Browsing by Subject "Plant Production Biology (Horticulture)"

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  • Gao, Song (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    Molecular biology has created a new pathway for plant breeding in cut flower industry. It focuses on studying flower gene functions and provides a more direct and effective way of breeding new flower cultivars using genetic transformation. Besides flower color, disease resistance, quality and vase life, modification of flower architecture is an important target for flower breeding. Previous studies have showed that various transcription factors encoded by the corresponding genes are involved regulating flower development and flower architecture. The most studied are MADS domain and TCP domain transcription factors. For targeted breeding, it is crucial to study the functions of the corresponding genes in detail. For both MADS and TCP domain proteins, previous studies have indicated that protein-protein interactions are important for their function. GhCYC1, GhCYC2, GhCYC3 and GhCYC4, isolated from gerbera (Gerbera hybrida), are CYCLOIDEA –like genes affecting inflorescence development. The protein-protein interactions among these four genes have previously been studied by yeast two-hybrid system. The aim of this thesis was to verify the interactions in living plant cells, using both BiFC and split luciferase assays. Protoplast electroporation and agroinfiltration were used to introduce the genes in planta. The results from the two assays were compared in order to find an effective in planta method for detecting protein-protein interactions. The experiment also provided information about DNA transformation efficiency using protoplast electroporation and agroinfiltration. The results of the split luciferase assay showed that GhCYC1+GhCYC4, GhCYC3+GhCYC4 as well as GhCYC4+GhCYC4 interacted quite strongly in plant cells while GhCYC1+GhCYC1, GhCYC2+GhCYC2 as well as GhCYC4+GhCYC2 had almost no interactions. The interactions between GhCYC3+GhCYC4, and GhCYC4+ GhCYC4 were also shown in yeast two-hybrid, but the other results were different. According to the BiFC assay, no signals of interactions were detected from GhCYC2+GhCYC2, while strong signals were observed from GhCYC2+GhCYC3, and weak signals were seen from GhCYC2+GhCYC4. The interactions between GhCYC2+GhCYC3, GhCYC2+GhCYC4 were also observed in yeast two-hybrid, but the other results were unconfirmed. Large standard deviations were observed in the split luciferase assay and thereby reliable conclusions cannot be drawn from it. However, BiFC turned out to be a better method to detect the protein-protein interactions in planta and clear signals from interactions could be observed. Comparison of the transformation methods indicated that agroinfiltration is a better way of introducing DNA into plant cells than protoplast electroporation. For further study, BiFC assay still needs to be repeated to confirm the efficiency of this assay, and factors affecting the transformation efficiency in protoplast electroporation need to be optimized in the future studies.
  • Liu, Yanbo (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Calendula officinalis is grown widely as an ornamental plant across Europe. It belongs to the large. Asteraceae family. In this study, the aim was to explore the possibilities to use Calendula officinalis as a new model organism for flower development and secondary mechanism studies in Asteraceae. Tissue culture of Calendula officinalis was established using nine different cultivars. Murashige & Skoog (MS) medium with four different combinations of plant growth regulators were tested. Of all these combinations, the medium containing 1mg/l BAP, 0.1 mg/l IAA, and 1mg/l Zeatin achieved highest frequency of adventitious shoot regeneration from hypocotyl and cotyledon explants. Virus-induced gene silencing is a recent developed genetic tool for charactering the gene functions in plants, and extends the range of host plants that are not accessible for Agrobacterium transformation. Here, tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-based VIGS technique was tested in calendula (cv. Single Orange). We used TRV carrying Gerbera hybrid phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene fragment to induce PDS silencing in calendula. Vacuum infiltration and syringe infiltration methods both resulted in photo-bleaching phenotypes in leaves, bracts and petals. Loss-of-function phenotypes occurred on calendula 13 days post-infiltration. In conclusion, the data indicates that calendula explants can be regenerated through tissue culture which is a prerequisite for development of stable transformation methods. However, further optimization is still needed to improve the frequency. In addition, VIGS was applied to silence PDS marker gene expression indicating that this method has potential for gene functional studies in future.
