Browsing by Subject "Political economy"

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  • Ollinaho, Ossi; Kröger, Markus (2021)
    This article canvasses the current definitions and framings of “agroforestry” in different academic literature and policies. Three key framings of “agroforestry” are identified in the scholarship and explored for their differences. The findings suggest that the distinct schools of research on “agroforestry” focus on distinct points of departure, and these baseline situations from which transitions to what is called “agroforestry” occur vary in distinct ways from monoculture plantations to primary forests. Political-economic analysis is used to scrutinize three key “agroforestry” transition categories: agroecological, agribusiness, and forest degradation, which the article identifies as agroecoforestry (the good), agrobizforestry (the bad), and agrodeforestry (the ugly) transitions, respectively. Examples of each type are provided based on field research in Brazil, and the results are put into a global perspective. The categories are helpful in identifying the “agroforestry” transitions that are currently marketed as good solutions but might also have negative impacts and in highlighting the agroecological agroforestry transitions that would help simultaneously increase global food production, adapt to and mitigate the climate crisis, and achieve equity and social justice.
  • Patomäki, Heikki Olavi (2017)
  • Patomäki, Heikki Olavi (Routledge - Taylor & Francis Group, 2017)
    Rethinking Globalizations
    Whether we talk about human learning and unlearning, securitization, or political economy, the forces and mechanisms generating both globalization and disintegration are causally efficacious across the world. Thus, the processes that led to the victory of the ‘Leave’ campaign in the June 2016 referendum on UK European Union membership are not simply confined to the United Kingdom, or even Europe. Similarly, conflict in Ukraine and the presidency of Donald Trump hold implications for a stage much wider than EU-Russia or the United States alone. Patomäki explores the world-historical mechanisms and processes that have created the conditions for the world’s current predicaments and, arguably, involve potential for better futures. Operationally, he relies on the philosophy of dialectical critical realism and on the methods of contemporary social sciences, exploring how crises, learning and politics are interwoven through uneven wealth-accumulation and problematical growth-dynamics. Seeking to illuminate the causes of the currently prevailing tendencies towards disintegration, antagonism and – ultimately – war, he also shows how these developments are in fact embedded in deeper processes of human learning. The book embraces a Wellsian warning about the increasingly likely possibility of a military disaster, but its central objective is to further enlightenment and holoreflexivity within the current world-historical conjuncture. This work will be of interest to students and scholars of international relations, peace research, security studies and international political economy.
  • Frerichs, Sabine (2016)
    The Egyptian Revolution 2011 has its roots in neoliberal policies, the premises of which are not shared by a large part of the Egyptian population. Starting from the call for “bread, freedom, social justice”, this paper sheds light on the moral economy of the Egyptian people and finds the seeds of the revolution in a loss of entitlements which structural adjustment policies entailed for Egyptians as producers and consumers of bread, the symbol of life.
  • Morgan, Jamie; Patomäki, Heikki Olavi (2017)
  • Morgan, Jamie; Patomäki, Heikki Olavi (2017)
  • Lappi, Pauli (2021)
    The formation and allocation of an emission quota are analyzed in a common agency framework with two stages. First, the principals lobby for the size of the aggregate quota. Second, the principals lobby for the individual slices of the quota. It is shown that the slices are allocated such that the marginal profits of the principals are equalized and that the size of the aggregate quota is either set at the efficient level characterized by the Samuelson's rule for public goods or distorted from that level. When the quota is distorted from the efficient level it is set such that the aggregate marginal profit is less than the marginal damage, resulting in an overallocation of individual and aggregate quotas. However, efficient level of the quota is obtained in a reasonable special case in which countries take the role of the principals. The results are extended to cover tradable emission permits.