Browsing by Subject "Policy"

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  • Coccolini, Federico; Cicuttin, Enrico; Cremonini, Camilla; Tartaglia, Dario; Viaggi, Bruno; Kuriyama, Akira; Picetti, Edoardo; Ball, Chad; Abu-Zidan, Fikri; Ceresoli, Marco; Turri, Bruno; Jain, Sumita; Palombo, Carlo; Guirao, Xavier; Rodrigues, Gabriel; Gachabayov, Mahir; Machado, Fernando; Eftychios, Lostoridis; Kanj, Souha S.; Di Carlo, Isidoro; Di Saverio, Salomone; Khokha, Vladimir; Kirkpatrick, Andrew; Massalou, Damien; Forfori, Francesco; Corradi, Francesco; Delibegovic, Samir; Machain Vega, Gustavo M.; Fantoni, Massimo; Demetriades, Demetrios; Kapoor, Garima; Kluger, Yoram; Ansari, Shamshul; Maier, Ron; Leppaniemi, Ari; Hardcastle, Timothy; Vereczkei, Andras; Karamagioli, Evika; Pikoulis, Emmanouil; Pistello, Mauro; Sakakushev, Boris E.; Navsaria, Pradeep H.; Galeiras, Rita; Yahya, Ali I.; Osipov, Aleksei V.; Dimitrov, Evgeni; Doklestic, Krstina; Pisano, Michele; Malacarne, Paolo; Carcoforo, Paolo; Sibilla, Maria Grazia; Kryvoruchko, Igor A.; Bonavina, Luigi; Kim, Jae Il; Shelat, Vishal G.; Czepiel, Jacek; Maseda, Emilio; Marwah, Sanjay; Chirica, Mircea; Biancofiore, Giandomenico; Podda, Mauro; Cobianchi, Lorenzo; Ansaloni, Luca; Fugazzola, Paola; Seretis, Charalampos; Gomez, Carlos Augusto; Tumietto, Fabio; Malbrain, Manu; Reichert, Martin; Augustin, Goran; Amato, Bruno; Puzziello, Alessandro; Hecker, Andreas; Gemignani, Angelo; Isik, Arda; Cucchetti, Alessandro; Nacoti, Mirco; Kopelman, Doron; Mesina, Cristian; Ghannam, Wagih; Ben-Ishay, Offir; Dhingra, Sameer; Coimbra, Raul; Moore, Ernest E.; Cui, Yunfeng; Quiodettis, Martha A.; Bala, Miklosh; Testini, Mario; Diaz, Jose; Girardis, Massimo; Biffl, Walter L.; Hecker, Matthias; Sall, Ibrahima; Boggi, Ugo; Materazzi, Gabriele; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo; Matsumoto, Junichi; Zuidema, Wietse P.; Ivatury, Rao; Enani, Mushira A.; Litvin, Andrey; Al-Hasan, Majdi N.; Demetrashvili, Zaza; Baraket, Oussama; Ordonez, Carlos A.; Negoi, Ionut; Kiguba, Ronald; Memish, Ziad A.; Elmangory, Mutasim M.; Tolonen, Matti; Das, Korey; Ribeiro, Julival; O'Connor, Donal B.; Tan, Boun Kim; Van Goor, Harry; Baral, Suman; De Simone, Belinda; Corbella, Davide; Brambillasca, Pietro; Scaglione, Michelangelo; Basolo, Fulvio; De'Angelis, Nicola; Bendinelli, Cino; Weber, Dieter; Pagani, Leonardo; Monti, Cinzia; Baiocchi, Gianluca; Chiarugi, Massimo; Catena, Fausto; Sartelli, Massimo (2021)
    On January 2020, the WHO Director General declared that the outbreak constitutes a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. The world has faced a worldwide spread crisis and is still dealing with it. The present paper represents a white paper concerning the tough lessons we have learned from the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, an international and heterogenous multidisciplinary panel of very differentiated people would like to share global experiences and lessons with all interested and especially those responsible for future healthcare decision making. With the present paper, international and heterogenous multidisciplinary panel of very differentiated people would like to share global experiences and lessons with all interested and especially those responsible for future healthcare decision making.