  • Ran, Wenjun (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    The application of the split root fertigation (SRF) on strawberry cv. Elsanta (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) was tested in a greenhouse. Responses of strawberry plants under SRF treatments were evaluated by investigating plant water use, plant vegetative growth, berry yield, and berry quality. In this experiment. Strawberry plants had their roots separated evenly into two parts and grown in containers with two compartments in peat. In the traditional fertigation (TF), the control in the experiment, irrigation water with equal electrical conductivity (EC) (1.4 mS/cm) was applied to both root compartments. Three levels of SRF treatments with low, medium, and high mean EC in irrigation water were designed for the experiment. In these SRF treatments, half of roots received the irrigation solutions with lower EC value of 0.7 mS/cm, the other half of roots received irrigation solutions with EC values of 1.4 mS/cm (SRF1), 2.8 mS/cm (SRF2), and 4.2 mS/cm (SRF3). For plant growth, leaf number, petiole length, runner number and dry weight, plant dry weight, leaf nutrient contents, and flowering date were examined. For yield and berry quality, total fresh yield, total berry number, average berry fresh and dry weight, shelf life, contents of total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acid (TA), total phenolics, and ascorbic acid were measured. For plant water use, substrate water content (?) and EC, leakage amount and EC were recorded; water use efficiency (WUE) and water uptake percentage were calculated to investigate the water use. Compared to TF, plants under SRF treatments showed differences in some parameters. Plants grown under SRF2 had highest total leaf area, although no differences in total plant dry weight were observed; leaf Mg was improved by SRF treatments, leaf N increased by SRF with high EC (SRF3), and leaf B and Mn decreased in SRF with low EC (SRF1). More lateral roots were found of plants under SRF treatment. Plant flowering was accelerated in the medium SRF treatment. For fruit quality, berry size was reduced in SRF3, which was in consistent with the response of strawberry grown under salinity stress. TSS/TA decreased in SRF3. In all SRF treatments, more water was taken up from root compartment with the lower EC value. However, the total water uptake amount had no differences. As a conclusion, SRF treatments affected the plant water uptake distribution, plant vegetative growth, yield and yield quality in some parameters, but results were not consistent in this experiment. Treatments with more EC combinations in a wider range are recommended for further studies.
  • Teivonen, Satu (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    The special forms of conifers have been a matter of interest due to their ornamental values for centuries all over the world. Special forms have traditionally been reproduced by vegetative means, mostly by cuttings or grafting methods. At present, the vast majority of ornamental coni-fers traded in Finland is imported from abroad. The winter hardiness of foreign taxa is often in-adequate, causing wasted work and expenses when plants have to be replaced after cold winters. The aim of this thesis was to find suitable propagation methods for special forms of our native conifers and in that way enhance their domestic production. The plant material used in this study included special forms of native Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karsten) and juniper (Juniperus communis L.), common Norway spruce and eight foreign conifer taxa. The methods studied were propagation by stem cuttings and by grafting. The aim of the grafting experiment was to compare the healing of graft union in different genotypes of Norway spruce. In the cutting experiment the effects of genotype, age of the mother plant, position of cutting and treatment with a growth regu-lator on the rooting of conifer cuttings were studied. All of the genotypes of Norway spruce studied were successfully grafted and formed a perfect graft union. For aesthetic reasons propagation by cuttings may still be more suitable for at least dwarf conifers. Genotype had a very significant effect on the rooting of coniferous cuttings. Cut-tings from a juvenile special form of Norway spruce rooted better than those taken from adult trees. Generally, the position of cutting did not significantly affect rooting of special forms of Norway spruce. In one colour form, however, cuttings obtained from the juvenile lower part of the stock tree rooted far better than cuttings taken from the top of the same tree. Treatment with in-dolebutyric acid had a negative effect on the rooting of Norway spruce and juniper, but no signifi-cant effect on the cuttings of foreign conifer taxa. Introducing special forms of native conifers would add to the diversity of home gardens and public parks in a sustainable way. To advance commercial production of native selections we need to pay regard to the rooting ability of the special forms, not only their appearance. It is cheaper to reproduce the special forms by cuttings than by grafting methods. Plants produced by cuttings also have more stable growth habit than grafts do, which is especially important for dwarf conifers.
