Browsing by Subject "Plant sterols"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-3 of 3
  • Nissinen, Markku J.; Pitkänen, Niina; Simonen, Piia; Gylling, Helena; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli; Lehtimäki, Terho; Juonala, Markus; Pakarinen, Mikko P. (2018)
    Background & aims: Gallstone disease is related to hypersecretion of cholesterol in bile, and low serum phytosterol levels. We examined how genetic polymorphisms of sterol transporters affect childhood cholesterol metabolism trait predicting adult gallstone disease. Patients and methods: In retrospective controlled study, we determined D19H polymorphism of ABCG8 gene, genetic variation at Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) gene locus (rs41279633, rs17655652, rs2072183, rs217434 and rs2073548), and serum cholesterol, noncholesterol sterols and lipids in children affected by gallstones decades later (n = 66) and controls (n = 126). Results: In childhood, phytosterols were lower (9.7%-23.4%) in carriers of risk allele 19H compared to 19D homozygotes. Lowest campesterol/cholesterol tertile consisted of 1.9-times more future gallstone subjects, and 3.7-times more 19H carriers than highest one. Campesterol/cholesterol-ratio was highest in 19D homozygote controls, but similar to 11% lower in gallstone 19D homozygotes and similar to 25% lower among gallstone and control carriers of 19H. Gallstone subjects with alleles CC of rs41279633 and TT of rs217434 of NPC1L1 had similar to 18% lower campesterol/cholesterol-ratio compared to mutation carriers. Conclusions: Risk trait of cholesterol metabolism (low phytosterols) in childhood favouring cholesterol gallstone disease later in adulthood is influenced by risk variant 19H of ABCG8 and obviously also other factors. NPC1L1 variants have minor influence on noncholesterol sterols. (c) 2018 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Koivusalo, Antti; Pakarinen, Mikko; Gylling, Helena; Nissinen, Markku J. (2015)
    Background: Cholesterol metabolism may be involved in pediatric gallstone disease. We aimed to reveal cholesterol metabolites and phytosterols and their relation to stone composition of sterols in children having black pigment and cholesterol stones. Methods: We performed retrospective controlled clinical study, in which we examined parameters of cholesterol metabolism and liver function values in serum (n = 28) and gallstones (n = 46) of consecutively cholecystectomized children. Serum values of age-, body mass index-and sex-matched children (n = 82) and adult gallstones (n = 187) served as controls. Results: Surrogate markers of cholesterol synthesis in serum (squalene/cholesterol, cholestenol/cholesterol and lathosterol/cholesterol) were 26-52 % higher in both stone subclasses compared to controls (p <0.05 for all). Respectively, cholestanol/cholesterol and plant sterols campesterol/cholesterol and sitosterol/cholesterol (cholesterol absorption markers) had decreasing order in serum: black pigment stone group > controls > cholesterol stone group (p <0.05 for all). In black pigment stone group, stone cholestanol/cholesterol was associated with serum bile acids (r = 0.620, p = 0.018). In cholesterol stone group, surrogate markers of cholesterol synthesis in serum (e.g., lathosterol/cholesterol) inversely reflected those of absorption (r-range -0.633--0.706, p-range 0.036-0.015). In cholesterol stone group, serum and stone lathosterol/cholesterol and cholestanol/cholesterol were positively interrelated (r-range 0.727-0.847, p <0.05 for both). Conclusions: Gallstone subclasses shared enhanced cholesterol synthesis. Cholesterol stone children were low cholesterol absorbers with intact homeostasis of cholesterol metabolism. Black pigment stone group was characterized by deteriorated cholesterol metabolism, and accumulation of cholestanol, campesterol and sitosterol in serum and stones suggesting their participation in pathogenesis.
  • Kakela, Pirjo; Mannisto, Ville; Ilves, Imre; Vaittinen, Maija; Tauriainen, Milla-Maria; Eskelinen, Matti; Gylling, Helena; Paajanen, Hannu; Pihlajamaki, Jussi (2017)
    Gallstone disease (GD) has been associated with low serum levels of plant sterols. We evaluated the impact of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) on the association of GD with low levels of serum plant sterols. Two hundred forty-two consecutive morbidly obese patients were recruited to this prospective study. Histological analysis of liver biopsy to diagnose NAFLD was performed. Bile sample was taken during the LRYGB. Associations of GD with serum non-cholesterol sterol to cholesterol ratios, measured using gas liquid chromatography and with mRNA expression of genes participating in the cholesterol, bile, and fatty acid metabolism in the liver, were analyzed. Out of the 242 participants, 95 had GD. Lower weight (p = 0.002) and female sex (p = 0.0006) were associated with GD. Serum plant sterols, campesterol (p = 0.003), sitosterol (p = 0.002), and avenasterol (p = 0.015), were lower in patients with GD compared to those without GD. This association remained significant after adjustment for NAFLD, use of statin medication, and previous laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LCC). Levels of sitosterol (p = 0.001) and campesterol (p = 0.001) remained lower in obese individuals with GD also after obesity surgery. Liver mRNA expression of genes regulating cholesterol synthesis and bile metabolism was increased in individuals with GD. Serum plant sterols were lower in patients with GD independent of NAFLD, history of LCC, use of statin medication, and weight loss after LRYGB. Low serum plant sterols in patients with GD suggest potentially inherited alterations in sterol absorption and biliary transport in subjects susceptible for GD.