Browsing by Subject "Polygenic score"

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  • Merikanto, Ilona; Kuula, Liisa; Lahti, Jari; Raikkonen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina (2020)
    Objective: Adolescence is often associated with decline in physical activity (PA) and a circadian shift towards eveningness, but it is not known whether these transitions are intertwined. We explored longitudinally and in cross-section how chronotype and genetic liability for morningness associate with PA as self-reported and measured by actigraphy in early and late adolescence. Methods: Our sample comes from a longitudinal Finnish community-cohort born in 1998 with information on actigraph-based PA and objectively measured sleep-wake rhythm based on midpoint of sleep at ages 12 (N = 353, girls = 187) and 17 (N = 171, girls = 98). Information on self-reported circadian preference and subjective PA was available at age 17. The summarized genetic effects of multiple single nucleotide polymorphism for morningness was assessed by calculating polygenic score (PGS) based on the results on a recent genome-wide association study (GWAS). Results: PA declined by 40% (p <0.0001) in boys and by 32% in girls (p <0.0001) from age 12 to 17. Later midpoint of sleep correlated significantly with lower level of general, light and moderate to vigorous PA only at age 12 (all p <0.05) but not at age 17 (all p >= 0.36). However, those with circadian preference more towards eveningness at age 17 had more sedentary behavior (p <0.01) and a lower level of general (p = 0.01), light (p <0.01) and moderate to vigorous PA (p <0.05). They also had poorer subjective assessment of their fitness level (p <0.01) and they exercised less (all p = 0.13). Conclusions: Findings of this study highlighted the influence of circadian preference on physical activity behavior in adolescence. Self-assessed circadian preference towards eveningness associated with lower PA and greater decline of it during adolescence. Furthermore, PA declined significantly especially among boys from early to late adolescence. Interventions encouraging physical activity should target specifically evening-oriented adolescents. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Tölli, Pekka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Objectives: Cognitive abilities are highly heritable, but several other factors beyond genes also influence the realization of one’s genetic potential. The role of temperament potentially modifying the association between genes and actualized cognitive performance is not well understood. This study examined whether temperament is associated with cognitive performance and whether it modifies an association between genetic cognitive potential and cognitive test performance. Methods: The participants (n = 1,571, 56% female, 35-50 years) were from the population-based Young Finns Study. Temperament was assessed four times (1997, 2001, 2007, and 2012) with the Temperament and Character Inventory’s four dimensions: Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence and Persistence. Polygenic scores were calculated based on GWA studies to measure the genetic potential for cognitive performance. Cognitive performance was assessed in 2012 with four CANTAB tests: Visual memory, Reaction Time, Sustained Attention and Spatial Working Memory. Results: Temperament did not modify the realization of genetic potential for cognitive performance but had main effects on the performance: High Persistence was associated with higher visual memory, low Harm Avoidance with higher overall cognitive and reaction time performance, while Novelty Seeking and Reward Dependence had insignificant associations. Harm Avoidance’s subscale high Anticipatory Worry was associated with lower overall cognitive and visual memory performance and high Fatigability with lower reaction time and lower sustained attention performance. High Shyness with Strangers preceded higher visual memory performance. High Fear of Uncertainty was associated with lower visual memory, but higher sustained attention performance. Conclusions: Temperament does not seem to give an advantage or hindrance for an individual to realize their genetic potential for cognitive performance. High Persistence appears beneficial for cognitive performance, whereas high Harm Avoidance is detrimental in certain tasks but beneficial in others.
  • Silventoinen, K; Vuoksimaa, E; Volanen, SM; Palviainen, T; Rose, RJ; Suominen, S; Kaprio, J (2021)
    Purpose Sense of coherence (SOC) represents coping and can be considered an essential component of mental health. SOC correlates with mental health and personality, but the background of these associations is poorly understood. We analyzed the role of genetic factors behind the associations of SOC with mental health, self-esteem and personality using genetic twin modeling and polygenic scores (PGS). Methods Information on SOC (13-item Orientation of Life Questionnaire), four mental health indicators, self-esteem and personality (NEO Five Factor Inventory Questionnaire) was collected from 1295 Finnish twins at 20-27 years of age. Results In men and women, SOC correlated negatively with depression, alexithymia, schizotypal personality and overall mental health problems and positively with self-esteem. For personality factors, neuroticism was associated with weaker SOC and extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness with stronger SOC. All these psychological traits were influenced by genetic factors with heritability estimates ranging from 19 to 66%. Genetic and environmental factors explained these associations, but the genetic correlations were generally stronger. The PGS of major depressive disorder was associated with weaker, and the PGS of general risk tolerance with stronger SOC in men, whereas in women the PGS of subjective well-being was associated with stronger SOC and the PGSs of depression and neuroticism with weaker SOC. Conclusion Our results indicate that a substantial proportion of genetic variation in SOC is shared with mental health, self-esteem and personality indicators. This suggests that the correlations between these traits reflect a common neurobiological background rather than merely the influence of external stressors.