  • Karhula, Tuomo (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    The aim of this research was to find out how split-root fertigation affects the tield and quality of greenhouse tomato grown under modern greenhouse conditions. The aim was to find out if split-root fertigation produces bigger and better quality crop than traditional fertigation. In addition water use efficiency was compared between the split-root and traditional fertigation approaches. The study was conducted at MTT Agrifood Research Finland (Piikkiö) during 3.4.- 24.11.2009 in greenhouse. In split-root fertigation approach the roots of the tomato plants were divided into two comparments where the other compartment was fertigated with low electrical conductivity (EC) solution and the other on with concentrated EC solution. In traditional fertigation treatment the roots were also divided into two compartments but both parts were fertigated with solutions of equal EC. In split-root fertigation plant is able to take water from dilute solution and nutrients from concentrated solution. High EC can inrcease tomatos quality but decrease yield. Split-root fertigation enables use of high EC and low EC solutions to achieve the best quality tomatoes and most yield. During the cultivation period, the EC values of the nutrient solutions were maintained in their target values for almost all the time. The traditional fertigation approach produced more marketable yield and first class yield in number of fruits per plant than the split-root approach. The differences in the two approaches were statistically significant. One of the most factors that decreased the volume of marketable yield by was blossom-end rot. Water use efficiency was calculated by dividing the marketable yield by the volume of the water used during growth season. The split-root fertigation approach produced 164 g/l and the traditional fertigation 171 g/l of fruits per used litre of water. However, the difference was not statistically significant. Further research on split-root fertigation is needed. Based on the literature it the concentrated compartment in the split-root fertigation system may induce drought stress signals, which eventually reduc optimal production.
  • Vennelä, Tanja (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) is both quantitative and economically most important cultivated berry in Finland. The problem in Finland is low crop yield and short harvest season. During the main season the high supply lower radically the price. The price is highest before and after the main season. Production with everbearing strawberries would give long and even harvest season with more stable price. Everbearing strawberries suit well for table-top production in polythene tunnels with drip irrigation and fertilization. Everbearing strawberries produce flowers and berries during the whole season which affects the nutrient demand. Three different electrical conductivities in the nutrient solution, 1,5 mS/cm, 2,3mS/cm and 3,0 mS/cm, with N:K –ratio 1:1,5 during the ripening, was investigated. The fourth electrical conductivity was 2,3 mS/cm with N:K –ratio 1:2 during the ripening. The vegetative growth, crop yield and quality was evaluated. The amount of drainage water was measures and the amounts of leached nitrogen and phosphorus was analysed. The varieties in the study were ‘Malling Opal’ and ‘Rondo’. Like in previous studies the nutrient demand of strawberry is relatively low. Strongest vegetative growth, highest yield and largest berries was observed with the lowest (1,5 mS/cm) nutrient level. The nutrient level had very little effect on the fruit quality or starting time of the harvest season. The change in the N:K -ratio during ripening did not affect the fruit quality. The uptake of water was highest in the nutrient solution with lowest electrical conductivity. The problem with the water uptake with high electrical conductivity was probably caused by the high ion content in the nutrient solution. The amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus increased significantly in the leaching water with increasing electrical conductivity in the nutrient slution.
  • Laaksoharju, Taina (Helsingfors universitet, 2008)
    This masters thesis examines ten year old student’s relationship to plants and growing them. Second aim for this study was to evaluate classroom garden project “Fruit bomb” if it is suitable for education for sustainability. Comparisons were made between boys and girls and between urban (n=42 Helsinki) and rural children ( n=34 Paltamo, Kainuu) focusing their child-plant relationship. Comparison group from Paltamo took part only to the pre inquiry. The study took place during the spring 2006. The research was done by using qualitative methods. First, children were observed during the teaching. Second, a questionnaire was held before and after the plant growing project. Finally both children and teachers took part in themed interviews. The data was analyzed by using triangulation method which means the use of different analyses methods in the same study. The data was analyzed statistically with SPSS programmed cross tabulation Chi-Square ?2 tests (comparisons between boys/girls, rural/urban, before/after education). The program was also analysed inductively in order to understand children’s perceptions about plants in their lives. The plant growing project “Fruit bomb” itself was evaluated basing on children’s feedback and by using two theoretical models. One of the models used is known as the sustainable development triangle: ecological, economical and social-cultural dimension. The different parts of the educational project were classified to these dimensions. The other model used was J. Palmer´s tree model, the best known environmental education model. Educational activities were evaluated based on how well they correspond to the demands of the models. The results show some clear differences in the child-plant relationship between girls and boys and between rural and urban children. For girls, the beauty and joy of plants is important whereas the boys appreciate plants as a source of life. To grow plants from seeds was pleasurable but unfamiliar. However children became inspired and started their own growing experiments. Girls were more interested in plants than boys. Rural children seemed to have more activities with vegetation during their spare time, and they also recognised more tree species than urban kids. The rural children considered people to be part of the nature whereas 24 % of the urban children disagreed. The results show that growing plants in the classroom can be used as an introduction to the themes of sustainable education but acting for the environment (as in Palmer´s tree model) comes true only if the children’s immediate surroundings are included. Nurturing child-plant relationship in school may nevertheless be important for the child´s normal growth and for the formation of environmental friendly values.
