Browsing by Subject "Plant cell wall"

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  • Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Mäkelä, Miia R; Aguilar-Pontes, Maria V; Benoit-Gelber, Isabelle; Hildén, Kristiina S.; de Vries, Ronald P (BioMed Central, 2016)
    Abstract Feruloyl esterases (FAEs) represent a diverse group of carboxyl esterases that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds between ferulic (hydroxycinnamic) acid and plant cell wall polysaccharides. Therefore, FAEs act as accessory enzymes to assist xylanolytic and pectinolytic enzymes in gaining access to their site of action during biomass conversion. Their ability to release ferulic acid and other hydroxycinnamic acids from plant biomass makes FAEs potential biocatalysts in a wide variety of applications such as in biofuel, food and feed, pulp and paper, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. This review provides an updated overview of the knowledge on fungal FAEs, in particular describing their role in plant biomass degradation, diversity of their biochemical properties and substrate specificities, their regulation and conditions needed for their induction. Furthermore, the discovery of new FAEs using genome mining and phylogenetic analysis of current publicly accessible fungal genomes will also be presented. This has led to a new subfamily classification of fungal FAEs that takes into account both phylogeny and substrate specificity.
  • Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Mäkelä, Miia Riitta; Varriale, Simona; Zhou, Miaomiao; Cerullo, Gabriella; Gidijala, Loknath; Hinkka, Harri Tapio; Brás, Joana L.A.; Jütten, Peter; Piechot, Alexander; Verhaert, Raymond; Hilden, Sari Kristiina; Faraco, Vincenza; de Vries, Ronald (2018)
    Feruloyl esterases (FAEs) are a diverse group of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds between a hydroxycinnamic (e.g. ferulic) acid and plant poly- or oligosaccharides. FAEs as auxiliary enzymes significantly assist xylanolytic and pectinolytic enzymes in gaining access to their site of action during biomass saccharification for biofuel and biochemical production. A limited number of FAEs have been functionally characterized compared to over 1000 putative fungal FAEs that were recently predicted by similarity-based genome mining, which divided phylogenetically into different subfamilies (SFs). In this study, 27 putative and six characterized FAEs from both ascomycete and basidiomycete fungi were selected and heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris and the recombinant proteins biochemically characterized to validate the previous genome mining and phylogenetical grouping and to expand the information on activity of fungal FAEs. As a result, 20 enzymes were shown to possess FAE activity, being active towards pNP-ferulate and/or methyl hydroxycinnamate substrates, and covering 11 subfamilies. Most of the new FAEs showed activities comparable to those of previously characterized fungal FAEs.
  • Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Makela, Miia R.; Cerullo, Gabriella; Zhou, Miaomiao; Varriale, Simona; Gidijala, Loknath; Bras, Joana L. A.; Jutten, Peter; Piechot, Alexander; Verhaert, Raymond; Faraco, Vincenza; Hilden, Kristiina S.; de Vries, Ronald P. (2018)
    4-O-Methyl-D-glucuronic acid (MeGlcA) is a side-residue of glucuronoarabinoxylan and can form ester linkages to lignin, contributing significantly to the strength and rigidity of the plant cell wall. Glucuronoyl esterases (4-O-methyl-glucuronoyl methylesterases, GEs) can cleave this ester bond, and therefore may play a significant role as auxiliary enzymes in biomass saccharification for the production of biofuels and biochemicals. GEs belong to a relatively new family of carbohydrate esterases (CE15) in the CAZy database (, and so far around ten fungal GEs have been characterized. To explore additional GE enzymes, we used a genome mining strategy. BLAST analysis with characterized GEs against approximately 250 publicly accessible fungal genomes identified more than 150 putative fungal GEs, which were classified into eight phylogenetic sub-groups. To validate the genome mining strategy, 21 selected GEs from both ascomycete and basidiomycete fungi were heterologously produced in Pichia pastoris. Of these enzymes, 18 were active against benzyl D-glucuronate demonstrating the suitability of our genome mining strategy for enzyme discovery.
  • Karkonen, Anna; Dewhirst, Rebecca A.; Mackay, C. Logan; Fry, Stephen C. (2017)
    A proportion of the plant's L-ascorbate (vitamin C) occurs in the apoplast, where it and its metabolitesmay act as pro-oxidants and anti-oxidants. One ascorbate metabolite is 2,3-dilcetogulonate (DKG), preparations of which can non-enzymically generate H2O2 and delay peroxidase action on aromatic substrates. As DKG itself generates several by-products, we characterised these and their ability to generate H2O2 and delay peroxidase action. DKG preparations rapidly produced a by-product, compound (1), with lambda(max) 271 and 251 nm at neutral and acidic pH respectively. On HPLC, (1) co-eluted with the major H2O2-generating and peroxidase-delaying principle. Compound (1) was slowly destroyed by ascorbate oxidase, and was less stable at pH 6 than at pH 1. Electrophoresis of an HPLC-enriched preparation of (1) suggested a strongly acidic (pK(a) approximate to 2.3) compound. Mass spectrometry suggested that un-ionised (1) has the formula C6H6O5, i.e. it is a reduction product of DKG (C6H8O7). In conclusion, compound (1) is the major H2O2-generating, peroxidase-delaying principle formed non-enzymically from DKG in the pathway ascorbate -> dehydroascorbic acid -> DKG -> (1). We hypothesise that (1) generates apoplastic H2O2 (and consequently hydroxyl radicals) and delays cell-wall crosslinking - both these effects favouring wall loosening, and possibly playing a role in pathogen defence. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.