancy and bio-banking of maternal and foetal samples that will be stored in deep freezers. Data from the questionnaires and biological samples will be collected into one electronic database. KuBiCo consists of several work packages which are complementary to each other: Maternal, foetal and placental metabolism and omics; Paediatrics; Mental wellbeing; Prenatal period and delivery; Analgesics and anaesthetics during peripartum period; Environmental effects; Nutrition; and Research ethics. Discussion This report describes the set-up of the KuBiCo and descriptive analysis from 3532 parturients on response frequencies and feedback to KuBiCo questionnaires gathered from June 2012 to April 2016. Additionally, we describe basic demographic data of the participants (n = 1172). Based on the comparison of demographic data between official national statistics and our descriptive analysis, KuBiCo represents a cross-section of Finnish pregnant women.
  • Holmberg, Ville; Onkamo, Paivi; Lahtela, Laura Elisa; Lahermo, Paivi; Bedu-Addo, George; Mockenhaupt, Frank P.; Meri, Seppo (2012)
  • Stefanovic, Vedran; Andersson, Sture; Vento, Maximo (2019)
    Spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) is one of the major complications of pregnancy and the main cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Despite the efforts devoted to the understanding of this obstetrical syndrome and improved medical care, there has been a tendency for the PTB rate to increase in the last decades globally. The costs of the screening for spontaneous PTB, its management, and treatment of the sequelae represent a major burden to the health service economy of high-income countries. In this scenario, it has been widely acknowledged that oxidative stress (OS) plays an important role in the pathogenicity of human disease in wide range of areas of medicine. There is an emerging evidence that an imbalance between pro-and-antioxidants may be associated with spontaneous PTB. However, there are still many controversies on the mechanisms by which OS are involved in the pathogenesis of prematurity. Moreover, the crucial question whether the OS is the cause or consequence of the disease is yet to be answered. The purpose of this article is to briefly summarize the current knowledge and controversies on oxidative stress-related spontaneous PTB and to give a critical approach on future perspectives on this topic as a classical example of translational medicine. Placenta-mediated pregnancy adverse outcome associated with OS leading to iatrogenic PTB (e.g. pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, gestational diabetes) will not be discussed.
  • Marjonen, Heidi Maria; Auvinen, Pauliina; Kahila, Hanna; Tšuiko, Olga; Kõks, Sulev; Tiirats, Airi; Viltrop, Triin; Tuuri, Timo; Söderström-Anttila, Viveca; Suikkari, Anne-Maria; Salumets, Andres; Tiitinen, Aila; Kaminen-Ahola, Nina (2018)
    Background: Assisted reproductive technology (ART) has been associated with low birth weight of fresh embryo transfer (FRESH) derived and increased birth weight of frozen embryo transfer (FET)-derived newborns. Owing to that, we focused on imprinted insulin-like growth factor 2 (1GF2)/H19 locus known to be important for normal growth. This locus is regulated by H19 imprinting control region (ICR) with seven binding sites for the methylation-sensitive zinc finger regulatory protein (CTCF). A polymorphism rs10732516 G/A in the sixth binding site for CTCF, associates with a genotype-specific trend to the DNA methylation. Due to this association, 62 couples with singleton pregnancies derived from FRESH (44 IVF/18 ICSI), 24 couples from FET (15 IVF/9 ICSI), and 157 couples with spontaneously conceived pregnancies as controls were recruited in Finland and Estonia for genotype-specific examination. DNA methylation levels at the H19 ICR, H19 DMR, and long interspersed nuclear elements in placental tissue were explored by MassARRAY EpiTYPER (n = 122). Allele-specific changes in the methylation level of H19 ICR in placental tissue (n = 26) and white blood cells (WBC, n = 8) were examined by bisulfite sequencing. Newborns' (n = 243) anthropometrics was analyzed by using international growth standards. Results: A consistent trend of genotype-specific decreased methylation level was observed in paternal allele of rs10732516 paternal A/maternal G genotype, but not in paternal G/maternal A genotype, at H19 ICR in ART placentas. This hypomethylation was not detected in WBCs. Also genotype-specific differences in FRESH-derived newborns' birth weight and head circumference were observed (P = 0.04, P = 0.004, respectively): FRESH-derived newborns with G/G genotype were heavier (P = 0.04) and had larger head circumference (P= 0.002) compared to newborns with A/A genotype. Also, the placental weight and birth weight of controls, FRESH- and FET-derived newborns differed significantly in rs10732516 A/A genotype (P= 0.024, P= 0.006, respectively): the placentas and newborns of FET-derived pregnancies were heavier compared to FRESH-derived pregnancies (P = 0.02, P= 0.004, respectively). Conclusions: The observed DNA methylation changes together with the phenotypic findings suggest that rs10732516 polymorphism associates with the effects of ART in a parent-of-origin manner. Therefore, this polymorphism should be considered when the effects of environmental factors on embryonic development are studied.
  • Marjonen, Heidi; Auvinen, Pauliina; Kahila, Hanna; Tšuiko, Olga; Kõks, Sulev; Tiirats, Airi; Viltrop, Triin; Tuuri, Timo; Söderström-Anttila, Viveca; Suikkari, Anne-Maria; Salumets, Andres; Tiitinen, Aila; Kaminen-Ahola, Nina (BioMed Central, 2018)
    Abstract Background Assisted reproductive technology (ART) has been associated with low birth weight of fresh embryo transfer (FRESH) derived and increased birth weight of frozen embryo transfer (FET)-derived newborns. Owing to that, we focused on imprinted insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2)/H19 locus known to be important for normal growth. This locus is regulated by H19 imprinting control region (ICR) with seven binding sites for the methylation-sensitive zinc finger regulatory protein (CTCF). A polymorphism rs10732516 G/A in the sixth binding site for CTCF, associates with a genotype-specific trend to the DNA methylation. Due to this association, 62 couples with singleton pregnancies derived from FRESH (44 IVF/18 ICSI), 24 couples from FET (15 IVF/9 ICSI), and 157 couples with spontaneously conceived pregnancies as controls were recruited in Finland and Estonia for genotype-specific examination. DNA methylation levels at the H19 ICR, H19 DMR, and long interspersed nuclear elements in placental tissue were explored by MassARRAY EpiTYPER (n = 122). Allele-specific changes in the methylation level of H19 ICR in placental tissue (n = 26) and white blood cells (WBC, n = 8) were examined by bisulfite sequencing. Newborns’ (n = 243) anthropometrics was analyzed by using international growth standards. Results A consistent trend of genotype-specific decreased methylation level was observed in paternal allele of rs10732516 paternal A/maternal G genotype, but not in paternal G/maternal A genotype, at H19 ICR in ART placentas. This hypomethylation was not detected in WBCs. Also genotype-specific differences in FRESH-derived newborns’ birth weight and head circumference were observed (P = 0.04, P = 0.004, respectively): FRESH-derived newborns with G/G genotype were heavier (P = 0.04) and had larger head circumference (P = 0.002) compared to newborns with A/A genotype. Also, the placental weight and birth weight of controls, FRESH- and FET-derived newborns differed significantly in rs10732516 A/A genotype (P = 0.024, P = 0.006, respectively): the placentas and newborns of FET-derived pregnancies were heavier compared to FRESH-derived pregnancies (P = 0.02, P = 0.004, respectively). Conclusions The observed DNA methylation changes together with the phenotypic findings suggest that rs10732516 polymorphism associates with the effects of ART in a parent-of-origin manner. Therefore, this polymorphism should be considered when the effects of environmental factors on embryonic development are studied.