  • Kauste, Krista (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    The aim of this study was to compare warm white LED and High Pressure Sodium (HPS) -lamps in the greenhouse cultivation of lettuce. Two experiments were carried out in which lettuce growth and external quality was observed, the effect of lamps on leaf temperature was measured and the electricity consumption of LED- and HPS-lamps was compared. First experiment carried out with iceberg lettuce (´Frillice`) and second experiment with red oakleaf lettuce (´Rouxai´). In the second experiment, the effect of light treatment on the color of leaves was also investigated. The presence of tipburn was another measurement of external quality in both experiments. LED-lamp with DLC-sensor (Dynamic Light Control), which was designed to optimize the illumination according to the existing natural light, was also included in the experiments. Light quality or observed differences in temperatures or relative humidity did not significantly affect the fresh weight or external quality of ice berg lettuce. Oakleaf lettuces grown under LED-light were much smaller and they had more tipburn symptoms compared to HPS-treatment. No significant differences were found in the anthocyaninlevels of oakleaf lettuce grown under different lightning treatments. LED -lighting consumed about 22% less electricity than HPS-lamp in both experiments. However, energy efficiency of HPS- and LED-lamps cannot be directly compared, since HPS-lamps illuminated larger area than the LED- luminaires. DLCsensor was able to adjust illumination according to natural light and to reduce energy consumption, but it did not increase fresh weight accumulation in relation to power consumption compared to LED-luminaire without DLC.
  • Turtiainen, Tiia (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    The study was performed to clarify if women consumers´ objective and subjective knowledge and general attitudes to their attitude have effect, and if the attitude to the information desire about the genemodified crops (=GM-crops) has effect. The results could be utilised in the informing about the GM-crops. The about 13 000 members of Marttaliitto ry was chosen as a sample which represents Finnish women consumers. The material was collected as email survey and the female interviewees' answers that were used for analysis came altogether 2 241 pieces. In a multinomial logistic regression analysis the attitude towards the GM-crops (=the GM-attitude) as explanatory variables was obtained, subjective and objective information, general attitudes towards nature, plant breeding and organic food, and confidence to information about the GM-crops given by the journalists, researchers, the European Union and environment organisations. From demographic variables the age and the place of residence explained the GM-attitude. The information desire was explained by the GMattitude. The woman consumer's subjective and objective knowledge and the general attitudes towards nature, plant breeding and organic food affect an attitude towards the GM-crops and the attitude affects an information desire about the GM-crops. In the K-means cluster analysis it was formed based on the GM-attitude, four different women consumer segments: green opponents, green fighters, non-green supporters and acceptors. The green opponents and acceptors wanted to have information about the matter areas concerning GM-crops more than the non-green supporters and the green fighters from the segments. The results can be used as help for the communication when the women consumers informing of the matters which are related to the GM-crops. More information is wanted so there should be it easily available. To maximise the effectiveness of the communication, communication should be focused according to different consumer segments. In the future it would be interesting to know how women consumers will be reacted to the information about the GM-crops if there is information from the desired sources available. Would the women consumers use information and would they be interested in the information for real?
  • Zhang, Yao (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    The evolution of floral novelties involves activities of several transcription factors. The large Asteraceae plant family has inflorescences consisting of different types of flowers. TCP transcription factors have recently been reported to regulate this complex structure. Gerbera hybrida, a common ornamental crop, has been used as a model plant for flower developmental studies in Asteraceae. It can be genetically transformed; however, transformation is laborious and time-consuming. Calendula officinalis also belongs to the Asteraceae plant family. It has working micropropagation methods, and it grows and flowers faster than Gerbera hybrida. In addition, Calendula officinalis genes possess high sequence similarity to Gerbera hybrida genes and thus provide an opportunity for functional testing of large numbers of genes. For functional assessment, virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a rapid approach, as it circumvents the need to establish stable transgenic lines that requires efficient tissue culture and time-consuming whole-plant regeneration steps. In this study, twelve Calendula officinalis cultivars were tested for VIGS. Calendula showed potential as a new model for the Asteraceae plant family as all twelve different cultivars could be infected by tobacco rattle virus (TRV) via observing the fluorescence caused by pTRV2: GFP; and they all showed photobleaching silencing phenotype caused by PHYTOENE DESATURASE (GhPDS) gene from gerbera. Especially the cultivars „Touch of Red/Orange? and „Princess Orange? turned out to be the most efficient in silencing. Virus dynamics was successfully traced by fluorescence encoded by pTRV2: GFP construct. However, using the construct pTRV2: GFP: PDS, it was observed that the GFP gene could not be applied as a marker gene to indicate the silencing area, because fluorescence could not be observed in photobleaching area. The calendula PDS was also tested. More similar sequence corresponding to the plant?s endogenous gene could cause more visible silencing symptom, but quantitative polymerase chain reaction results showed no statistically significant difference on gene silencing efficiency between GhPDS and CoPDS fragments. VIGS was also tested for silencing of TCP domain transcription factor genes using gerbera specific gene fragments. It was observed that the VIGS approach was not suitable for functional testing of CYCLOIDEA-clade genes in Calendula officinalis as identification of the putative phenotypes was highly disturbed by variable inflorescence phenotype of the tested cultivar.
