Browsing by Subject "Platonism"

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  • Backman, Jussi (2007)
    The paper studies a transcript of notes from Heidegger's 1930–31 seminar on Plato’s Parmenides. It shows that in spite of his much-criticized habit of dismissing Plato as the progenitor of “idealist” metaphysics, Heidegger was quite aware of the radical potential of Plato's later dialogues. Through a temporal account of the notion of oneness (to hen), the Parmenides attempts to reconcile the plurality of beings with the unity of being. In Heidegger’s reading, the dialogue culminates in the notion of the “instant” (to exaiphnes, Augenblick) in which the temporal plurality of presence and nonpresence converges into a unified disclosure.
  • Riggs, Timothy Charles (2016)
    The concept of recognition is increasingly gaining in importance in political and social philosophy as a means of explaining and dealing conceptually with the problems of multiculturalism. Nevertheless, the phenomena which this concept signifies, namely human capacities for intersubjectivity, belong to human beings even before the development of the modern concept. This article explores how the content of the concept of recognition plays a role in two Platonic philosophies of Late Antiquity, those of the Neoplatonic philosopher Proclus and the Christian philosopher, monk and lay theologian Maximus the Confessor. It is shown that their versions of a metaphysics of the Good provides the foundation for a moral and ethical vision of human life which makes recognitive judgments – which make acts of recognition possible – a necessity for human action. Although proper recognition pertains to the rational recognition of the First Cause as the true end of all human action, nevertheless Proclus and Maximus make recognitive judgments not only possible but a necessary function of even the lower, irrational faculties of soul. In this way, they explain how human beings have an innate capacity at all levels of cognition for recognizing things and other people as goods to be pursued or avoided.
  • Kaalikoski, Katri (2002)
    This doctoral dissertation consists of eight articles and a summary. The subject of the study is the ethical theory of the British philosopher Iris Murdoch (1919-1999). The articles highlight two interrelated lines of significance in Murdoch's thought. First, the study focuses on Murdoch's approach to questions concerning the way in which philosophy pictures the relation between the 'self' and the world. The main question is in which ways the individual person and the character of human experience is described and pictured in modern moral philosophy and what are the consequences of these different pictures to the lives and experiences of individual persons. The second line of Murdoch's thought the study follows is the criticism she directs towards modern moral philosophy and especially towards noncognitivistic ethics. Murdoch's position as a predecessor of new moral realism as well as her role in development of contemporary moral theory is emphasised. Murdoch's criticism of noncognitivism and her cognitivistic moral realism is construed as having an ideological basis which is connected with the problem concerning the relation between the 'self' and the surrounding world and that goes back to nineteenth century Millian liberalism. Murdoch's idea of the relation between language and the world as well as her view of the relation between the 'self' and the world is explained in terms of Platonistic metaphysics. Her metaphysical moral theory is seen as a platonistic-pramatistic theory, where the idea of the platonistic Good as a primary moral concept connects with liberal-political goals: the aim is to create, on a basis of a new picture of human reality, new naturalistic ethics. On a personal level naturalistic ethics could offer a solid foundation to private moral reflection and on the public level it could function as a ground for social and political ethical theory.
  • Miroshnikov, Ivan (Brill, 2018)
    In The Gospel of Thomas and Plato, Ivan Miroshnikov contributes to the study of the earliest Christian engagements with philosophy by offering the first systematic discussion of the impact of Platonism on the Gospel of Thomas, one of the most intriguing and cryptic works among the Nag Hammadi writings. Miroshnikov demonstrates that a Platonist lens is indispensable to the understanding of a number of the Thomasine sayings that have, for decades, remained elusive as exegetical cruces. The Gospel of Thomas is thus an important witness to the early stages of the process that eventually led to the Platonist formulation of certain Christian dogmata.