Browsing by Subject "Population"

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  • Aro, Aapo Lauri Aleksi; Phan, Derek; Teodorescu, Carmen; Uy-Evanado, Audrey; Reinier, Kyndaron; Gunson, Karen; Jui, Jonathan; Huikuri, Heikki V.; Chugh, Sumeet S. (2017)
    Delayed QRS transition zone in the precordial leads of the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) has been recently associated with increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD), but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We correlated echocardiographic findings with ECG and clinical characteristics to investigate how alterations in cardiac structure and function contribute to this risk marker. From the ongoing population-based Oregon Sudden Unexpected Death Study (catchment population similar to 1 million), SCD cases with prior ECG available (n = 627) were compared with controls (n = 801). Subjects with delayed transition at V-5 or later were identified, and clinical and echocardiographic patterns associated with delayed transition were analysed. Delayed transition was present in 31% of the SCD cases and 17% of the controls. These subjects were older and more likely to have cardiovascular risk factors and history of myocardial infarction. Delayed transition was associated with increased left ventricular (LV) mass (122.7 +/- 40.2 vs. 102.9 +/- 33.7 g/m(2); P <0.001), larger LV diameter (53.3 +/- 10.4 vs. 49.2 +/- 8.0 mm; P <0.001), and lower LV ejection fraction (LVEF) (46.4 +/- 15.7 vs. 55.6 +/- 12.5%; P <0.001). In multivariate analysis, delayed transition was independently associated with myocardial infarction, reduced LVEF, and LV hypertrophy. The association between delayed transition and SCD was independent of the LVEF (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.04-2.38; P = 0.032). The underpinnings of delayed QRS transition zone extend beyond previous myocardial infarction and reduced LVEF. Since the association with sudden death is independent of these factors, this novel marker of myocardial electrical remodelling should be explored as a potential risk predictor of SCD.
  • Hublin, Christer; Haasio, Lassi; Kaprio, Jaakko (2020)
    Background: Sleep deprivation is often claimed to be increasingly common, but most studies show small changes in sleep duration over the last decades. Our aim was to analyze long-term patterns in self-reported sleep duration in a population-based cohort. Methods: Members of the Older Finnish Twin Cohort have responded to questionnaires in 1975 (N = 30,915 individuals, response rate 89%, mean age 36 years), 1981 (24,535, 84%, 41 years), 1990 (12,450, 77%, 44 years), and 2011 (8334, 72%, 60 years). Weibull regression models were used to model the effects of follow-up time and age simultaneously. Results: Sleep duration has decreased in all adult age groups and in both genders. The mean duration was in men 7.57 h in 1975 and 7.39 in 2011, and in women 7.69 and 7.37, respectively. The decrease was about 0.5 min in men and 0.9 in women per year of follow-up. In the age-group 18-34 years, mean sleep length was 7.69 h in 1975 and 7.53 in 1990. Among 35-54-year-old it was 7.57 h in 1975 and 7.34 in 2011, and in the age group of 55+ year olds 7.52 and 7.38, correspondingly. The change was largest in middle-aged group: about 23 min or about 0.6 min per year of follow-up. Conclusions: There has been a slight decrease in mean sleep duration during the 36-year follow-up. Although the sleep duration was longer in 1970s and 1980s, the probable main cause for the change in this study population is the effect of aging.
  • Hublin, Christer; Haasio, Lassi; Kaprio, Jaakko (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background Sleep deprivation is often claimed to be increasingly common, but most studies show small changes in sleep duration over the last decades. Our aim was to analyze long-term patterns in self-reported sleep duration in a population-based cohort. Methods Members of the Older Finnish Twin Cohort have responded to questionnaires in 1975 (N = 30,915 individuals, response rate 89%, mean age 36 years), 1981 (24,535, 84%, 41 years), 1990 (12,450, 77%, 44 years), and 2011 (8334, 72%, 60 years). Weibull regression models were used to model the effects of follow-up time and age simultaneously. Results Sleep duration has decreased in all adult age groups and in both genders. The mean duration was in men 7.57 h in 1975 and 7.39 in 2011, and in women 7.69 and 7.37, respectively. The decrease was about 0.5 min in men and 0.9 in women per year of follow-up. In the age-group 18–34 years, mean sleep length was 7.69 h in 1975 and 7.53 in 1990. Among 35–54-year-old it was 7.57 h in 1975 and 7.34 in 2011, and in the age group of 55+ year olds 7.52 and 7.38, correspondingly. The change was largest in middle-aged group: about 23 min or about 0.6 min per year of follow-up. Conclusions There has been a slight decrease in mean sleep duration during the 36-year follow-up. Although the sleep duration was longer in 1970s and 1980s, the probable main cause for the change in this study population is the effect of aging.