  • Tujula, Anna (Helsingfors universitet, 2009)
    Suomen tärkein viljelty marja on mansikka, jonka tuotannon eräänä ongelmana on satokauden lyhyys. Eräänä ratkaisuna tähän saattaisivat olla jatkuvasatoiset mansikkalajikkeet, joita ei Suomessa ole laajassa viljelyssä lähinnä sopivien lajikkeiden puutteen vuoksi. Mansikalla vegetatiivinen ja generatiivinen kasvu kilpailevat osittain keskenään. Jatkuvasatoisilla mansikkalajikkeilla generatiivista kehitystä ja sadon muodostumista edistää pitkä päivänpituus. Satopotentiaalia voidaan lisätä myös kemiallisilla kasvun- sääteillä. Proheksadioni-kalsium (ProCa) toimii gibberelliini-inhibiittorina edistäen juurakon haaroittumista ja siten kukkimista sekä ehkäisten rönsyjen muodostumista. Satopotentiaalia lisää myös lyhyt päivänpituus edistämällä kasvin koon kasvua. Tehdyssä tutkimuksessa testattiin kolmen jatkuvasatoisen mansikkalajikkeen (Elan, Malling Pearl ja Tango) reagointia sekä lyhyeen (12 h) että pitkään päivään (18 h) ja ProCa:an (0 ja 200 ppm). Käsittelyt suoritettiin taimikasvatuksen aikana, minkä jälkeen kasvit siirrettiin hyötöön muovitunneliin. Kasvien vegetatiivista ja generatiivista kehitystä havainnoitiin sekä taimikasvatuksen että hyödön aikana useiden vasteiden, kuten lehtien, rönsyjen, juurakon haarojen, kukintojen ja marjojen määrien, avulla. Käsittelyillä oli vaikutusta sekä vegetatiiviseen että generatiiviseen kehitykseen, mutta erot koejäsenten välillä tasoittuivat melko nopeasti. Pitkä päivä nosti Elanin ja Malling Pearl:n kukkien määrää, mutta vain ProCa:lla käsitellyillä koejäsenillä. Tangolla kukkia sen sijaan kehittyi vain lyhyenpäivän koejäseniin, se käyttäytyi meidän oloissamme siis täysin lyhyenpäivänlajikkeen tavoin. Myös ProCa lisäsi kukintojen määrää, mutta lajikkeiden välillä esiintyi vaihtelua vaikutuksen voimakkuudessa. Sekä pitkä päivä että ProCa nostivat Elanin ja Malling Pearl:n satotasoa varsinkin alkukesästä, eli sadontuotto aikaistui. ProCa nosti myös Tangolla sekä aikaisen että kokonaissadon määrää. Tutkimus osoitti mahdollisuuden mansikan sadon aikaistamiseen ja sen määrän nostoon jatkuvasatoisten lajikkeiden avulla, jos niiden potentiaalia pystyttäisiin täysin hyödyntämään. Lisätutkimusta tarvitaan kuitenkin edelleen sopivien lajikkeiden ja viljelytekniikoiden kehittämiseksi.Strawberry is the most important cultivated berry in Finland but one of the problems of cultivation is shortness of the harvesting period. Everbearing strawberry cultivars could provide an alternative to extend the period. However, these are not yet broadly cultivated in Finland mainly due to the lack of suitable cultivars. The vegetative and generative growth of strawberry partly compete with each other. Generative growth and yield formation in everbearing strawberries is enhanced by long day length. Yield potential can also be increased by using chemical growth regulators, like prohexadione-calcium (ProCa). This inhibitor of gibberellin biosynthesis enhances crown branching and flowering, and prevents runner formation. Yield potential can also be thought to increase by short day length through increasing plant size. In this study, the effect of short (12 h) and long (18 h) day length as well as ProCa (0 and 200 ppm) on the growth of three everbearing strawberry cultivars (Elan, Malling Pearl and Tango) were tested. The treatments were carried out during plant propagation after which the plants were moved to a plastic tunnel for forcing. Vegetative and generative development of the plants were observed during both plant propagation and forcing by measuring several variables, such as number of leaves, runners, crown branches, flowers and berries. The treatments affected both vegetative and generative development. Long day increased the number of flowers on Elan and Malling Pearl, but only on ProCa treated plants. Flowering of Tango on the other hand was only induced in the short day length. Thus, in our conditions, it behaved as a short day cultivar. ProCa also increased the number of flowers, but there were some differences between the cultivars in the strength of the effect. Both long day length and ProCa increased the yield of Elan and Malling Pearl especially in the early summer, thus advancing the start of fruiting. ProCa also increased both early and total yield of Tango. This study showed the possibility of advancing and increasing strawberry yield through everbearing cultivars if their potential could be fully utilised. Further research is however necessary in order to develop suitable cultivars and cultivation methods for our growing conditions.
