Browsing by Subject "Plantation"

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  • Krisnawati, H.; Kallio, Maarit; Kanninen, M (Center for International Forestry Research, 2011)
  • Minoia, Paola (2020)
    In this paper, the focus is on land dispossession instigated by large corporations, and the way they produce spaces of colonial persistence through particular structures and sovereignty systems that differ from the state-based administrative settings in which they are located. The study looks at phenomena that can be observed on large agricultural estates, particularly in the Teita sisal plantation in Taita-Taveta county in Kenya. This is one of the largest sisal estates in the world, established during colonial times. It is a corporation that uses migrant workers to avoid potential conflicts with the neighbouring communities which still consider those fields to be their own ancestral land. Different working tasks are racialized, and functioning bodies are exploited as resources that have to be maximised. Inside the camp, life and work are regulated with meticulous biopolitical order in restricted conditions. Patrolled borders and gates maintain distance from the local communities who claim the estate is expanding, dispossessing them of land, roads and the river, and repositioning them as squatters on what they see as their ancestral land. In relation to this private company, the national state values its taxation contributions and does not question the exceptional conditions of exploitation of human and environmental resources occurring within that space. The estate was accessed in 2013 and interviews took place then and later. This case study reveals situations of oppression on both sides of the estate borders, including struggles that remain fragmented and hidden. There is a need for new solidarity linkages between groups confronting land and other resource dispossession on a wider scale, to support their political empowerment and rights to human and environmental justice.
  • Nummelin, M.; Zilihona, I.J.E. (Elsevier B.V., 2004)
    The structure of arthropod communities in the forest floor vegetation in four differently managed forest sites (virgin forest, lightly selectively logged, heavily selectively logged, and exotic Pinus caribaea plantation) in Kibale Forest National Park, western Uganda, was studied by sweep net between March and May 1985 and July 1995. For the analysis three (or four) 800 sweeps samples were collected from each habitat. In the samples eight arthropod groups (Araneae, Hymenoptera, Heteroptera, Homoptera, Coleoptera, Orthoptera, Lepidoptera, caterpillars (Lepidoptera larvae)) formed over 95% of all the individuals of the arthropod caught in all habitats. The variation within one habitat was smaller than variation between habitats in samples of the same year. Thus, the arthropod communities in differently managed forests differ from each other after over 20 years of management practices (selective logging and clear-cut plus pine plantation) as well as from adjacent virgin forest, and the differences seem to become greater during the succession in managed sites. Samples taken in the same habitat type, 10 years apart, differed greatly from each other. This is the result of both long-term succession and seasonal variation.
  • Malkamäki, Arttu; D'amato, Dalia; Hogarth, Nicholas; Kanninen, Markku Tapani; Pirard, Romain; Toppinen, Anne Maarit Kristiina; Zhou, Wen (Center for International Forestry Research, 2017)
    Background. To meet increasing demand for forest products and services, the global area of planted forests has increased dramatically over the past 25 years. Further increases in large-scale tree plantations are expected due to their high productivity, economic profitability and contribution to climate change mitigation targets. This raises questions about their long-term sustainability, as well as their impacts on forest ecosystem services and local livelihoods, particularly in countries characterized by rural poverty and insecure property rights. Previous studies have revealed mixed impacts, but there is a lack of research on the contexts and practices that can contribute to positive and/or negative socioeconomic impacts. This protocol provides guidelines for a systematic review that synthesizes the current literature on the direct and indirect impacts of large-scale plantations on local communities, and which will also identify trends, bias and gaps in the empirical evidence base. Methods. The primary research question of the systematic review asks “What are the direct and indirect socioeconomic impacts of large-scale tree plantations on local human populations?” We apply a Population-Exposure-Comparator-Outcome-Context (PECOC) framework to structure each stage of the systematic review, which comprises a comprehensive literature search, screening, quality assessment, data extraction and analysis.We define the exposure of interest to be the establishment or management of a large-scale tree plantation by external actors, population of interest as households and communities living in close proximity to plantation sites, comparators as other communities who have not experienced the same exposure as well as the same communities prior to plantation establishment, outcomes as the direct or indirect socioeconomic impacts felt by the population as a result of plantation establishment, and context as the social, political and environmental factors that may have led to differences in experienced impacts. We will search multiple bibliographic databases and organizational websites for relevant studies in both the published and grey literatures. These results will be screened by their titles and abstracts followed by their full texts based on predetermined eligibility criteria. To ensure that selected studies have controlled for potential biases, quality assessment will then take place alongside data extraction. Finally, the results of quantitative and qualitative analyses will be reported in a narrative synthesis.