Browsing by Subject "Population study"

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  • Honkamäki, Jasmin; Piirilä, Päivi; Hisinger-Mölkänen, Hanna; Tuomisto, Leena E.; Andersen, Heidi; Huhtala, Heini; Sovijärvi, Anssi; Lindqvist, Ari; Backman, Helena; Lundbäck, Bo; Rönmark, Eva; Lehtimäki, Lauri; Pallasaho, Paula; Ilmarinen, Pinja; Kankaanranta, Hannu (2021)
    BACKGROUND: Child-onset asthma is known to remit with high probability, but remission in adult-onset asthma is seem-ingly less frequent. Reports of the association between remission and asthma age of onset up to late adulthood are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between asthma remission, age at diagnosis and gender, and assess risk factors of nonremission. METHODS: In 2016, a random sample of 16,000 subjects aged 20 to 69 years from Helsinki and Western Finland were sent a FinEsS questionnaire. Physician-diagnosed asthma was catego-rized by age at diagnosis to early-(0-11 years), intermediate-(12-39 years), and late-diagnosed (40-69 years) asthma. Asthma remission was defined by not having had asthma symptoms and not having used asthma medication in the past 12 months. RESULTS: Totally, 8199 (51.5%) responded, and 879 reported physician-diagnosed asthma. Remission was most common in early-diagnosed (30.2%), followed by intermediate-diagnosed (17.9%), and least common in late-diagnosed asthma (5.0%) (P < .001), and the median times from diagnosis were 27, 18.5, and 10 years, respectively. In males, the corresponding remission rates were 36.7%, 20.0%, and 3.4%, and in females, 20.4%, 16.6%, and 5.9% (gender difference P < .001). In multivariable binary logistic regression analysis, signifi-cant risk factors of asthma nonremission were intermediate (odds ratio [OR] = 2.15, 95% confidence interval: 1.373.36) and late diagnosis (OR = 11.06, 4.82-25.37) compared with early diagnosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR = 5.56, 1.26-24.49), allergic rhinitis (OR = 2.28, 1.50-3.46), and family history of asthma (OR = 1.86, 1.22-2.85). Results were similar after excluding COPD. CONCLUSION: Remission was rare in adults diagnosed with asthma after age 40 years in both genders. Late-diagnosed asthma was the most significant independent risk factor for nonremission. (C) 2020 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
  • Salonen, Anne H.; Castren, Sari; Raisamo, Susanna; Orford, Jim; Alho, Hannu; Lahti, Tuuli (2014)
    Background: Attitudes towards gambling influence gambling behaviour but also reflect the existing gambling policy in a society. However, studies examining general attitudes towards gambling at the population level are scarce. The first aim of this study was to investigate general attitudes of the Finnish population towards gambling. The second aim was to explore the association of socio-demographics, gambling behaviours, being a concerned significant other (CSO) of a problem gambler and perceived health and lifestyle with attitudes towards gambling among the Finnish population. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed by structured telephone interview on a random sample of 15-74-year-old Finns between October 2011 and January 2012. The data (n = 4484) was weighted based on age, gender and region of residence. Attitudes towards gambling were measured with the eight-item version of the Attitude Towards Gambling Scale (ATGS-8). A factor analysis was performed to test the structure of the Finnish version of the ATGS-8. The data were analysed using one-way ANOVA test, t-test and multiple regression analysis. Results: On average, attitudes of Finns towards gambling were negative. The most significant factors associated with positive attitudes towards gambling were male gender, young age, 12 years or more education and net income more than 2000(sic), low score on gambling severity, being a non-CSO of a problem gambler and high alcohol consumption Conclusions: The association between young age, male gender, high net income and risky alcohol consumption, and favourable gambling attitudes was strong, and also reflects risky gambling behaviour. Experiencing gambling-related harms caused by one's own or significant other's excessive gambling seems to indicate unfavourable attitudes towards gambling.
  • Salonen, Anne; Alho, Hannu; Castren, Sari (2017)
    Background: Information about public gambling attitudes and gambling participation is crucial for the effective prevention of gambling-related harm. This study investigates female and male attitudes towards gambling, gambling participation, and gambling-related harm in the Finnish population aged 15-74. Methods: Cross-sectional random sample data were collected in 2011 (n = 4484) and 2015 (n = 4515). The data were weighted based on gender, age and region of residence. Attitudes were measured using the Attitudes Towards Gambling Scale (ATGS-8). Gambling-related harms were studied using the Problem Gambling Severity Index and the South Oaks Gambling Screen. Results: Attitudes towards gambling became more positive from 2011 to 2015. Female attitudes were generally negative, but nonetheless moved in a positive direction except in age groups under 25. Occasional gambling increased among women aged 18-24. Women aged 18-24 and 45-54 experienced more harms in 2015 than in 2011. Both land and online gambling increased among women aged 65-74. Male attitudes towards gambling were generally positive, and became more positive from 2011 to 2015 in all age groups except 15-17. Weekly gambling decreased among males aged 15-17. Gambling overall increased among males aged 18-24. Gambling several times a week decreased among men aged 35-44 and 45-54, and gambling 1-3 times a month increased in the latter age group. Online gambling increased only among men aged 55-64. Conclusions: Attitudes towards gambling became more positive in all except the youngest age groups. Under-age male gambling continued to decrease. We need to make decision-makers better aware of the continuing growth of online gambling among older people and women's increasing experiences of gambling-related harm. This is vital to ensure more effective prevention.