  • Nieminen, Noora (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    Puu-Käpylä (“Wooden Käpylä”), a neighbourhood of Helsinki, is the earliest example of the Garden City Movement in Finland. The suburb of valuable wooden architecture was built between 1920 and 1925, with the aim to provide a healthy housing area for working-class families with many children. The houses were erected by a co-operative (Käpylän kansanasunnot, “People?s Dwellings”) and they are protected by the city plan since 1960?s. However, the historical value of the sheltered courtyards has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to survey the garden flora of Puu-Käpylä and to evaluate the authenticity of the courtyard gardens. The survey covered the area of one residential quarter (1.2 ha) with twelve 2-storey semi-detached timber houses arranged around a common yard, which was originally appointed for the tenants? vegetable gardens. The houses are still rented, and each flat is allowed a small lot of the courtyard for cultivation. A complete list was made of all perennial, ornamental plant taxa present in the quarter. Spring bulbs were missed due to the timing of the survey. Generally, the plants were recorded on species level, with the exception of common lilacs, shrub roses, irises and peonies that were thoroughly studied for cultivar identification. It was assumed that plants initially grown in the courtyard could be distinguished by studying Finnish garden magazines, books and nursery catalogues published in the 1920?s and by comparing the present vegetation to surviving documents from the quarter. The total number of ornamental plant taxa identified was 172, of which 17 were trees, 47 shrubs, 7 climbers and 101 herbaceous perennials. The results indicated that a major part of the shrubs, climbers and perennials presumably originated from the 1970?s or later, whereas ca. 70 % of the tree specimens were deemed as original. The survey disclosed a heritage variety of common lilac, resembling cultivar „Prince Notger?, a specific peony taxon, Paeonia humilis Retz., cultivated in Nordic countries since long ago, and a few historic iris varieties. Well-preserved design elements included front gardens on one side of the quarter, a maple alley on another side as well as trees at the garden gates. Old garden books and magazines did not shed much light on the Finnish garden flora commonly used in the period when Puu-Käpylä was built. However, they gave a valuable picture of contemporary planting design. Nursery catalogues offered insight into the assortment of ornamental plants traded in the 1920?s. Conclusions on the authenticity of the current flora were mainly drawn on the basis of old photographs and a vegetation survey map drawn in the 1970?s. This study revealed a need for standardization of syrvey methods applied when investigating garden floras. Uniform survey techniques would make the results comparable and enable a future compilation of data from e.g. historic gardens.
  • Vuorinen, Katariina (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    Identification of apple species (Malus Mill.) has traditionally depended on morphological descriptions. Cultivar identification based completely on characteristics is problematic at best as original descriptions are often lacking. Additionally authenticity of nursery products has been criticised in Finland since early 20th century. As DNA and molecular methods have developed, new ways of species and cultivar identification have emerged. Microsatellites have proven to be especially useful for identifying individual genotypes and for defining genetic polymorphism within a chosen population. Markers designed for apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) function on all apple species making them extremely useful for Malus research. In our study, DNA fingerprinting was carried out with nine microsatellite markers copying 12 loci. Study material consisted of 201 samples representing 200 accessions. Most of the 99 study samples were from Finnish nurseries. Reference samples were gained from various botanical collections from North America and Europe. Altogether 47 study samples were re-identified or their original names authenticated. 52 samples remained nameless or unauthenticated. Two KESKAS cultivars were renamed as DNA-fingerprints revealed their true identity. Microsatellite fingerprinting proved to be a suitable method for ornamental crab apple cultivar authentication. False naming of nursery propagation material was evident and future studies are needed to illustrate the problem further.