  • Teucher, Mike; Schmitt, Christine B.; Wiese, Anja; Apfelbeck, Beate; Maghenda, Marianne; Pellikka, Petri; Lens, Luc; Habel, Jan Christian (2020)
    Habitat destruction and deterioration are amongst the main drivers of biodiversity loss. Increasing demand for agricultural products, timber and charcoal has caused the rapid destruction of natural forests, especially in the tropics. The Taita Hills in southern Kenya are part of the Eastern Afromontane Biodiversity Hotspot and represent a highly diverse cloud forest ecosystem. However, the cloud forest suffers extremely from wood and timber exploitation and transformation into exotic tree plantations and agricultural fields. Existing conservation regulations and moratoriums aim to prevent further forest destruction. In this study, we analyzed land cover change and shifts in landscape configuration for a fraction of the Taita Hills, based on satellite imageries for the years 2003, 2011 and 2018. We found that the coverage of natural cloud forest further decreased between 2003 and 2018, despite the effort to conserve the remaining cloud forest patches and to reforest degraded areas by various conservation and management initiatives. In parallel, the proportion of exotic tree plantations and bushland strongly increased. Moreover, mean natural forest patch size decreased and the degree of interspersion with other land cover types increased notably. Logging bans for indigenous trees seem to have resulted in local opposition to the planting of indigenous trees and thereby hindered the recovering of the cloud forest. We suggest to enhance local awareness on the ecological value of the natural forest by community-based Conservation Forest Associations and to encourage the planting of indigenous tree species in farmer-owned woodlots. Besides, bottom-up management systems that allow for local participation in decision-making and benefit-sharing related to forest resources would be a way forward to achieve the sustainable use and conservation of the last remaining natural forest patches in the Taita Hills. (C) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Cadilhac, Dominique A.; Dewey, Helen M.; Denisenko, Sonia; Bladin, Christopher F.; Meretoja, Atte (2019)
    BackgroundHospital costs for stroke are increasing and variability in care quality creates inefficiencies. In 2007, the Victorian Government (Australia) employed clinical facilitators for three years in eight public hospitals to improve stroke care. Literature on the cost implications of such roles is rare. We report changes in the costs of acute stroke care following implementation of this program.MethodsObservational controlled before-and-after cohort design. Standardised hospital costing data were compared pre-program (financial year 2006-07) and post-program (2010-11) for all admitted episodes of stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) using ICD-10 discharge codes. Costs in Australian dollars (AUD) were adjusted to a common year 2010. Generalised linear regression models were used for adjusted comparisons.ResultsA 20% increase in stroke and TIA episodes was observed: 2624 pre-program (age>75years: 53%) and 3142 post-program (age>75years: 51%); largely explained by more TIA admissions (up from 785 to 1072). Average length of stay reduced by 22% (pre-program 7.3days to post-program 5.7days, p
  • Mozumder, Mohammad Mojibul Hoque; Shamsuzzaman, Md.Mostafa (2018)
    The present study provides a comprehensive synthesis of secondary data from available web-based published articles. Some stakeholders including community members, environmental and community NGOs, universities, research institutions, development agencies, donors are involved in the utilization of coastal services. The ecosystem services of the Bay of Bengal (BoB) are in danger due to overfishing, destructive fishing methods, sedimentation, and pollution. Hence, it is essential to utilize the resources sustainably for the betterment of coastal community livelihoods to receive continuous ecosystem services.
  • Palokangas, Tapio Kalervo (2019)
    I examine the welfare effects of emission permit trading in an economy where the use of energy in production generates welfare-harming emissions, there is a regulator that sets industry-specific emission permits and the industries influence the regulator by paying political contributions. I show that policy with nontraded emission permits establishes aggregate production efficiency. Emission permit trading hampers efficiency and welfare by increasing the use of emitting inputs in dirty and decreasing that in clean industries.