  • Salonen, Anne H.; Kontto, Jukka; Perhoniemi, Riku; Alho, Hannu; Castren, Sari (2018)
    Background: Excessive expenditure and financial harms are core features of problem gambling. There are various forms of gambling and their nature varies. The aim was to measure gambling expenditure by game type while controlling for demographics and other gambling participation factors. A further aim was to find out how each game type was associated with gambling expenditure when the number of game types played is adjusted for. Methods: Using data from the 2015 Finnish Gambling survey on adult gamblers (n = 3555), multiple log-linear regression was used to examine the effects of demographics, gambling participation, and engaging in different game types on weekly gambling expenditure (WGE) and relative gambling expenditure (RGE). Background: Excessive expenditure and financial harms are core features of problem gambling. There are various forms of gambling and their nature varies. The aim was to measure gambling expenditure by game type while controlling for demographics and other gambling participation factors. A further aim was to find out how each game type was associated with gambling expenditure when the number of game types played is adjusted for. Conclusions: It seems that overall gambling frequency is the strongest indicator of high gambling expenditure. Our results showed that different game types had different effect sizes on gambling expenditure. Weekly gambling on horse races and non-monopoly games had the greatest increasing effect on expenditure. However, different game types also varied based on their popularity. The extent of potential harms caused by high expenditure therefore also varies on the population level. Based on our results, future prevention and harm minimization efforts should be tailored to different game types for greater effectiveness.
  • Suomela, Emmi; Oikonen, Mervi; Pitkanen, Niina; Ahola-Olli, Ari; Virtanen, Johanna; Parkkola, Riitta; Jokinen, Eero; Laitinen, Tomi; Hutri-Kahonen, Nina; Kahonen, Mika; Lehtimaki, Terho; Taittonen, Leena; Tossavainen, Paivi; Jula, Antti; Loom, Britt-Marie; Mikkila, Vera; Telama, Risto; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Juonala, Markus; Raitakari, Olli T. (2016)
    Background & Aims: Fatty liver is a potentially preventable cause of serious liver diseases. This longitudinal study aimed to identify childhood risk factors of fatty liver in adulthood in a population-based group of Finnish adults. Methods: Study cohort included 2,042 individuals from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study aged 3-18 years at baseline in 1980. During the latest follow-up in 2011, the liver was scanned by ultrasound. In addition to physical and environmental factors related to fatty liver, we examined whether the genetic risk posed by a single nucleotide polymorphism in the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 gene (PNPLA3) (rs738409) strengthens prediction of adult fatty liver. Results: Independent childhood predictors of adult fatty liver were small for gestational age, (odds ratio = 1.71, 95% confidence interval = 1.07-2.72), variant in PNPLA3 (1.63, 1.29-2.07 per one risk allele), variant in the transmembrane 6 superfamily 2 gene (TM6SF2) (1.57, 1.08-2.30), BMI (1.30, 1.07-1.59 per standard deviation) and insulin (1.25, 1.05-1.49 per standard deviation). Childhood blood pressure, physical activity, C-reactive protein, smoking, serum lipid levels or parental lifestyle factors did not predict fatty liver. Risk assessment based on childhood age, sex, BMI, insulin levels, birth weight, TM6SF2 and PNPLA3 was superior in predicting fatty liver compared with the approach using only age, sex, BMI and insulin levels (C statistics, 0.725 vs. 0.749; p = 0.002). Conclusions: Childhood risk factors on the development of fatty liver were small for gestational age, high insulin and high BMI. Prediction of adult fatty liver was enhanced by taking into account genetic variants in PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 genes. Lay summary: The increase in pediatric obesity emphasizes the importance of identification of children and adolescents at high risk of fatty liver in adulthood. We used data from the longitudinal Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study to examine the associations of childhood (3-18 years) risk variables with fatty liver assessed in adulthood at the age of 34-49 years. The findings suggest that a multifactorial approach with both lifestyle and genetic factors included would improve early identification of children with a high risk of adult fatty liver. (C) 2016 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Lindberg, Nina (2019)