  • Grandell, Laura (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    Suomenlinna is one of the most popular tourist and cultural attractions in Helsinki. Kustaanmiekka, as well as the whole of Suomenlinna, nature has become a traditional Finnish archipelago nature and over the centuries, the place of the duties of the fortress of flora. Because of the island's varied habitats of the region, the vegetation is very rich. Fortress of many plant species have become invasive plant across Europe and Russia. Most of the Suomenlinna Area is rock dry meadow and also fortress dry meadow, both of which belong to protected areas. Kustaanmiekka pastures grow dry meadow and heat species, such as rare Botrychium lunaria and Dianthus deltoides. This study was primarily designed to identify the region Kustaanmiekka dry meadow flora 2009 summer season, and different vascular plant species richness. The study also examined the factors of soil and the treatment history of the possible impact of dry meadow species. The study surveyed ten different wild dry meadows in Finland Kustaanmiekka castle fortress in the region. Dry meadows were located in different parts of Kustaanmiekka in such places, which was the highest in dry meadow vegetation. Field works were carried out in June and July, calculated for each squares Vascular Plants coverage, and also by listing up the squares outside the spring and late summer bloomers in May and August. To determine the properties of soil were taken from each dry meadow topsoil sample in August. The other investigated variables were slope geomorphology and moss, litter, bare land, vegetation and rocks coverages in squares. Dry meadow average vegetation height was measured in June and July. There were clear differences in flora between dry meadows. Plant species ranged dry meadows the total number of species of 40-60 species of plants. 120 different species of vascular plants were found, most of which bloom in June and July. Dry meadows plant species ranged from 6.3 to 13.6 in one plant species per square meters, in addition to the Shannon-Wiener diversity index ranged from 1.4 to 2.3 value. The most common species, which the meadows were, were, inter alia, Achillea millefolium, Dactylis glomerata, Elymus repens and Potentilla argentea. The region also grew a few alien species such as Berteroa incana, Bunias orientalis and Epilobium hirsutum. Soil factors such as high phosphorus content had no effect on the number of plant species in the meadows. Only the pH and conductivity were positively correlated with the height of the vegetation in dry meadows. Although the results of the dry meadows treatment had no effect on dry meadow amount of vegetation, can be expected right kind of treatment will improve the competitiveness of other typical meadow plants in point.
  • Kotiranta, Stiina (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Plant growth and morphology can be manipulated with light. Previously light manipulation experiments were mostly conducted by modifying the solar spectrum with light absorbing filters. Today, research can be conducted with modern LED lighting techniques, which enables specific spectrum tailoring. Light can be tailored specifically for a species or a family, and the needs of the farmer can also be taken into consideration. In this study, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv ’Efialto’) seedlings were grown under six different spectra. Plant morphology, stomatal function and drought tolerance were measured. Growth measurements included stem height, plant fresh and dry weight, leaf -area and leaf number. In addition, the effect of light quality on leaf morphology was studied by measuring leaf blade and petiole length. All measurements were conducted on well-watered and water-stressed plants, in order to study the effect of drought on vegetative growth and drought tolerance. Stomata conductance was studied by measuring leaf temperature prior to and during water stress. Leaf surface temperature indicates transpiration rate; thus the higher the conductance the lower leaf temperature. In addition to leaf temperature measurements, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were measured by leaf level infra-red gas analysis. R:FR ratio was the dominant factor for affecting plant morphology. However, the B:G ratio also played a key role; when the B:G ratio was low, it further enhanced the elongation growth, a response caused by low R:FR ratio. Irradiance in green and yellow wavebands regulated stomatal closure. During water stress, the light treatment with the highest green irradiance, induced more rapid stomatal closure which was evident as increased leaf temperature and decreased gas exchange. Light-depenedent stomatal closure and decreased transpiration could explain the improved performance of these seedlings during the drought period. Light spectral quality thus affected the drought tolerance of tomato plants through its effects on plant morphology and stomata function.