  • Honkalampi, Kirsi; Virtanen, Marianna; Hintsa, Taina; Ruusunen, Anu; Mantyselka, Pekka; Ali-Sisto, Toni; Karkkainen, Olli; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Valkonen-Korhonen, Minna; Panayiotou, Georgia; Lehto, Soili M. (2021)
    Objective: We compared the level of allostatic load (AL) between patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and non-depressed controls using two definitions of AL: continuous AL scores (AL index) and clinically significant high AL (>4). We examined whether MDD was associated with AL independent of basic socioeconomic (age, sex, cohabiting status and level of education) and lifestyle factors (smoking and alcohol use). Methods: The MDD patient sample consisted of 177 psychiatric outpatients (mean age 33.7, SD 10.7 years), who were recruited from the Department of Psychiatry at Kuopio University Hospital, Finland, in 2016?19. The nondepressed controls (n = 228, mean age 49.8, SD 10.1 years) lived in the municipality of Lapinlahti, Finland. Ten biomarkers were used to construct the two AL variables. These indicators were systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, creatinine, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Results: The mean AL scores did not significantly differ between MDD patients (2.97) and non-depressed controls (3.12), thus it was not associated with MDD in univariate analysis. In multivariate models a higher AL index was associated with a 1.42 to 1.82 times higher likelihood of belonging to the MDD group. Furthermore, we found that high AL (i.e. AL > 4) was associated with MDD, with the likelihood ranging between 2.27 and 2.96 compared with the non-depressed controls in multivariate models. Conclusions: Even young adult patients with MDD appear to display clinically significant, high AL compared with non-depressed controls. Thus, it is important to pay attention to the somatic health of depressed patients in addition to their mental health.
  • Vähämurto, Lauri; Pahkala, Katja; Magnussen, Costan G.; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Kähönen, Mika; Laitinen, Tomi; Taittonen, Leena; Tossavainen, Päivi; Lehtimäki, Terho; Jokinen, Eero; Telama, Risto; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Viikari, Jorma; Juonala, Markus; Raitakari, Olli T. (2019)
    Background and aims: In the 1960s and 1970s, Finland, mortality due to coronary heart disease (CHD) was over 30% higher among Finns residing in the east of the country compared with those residing in the west. Today, CHD mortality remains 20% higher among eastern Finns. The higher incidence of CHD mortality among eastern Finns has largely been explained by higher risk factor levels. Using a unique longitudinal cohort, we aimed to determine if participants who resided in eastern Finland during childhood had higher CHD risk factors in adulthood and from childhood to adulthood. Methods: The study population included 2063 participants of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, born during the period 1962-1977, with risk factor data available from baseline (1980) when participants were aged 3-18 years, and had risk factor data collected again in adulthood (2011) when aged 34-49 years. Results: Adult CHD risk factor profile was similar for those who resided in eastern or western Finland in childhood. Over life-course from 1980 to 2011, those subjects with childhood residency in eastern Finland had, on average, higher systolic (p = 0.006) and diastolic (p = 0.0009) blood pressures, total (p = 0.01) and LDLcholesterol (p = 0.01), triglycerides (p = 0.04), apoB (p = 0.02), and serum glucose (p Conclusions: Our sample of adult Finns aged 34-49 years had a similar CHD risk factor profile irrespective of whether they resided in eastern or western Finland during their childhood. However, when considering participants risk factor profiles over a 31-year period, those who resided in eastern Finland in childhood were associated with a less favorable CHD risk factor profile than those who resided in western Finland in childhood. The observed differences suggest that future CHD mortality might remain higher in eastern Finland compared with western Finland.
  • Kovanen, Leena; Donner, Kati; Kaunisto, Mari; Partonen, Timo (2016)
    Cryptochromes are key components of the circadian clocks that generate and maintain seasonal variations. The aim of our study was to analyze the associations of CRY1 and CRY2 genetic variants with the problematicity of seasonal variations, and whether the problematicity of seasonal variations changed during the follow-up of 11 years. Altogether 21 CRY1 and 16 CRY2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped and analyzed in 5910 individuals from a Finnish nationwide population-based sample who had filled in the self-report on the seasonal variations in mood and behavior in the year 2000. In the year 2011, 3356 of these individuals filled in the same self-report on the seasonal variations in mood and behavior. Regression models were used to test whether any of the SNPs associated with the problematicity of seasonal variations or with a change in the problematicity from 2000 to 2011. In the longitudinal analysis, CRY2 SNP rs61884508 was protective from worsening of problematicity of seasonal variations. In the cross-sectional analysis, CRY2 SNP rs72902437 showed evidence of association with problematicity of seasonal variations, as did SNP rs1554338 (in the MAPK8IP1 and downstream of CRY2). (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Elovainio, Marko; Hakulinen, Christian; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Aalto, Anna-Mari; Virtanen, Marianna; Partonen, Timo; Suvisaari, Jaana (2020)
    The short versions of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI-6), and Mental Health Index (MHI-5) are all valid and reliable measures of general psychological distress, depressive symptoms, and anxiety. We tested the psychometric properties of the scales, their overlap, and their ability to predict mental health service use using both regression and machine learning (ML, random forest) approaches. Data were from the population-based FinHealth-2017 Study of adults (N = 4270) with data on all of the evaluated instruments. Constructive validity, internal consistency, invariance, and optimal cut-off points in predicting mental health services were tested. Constructive validity was acceptable and all instruments measured their own distinct phenomenon. Some of the item scoring in BDI-6 was not optimal, and the sensitivity and specificity of all scales were relatively weak in predicting service use. Small gender differences emerged in optimal cut-off points. ML did not improve model predictions. GHQ-12, BDI-6, and MHI-5 may be interpreted to measure different constructs of psychological health symptoms, but are not particularly useful predictors of service use.