    Background: Increasing numbers of adolescents are seeking treatment from gender identity services, particularly natal girls. It is known from survey studies some adolescents exaggerate their belonging to minorities, thereby distorting prevalence estimates and findings on related problems. The aim of the present study was to explore the susceptibility of gender identity to mischievous responding, and prevalences of cis-gender, opposite-sex and other/non-binary gender identities as corrected for likely mischievous responding among Finnish adolescents. Method: The School Health Promotion Survey 2017 data was used, comprising data on 135,760 adolescents under 21 years (mean 15.73, ds 1.3 years), 50.6% females and 49.4% males. Sex and perceived gender were elicited and gender identities classified based thereon. Likely mischievous responding was analysed using inappropriate responses to biodata and handicaps. Results: Of the participants, 3.5% had most likely given facetious responses, boys more commonly than girls, and younger adolescents more commonly than older. This particularly concerned reporting of nonbinary gender identity. Corrected prevalence of opposite-sex identification was 0.6% and that of nonbinary identification was 3.3%. In boys, displaying non-binary gender identity increased from early to late adolescence, while among girls, opposite-sex and non-binary identifications decreased in prevalence from younger to older age groups. Conclusion: Prevalence of gender identities contrary to one's natal sex was more common than expected. (c) 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • Istolahti, Tiia; Nieminen, Tuomo; Huhtala, Heini; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Eskola, Markku; Anttila, Ismo; Jula, Antti; Rissanen, Harri; Nikus, Kjell; Hernesniemi, Jussi (2020)
    Background: Even minor ST depression in the electrocardiogram (ECG) is associated with cardiovascular disease and increased mortality. There is limited data on the prognostic significance of ST-level changes in the general population. Subjects and methods: A random sample of Finnish subjects (n = 6354) aged over 30 years (56.1% women) underwent a health examination including a 12-lead ECG in the Health 2000 survey. The effects of relative ST level as a continuous variable and ST slope (upsloping, horizontal, downsloping) in three different lead groups were analyzed using a multi-adjusted Cox proportional hazard model separately for men and women with total mortality as endpoint. Results: The follow-up lasted for 13.7 (SD 3.3) years for men and 13.9 (SD 3.1) years for women. Lower lateral ST levels were associated with all-cause mortality in multi-adjusted models in both genders (at.) + 80 ms hazard ratio [HR] 0.64 for a change of 1.0 mm [95% confidence interval 0.49-0.84, p = 0.002] for men and HR 0.61 [0.48-0.78, p <0.001] for women). Associated coronary heart disease had no major influence on the results. Exclusion of subjects with ECG signs of left ventricular hypertrophy from the analyses increased the mortality risk of lower lateral ST levels in men but decreased it in women. For the anterior and inferior lead groups, no statistically significant difference was seen after multivariate adjustment. ST slope was not an independent predictor of mortality after multivariate adjustment Conclusion: Lower ST level in the lateral ECG leads is an independent prognostic factor to predict all-cause mortality in the general population. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Laine, Jaakko T.; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Salonen, Jukka T.; Virtanen, Jyrki K. (2020)
    Infections are one of the main causes of mortality in elderly due to the decrease of immune response, for which copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are claimed to be crucial. High serum copper-to-zinc-ratio (Cu/Zn-ratio) has been reported with infections, but little is known whether it could also predict the incidence of infections. The study cohort consisted of 1975 men aged 42-60 years and free of severe infectious disease at baseline in 1984-1989 from the prospective population-based Kuopio Ischaemic & xfeff; Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. The main outcome was an incident infection leading to hospitalization. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for statistical analysis. During the average follow-up of 19.2 years, 636 incident first cases of infections were diagnosed. The hazard ratio (HR) of developing an incident infectious disease in the highest compared to the lowest Cu/Zn-ratio quartile after adjustment for age and baseline examination year was 1.35 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07-1.69, P-trend across quartiles = 0.005]. The association was slightly attenuated after additional adjustment for potential confounders (HR = 1.21, 95% CI = 0.96-1.53, P-trend = 0.054). Furthermore, higher serum Cu concentration was associated with higher risk of an incident infection. The multivariable-adjusted HR was 1.39 (95% CI = 1.10-1.75, P-trend = 0.005) in the highest versus the lowest serum Cu quartile. Serum Zn concentration was not associated with the risk (multivariable-adjusted extreme-quartile HR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.67-1.04, P-trend = 0.218). In conclusion, our data suggest that an increased Cu/Zn-ratio and especially serum Cu concentration are associated with increased risk of incident infections in middle-aged and older men in Eastern Finland.