  • Mäkelä, Tii (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    The aim of this research was to find out the effect of photoperiod and quantity of light on growth and flowering of arctic bramble (Rubus arcticus L.) cv. Mesma. The object was also to find out the effect of light on development of floral organs in apical buds of root suckers. Three 12 week long standard treatments were: LD (long day, 12 h HPS-light + 12 h incandescent light), SD (short day, 12 h HPS-light) and HPS (24 h HPS-light). Additionally, the effect of changing the light conditions was examined in four treatments: SD->LD (6 wk SD-treatment + 6 wk LD-treatment), SD->HPS (6 wk SD-treatment + 6 wk HPS-treatment), HPS->SD (6 wk HPS-treatment + 6 wk SD-treatment) and HPS->LD (6 wk HPS-treatment + 6 wk LD-treatment). In standard treatments the vegetative growth determined as the dry weight of the shoots was increased in HPS and decreased in SD. Elongation of shoot was enhanced by LD and development of new leaves was increased in LD and HPS. The number of flowers was highest in HPS and lowest in SD. The average dry weight of a flower and the number of flowers in relation to vegetative growth were increased in HPS. In SD growth and flowering were suppressed towards the end of the experiment. When plants were moved from SD to HPS or LD, growth and flowering were continued. Growth and flowering were clearly enhanced by continuous HPS light. Cessation of growth and flowering in SD suggests that the plants were becoming dormant. Growth and flowering continued when plants were moved from SD to LD or HPS, which indicates that plants were not fully dormant. The differences between treatments LD and SD were probably a consequence of dormancy induction in SD. Floral initiation in apical buds of root suckers occurred in all three standard treatments regardless of photoperiod or quantity of light.
  • Tommila, Tero (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    The herbaceous vegetation of Viikinoja naturalistic rain garden in Viikinojanpuisto, Helsinki, was mapped about 10 years after construction. Viikinoja garden is a brooklike reworking of a part of an old main ditch and can be classified as an enhanced wetland. In the garden area, 28 species of herbaceous perennials were planted in 1999, 23 of them within the actual wetland area. The aim of the study was to evaluate the success of planted herbaceous perennials in the wetland area and to compare this data to the life history traits of these species. In addition, the spontaneous herbaceous vegetation in the area was surveyed and the success of some of these species was compared to their life history traits. Species' success was assessed by their proportional presence, general coverage and local coverage. Of the 23 species planted in the wetland area, 19 had survived and of these, ten can be called succesfull. Spontaneous species were identified from over 80 genera. The combined coverage of the planted species in the study area was 57 %, while that of spontaneous species exceeded 90 %. Both groups were dominated by graminoid species (Phragmites australis and other grasses, Typha latifolia, Scirpus sylvaticus and Carex species). Of the life history traits, competitiviness, maximum height and lateral spreading ability had a positive effect on species' success, especially with respect to perennials at their planting sites. Ruderality had a negative effect on the success of perennials. It was concluded that the vegetation of Viikinoja is entering competitor-dominated phase. Future long-term development depends largely on park management practices regarding mowing, dredging and cutting of willows.
  • Malin, Minna-Helena (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    One of the biggest challenges in Finland in the future will be the growing number of elderly people. It means that more and more people will be dependent on care and medication. According to research elderly people consider physical working order and an option for social interaction with other people to be the most important things for their well-being. As one ages the activity of living decreases. As a result other matters relating to the quality of life suffer as well. Older people are entitled to life worthy of a human being. To underpin this objective we have to maintain their independence and activity. This requires a certain level of health, well-being and working order which can all be influenced by other people. All activities are surrounded by some sort of an environment, so it is an important part of well-being. Green environment in particular is believed to have a positive effect to the well being and health. This is emphasized in hospitals and institutions. The first aim of this study was to map out the factors in green environment that motivate and encourage to use more time outdoors. The second aim was to study the impacts of the increased activity for the elderly people in the assisted living building Palta in Paimio, Finland. The research was carried out during summer 2009. Method was to observe the use of green environment and to interview nine habitants and their relatives and the staff of Paltanpuisto. The habitants were interviewed twice, spring and autumn. Other participants were interviewed once late summer. The object was to find out what were the reasons that got the habitants to go out and how did they feel it had affected their well-being The results were organized into three categories that were considered to activate habitants to go out: Safety, operationality and experientiality. The categories are interactive and in part overlapping. Experiences of well-being were considered as one category, which once again interacts with the three mentioned above. Main reasons to go out were the feeling of independence, other people and the affect going out has on general mood. In general this study confirms that green environment has a positive affect for the habitants of assisted living buildings. Most habitants saw the opportunity to go out as a vitally important factor behind good quality of life.