  • Toivonen, Ritva; Lilja, Anna; Vihemäki, Heini; Toppinen, Anne (2021)
    The forest sector can play a major role in the transformation to a sustainable bioeconomy, driven by climate change, population growth, and accelerated urbanization. However, in most contexts, the industrial wood construction markets, as a promising field for sustainable bioeconomy, are still at a niche level. The analysis in this study concerns the preferred future export markets for industrial wood construction for the Finnish wood construction industry, as viewed by a panel of industrial, policy and academic experts. The aim is to identify promising export markets for Finland, and to identify required pathways by 2030. A qualitative participatory backcasting method was applied to explore the future visions of the industrial wood construction (IWC) sector and its export markets, as well as the pathways from the current towards the envisioned future. Thirty-five experts formed a panel which produced five visions of the development of industrial wood construction sector exports from Finland, covering the period 2020-2030. All the visions foresaw that the domestic market needs to develop first, to build up the competencies needed to fuel the growth in the exports. Asia, particularly China with its rapidly growing markets, and Europe, with its growing sustainability awareness, commonly appeared as the most promising areas for export growth. The resulting visions differed in terms of export portfolios, varying from more traditional wood materials and products to product-service-solutions. The policy measures identified to accelerate the envisioned growth included harmonization of product and building standards and regulations in the Nordic region and beyond, developing the educational base, and using of digital solutions in building new networks and communication in the IWC sector.
  • Adebayo, Gabriel O; Mansikka, Jan-Erik (2018)
    This paper discusses citizenship in Finnish religious education (RE) in relation to human security. It traces the characteristics of human security that connect citizenship, religion, and education in Finnish policy documents. The article focuses on basic education (grades 7–9). Its data were analyzed employing qualitative content analysis (QCA). The findings indicate that citizenship in Finnish RE entails personal security concerns dealing with psychological and human rights issues. These are found to be essentially human security as conceptualized by the United Nations (UN). However, Finnish policy documents sparingly utilize human security in explicit terms. Finland rather emphasizes the practical applications of human security. Incorporation of explicit global citizen and human rights issues into RE in the new Finnish curriculum seems to project critical global citizenship. This is found to promote human security. Following Finland’s bid for practical application of human security, we recommend (but cautiously) that human security be explicitly integrated into the Finnish RE curriculum.
  • Vihemäki, Heini; Toppinen, Anne; Toivonen, Ritva (2020)
    Intermediaries can potentially help reduce institutional lock-ins that slow down sustainability transitions by influencing policy processes, because of their connectedness and often high level of legitimacy. In this paper, we analysed intermediaries seeking to accelerate the diffusion of wooden multi-storey construction (WMC) in Finland, their roles and engagement in policy processes. Increasing the use of wood in construction has high policy support nationally, backed up with climate and forest policies. Yet, market diffusion has been slow. The data consist of qualitative interviews of intermediaries and other actors, participatory observation and a review of secondary materials. The results reveal a complex set of intermediaries, including systemic, niche and regime-based ones. The intermediaries are characterised by multiple goals, partly overlapping roles and means of policy influencing. The low degree of coordination among the intermediaries and the differences in their agenda for transition are critical challenges which limit the effectiveness of their actions.
  • Toivonen, Ritva; Vihemäki, Heini; Toppinen, Anne (2021)
    The development and acceleration of Wooden Multi-storey Construction (WMC) as a set of innovative building technologies has gained political support and attracted public interest in Finland, as in some other forest-rich European countries. The market share of WMC, however, remains low. The technological innovation system (TIS) around WMC in Finland has been assessed as being in its formative stages, but its governance remain poorly understood. This paper analyses policy narratives on WMC in Finland and reflects these against the governance of TIS. Thematic interviews with 17 experts were conducted in 2018–2019 and complemented with a review of secondary materials and observation in wood construction-related events. Four policy narratives were identified, out of which three were “pro-WMC”: (1) the bioeconomy narrative, which sees WMC as a means to advance a more sustainable bioeconomy (2) the climate change narrative, WMC as way to enhance low-carbon cities and building, and (3) the wood industry narrative, seeing WMC as a means to create demand for high-value wood-based products, and/or to reform the construction sector, whereas (4) the counter WMC narrative questioned the public sector's role in supporting WMC and the environmental benefits of WMC. The policy measures highlighted in these narratives to accelerate WMC varied highly, which demonstrates the contestations regarding goals and means of supporting the WMC niche. The absence of a common vision among the actors in the TIS does not result in an optimal and efficient platform for accelerating WMC market diffusion. Accordingly, the findings indicate the need for more coordinated efforts among the “pro-WMC” key players to empower the WMC niche effectively.
  • Tuomisto, Karolina; Tiittala, Paula; Keskimäki, Ilmo; Helve, Otto (2019)
    In 2015 Finland received an unprecedented number of asylum seekers, ten times more than in any previous year. This surge took place at a time the Finnish Government was busily undergoing a wide-range health and social care reform amid growing nationalist and populist sentiments. Our aim is to explore the governance of a parallel health system for asylum seekers with a right-to-health approach. We concentrated on three right to health features most related to the governance of asylum seeker health care, namely Formal recognition of the right to health, Standards and Coordination mechanisms. Through our qualitative review, we identified three major hurdles in the governance of the system for asylum seekers: 1) Ineffectual and reactive national level coordination and stewardship; 2) Inadequate legislative and supervisory frameworks leading to ineffective governance; 3) Discrepancies between constitutional rights to health, legal entitlements to services and guidance available. This first-time large-scale implementation of the policies exposed weaknesses in the legal framework and the parallel health system. We recommend the removal of the parallel system and the integration of asylum seekers' health services to the national public health care system. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Heinikoski, Saila (2020)
    Professor of Politics Emeritus at New York University, Martin A Schain, shows in The Border: Policy and Politics in Europe and the United States that border and migration management in the European Union (EU) and the United States of America (US) are not as different as we might think. He illustrates similarities in the attempts to curb undocumented migration and simultaneous efforts to attract labour force. The period of the book spans from the 1990s to 2017-2018, depending on the topic. It provides an outline of border management and migration in Europe and the US, with plenty or numerical data and overview of legal and political changes in approaches to migration.
  • Hyytiä, K Annika (International Association for Economics and Management in Wood Processing and Furniture Manufacturing - WoodEMA & University of Ljubljana, 2021)
    Policies with sustainable development approach provide new opportunities in the forest sector. Several international and national policies are involved with sustainable development of natural resources of forests. Bioeconomy includes ecosystem services and promotes value chain based on forest ecosystem services. The European Green Deal is a current new policy. The Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR, can also be seen in the EU FLEGT policy. Bio-based solutions are important also for the future. Sustainable policies are well recognized in the strive for sustainable development and they have a link to trade, competitiveness, markets and economy. Enhanced innovation constitutes in an important role there. This is a qualitative research based on academic research databases and policy literature.
  • Salomaa, Anna; Paloniemi, Riikka; Ekroos, Ari (2018)
    Peatlands that are close to a natural state are rich in biodiversity and are significant carbon storages. Simultaneously, peat resources are of interest to industry, which leads to competing interests and tensions regarding the use and management of peatlands. In this case study, we studied knowledge-management interactions through the development of participation and the resulting representation of nature (how nature was described), as well as the proposed and implemented conservation policy instruments. We focused on the years 2009-2015, when peatland management was intensively debated in Finland. We did an interpretative policy analysis using policy documents (Peatland Strategy; Government Resolution; Proposal for Conservation Programme) and environmental legislation as central data. Our results show how the representation of nature reflected the purpose of the documents and consensus of participants' values. The representation of nature changed from skewed use of ecosystem services to detailed ecological knowledge. However, simultaneously, political power changed and the planned supplementation programme for peatland conservation was not implemented. The Environment Protection Act was reformulated so that it prohibited the use of the most valuable peatlands. Landowners did not have the chance to fully participate in the policy process. Overall, the conservation policy instruments changed to emphasize voluntariness but without an adequate budget to ensure sufficient conservation.
  • Morone, Piergiuseppe; D'amato, Dalia (2019)
    As bio-based chemicals become more technically and financially competitive, spurring the further development of the chemical industry, they are also presented as more sustainable alternatives to petrol-based chemicals. We argue that an ad hoc and coordinated regulatory and standards framework channeling sustainability efforts would legitimize sustainability claims for bio-based products.
  • Afrin, Tania (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    For 80 years, Pine Chemical Industries have used Crude Tall Oil (CTO) for a wide range of products. To fulfil the climate goal, the European Union (EU) has changed its policy by subsidizing renewable sources, which in turn has promoted CTO as a resource for biofuels. Also, Finland has followed the EU by setting the target for 2020. This research aims to analyze the role of CTO in Finnish bio-economy by focusing on the market dynamics and value network between biofuel and pine chemical industry after the new EU regulation. In addition, it forecast the optimal future end use market. The empirical study is based on qualitative data from five interviewees representing a forest company, two biochemical companies, a research institute and a consulting firm. This study showed that the double carbon benefit supported the increase in demand of CTO. The import also increased to produce biodiesel. In addition, biofuel companies have more purchasing power. Also, decrease in export and price fluctuation has been observed. Strategically, this has directed the biochemical companies to decrease their fixed costs. UPM, Forchem and Kraton are the key players using more than two times CTO where one fourth is used for biodiesel. If available enough, both sectors will have an impact on Finnish bio economy. The double counting has helped Finland to reach EU renewable energy quota for traffic fuel distribution. However, this study also showed that it is not beneficial to invest heavily based on subsidies. Both Biofuel and Biochemical Companies should consider CTO as a competitive product even without the subsidy. It is resource-efficient to use the functionality of the molecule and long value chain to produce diversified product. There should also be room for R&D and innovation. It is for example possible to produce biodiesel from other sources including waste and animal fat. If there is scarcity, then it would be wiser to produce biochemicals rather than biodiesel for maximum economic benefit. New holistic regulations are needed from Finnish authorities. The policy should consider equal access to the raw material, the higher value of the product, free market mechanism without any distortion, stable and balance operating environment for all its bio-based industries. Consumer awareness and motivation should be increased. Cross-industry collaboration, networking and integrating is also essential. Overall, co-operation rather than competition is needed from both biochemical and biodiesel sides.
  • McAlpine, Lynn; Castello, Montserrat; Pyhältö, Kirsi (2020)
    During the past two decades, PhD graduate numbers have increased dramatically with graduates viewed by governments as a means to advance the knowledge economy and international competitiveness. Concurrently, universities have also invested in policies to monitor satisfaction, retention, and timely completion-and researchers have expanded the study of PhD experience. We, as such researchers, have increasingly received invitations from university decision-makers to present research evidence which might guide their doctoral programs. Their interest provoked us to do a qualitative systematized review of research on doctoral experience-seeking evidence of practices that influenced retention, satisfaction, and completion. The result contributes a synthesis of the critical research evidence that could be used to inform doctoral education policy. We also demonstrate the possibilities of such evidence by suggesting some potential recommendations, while recognizing that there is no direct relationship between research results and their transformation into particular institutional contexts in ways that enhance doctoral experience. We hope our initiative will be taken up and extended by other researchers, particularly the research gaps we note, so we can collectively support the use of research evidence to influence both doctoral policies and practices-with the goal to better prepare PhD researchers for their futures and better support their supervisors.