  • Vähämurto, L.; Juonala, M.; Ruohonen, S.; Hutri-Kähönen, N.; Kähönen, M.; Laitinen, T.; Tossavainen, P.; Jokinen, E.; Viikari, J.; Raitakari, O. T.; Pahkala, K. (2018)
    Aims: Eastern Finns have higher risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and carotid intima-media thickness than western Finns although current differences in CHD risk factors are minimal. Left ventricular (LV) mass and diastolic function predict future cardiovascular events but their east-west differences are unknown. We examined the association of eastern/western baseline origin with LV mass and diastolic function. Methods : The study population included 2045 subjects of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study with data from the baseline survey (1980) and the latest follow-up (2011) when echocardiography was performed at the age of 34-49 years. Results: Subjects with eastern baseline origin had in 2011 higher LV mass (139 +/- 1.0 vs. 135 +/- 1.0 g, p=0.006) and E/e-ratio indicating weaker LV diastolic function (4.86 +/- 0.03 vs. 4.74 +/- 0.03, p=0.02) than western subjects. Results were independent of age, sex, area of examination and CHD risk factors such as blood pressure and BMI (LV mass indexed with height: p
  • He, Yonglu (2004)
    The research topic of this paper is Population Growth, Human Capital and Economic Growth in China. The aim of this paper is to study how human capital affects economic growth, how population growth affects accumulation of human capital and how the growth of income per capita influences fertility rate, especially in China. In the first part of this research, the microeconomic model—Becker Model—is used to discuss the demand of children in a family. This model describes how the parents decide the quality and quantity of their children, and how the costs of children influence this decision. The Chinese case fits close this model quite well. In urban areas, since the costs of children are high, the parents prefer to have fewer children but invest more on their children’s education. On the other hand, the costs of children in rural areas are low; moreover, children can be treated as labor force, hence the parents in rural areas prefer to have more children but do not care very much about their children’s education. In the second part of this paper, the Romer’s macroeconomic model: endogenous growth model is used to analyze how the human capital affects the economic growth. This model uses three sectors to explain the positive relationship between the human capital, which is determined by the education, and the economic growth. The third part uses econometrics method to prove the above models by using the data of 28 regions in China during 1987- 2001. The conclusion is that the scale of labor market is not the main reason for the economic growth in China. Actually, the human capital growth in large or middle cities is the blue chip to attract the foreign investment and technology to China, and then finally pushes the economic growth.
  • Basnet, Syaron; Merikanto, Ilona; Lahti, Tuuli; Männistö, Satu; Laatikainen, Tiina; Vartiainen, Erkki; Partonen, Timo (2018)
    Introduction: The seasonal pattern for mood and behaviour, the behavioural trait of morningness-eveningness, and sleep are interconnected features, that may serve as etiological factors in the development or exacerbation of medical conditions. Methods: The study was based on a random sample of inhabitants aged 25 to 74 years living in Finland. As part of the national FINRISK 2012 study participants were invited (n=9905) and asked whether the doctor had diagnosed or treated them during the past 12 months for chronic diseases. Results: A total of 6424 participants filled in the first set of questionnaires and 5826 attended the physical health status examination, after which the second set of questionnaires were filled. Regression models were built in which each condition was explained by the seasonal, diurnal and sleep features, after controlling for a range of background factors. Of the chronic diseases, depressive disorder was associated with longer total sleep duration (p
  • Lindgren, Maija; Torniainen-Holm, Minna; Härkänen, Tommi; Dickerson, Faith; Yolken, Robert H.; Suvisaari, Jaana (2018)
    Toxoplasma gondii infection is associated with increased risk for psychosis. However, the possible association between T. gondii and psychotic-like symptoms in the general adult population is unknown. We investigated whether T. gondii is associated with psychotic-like symptoms and psychosis diagnoses using data from Health 2000, a large cross-sectional health survey of the Finnish general population aged 30 and above. Seropositivity to toxoplasma was defined as a cutoff of 50 IU/ml of IgG antibodies. Lifetime psychotic-like symptoms were identified with section G of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, Munich version (M-CIDI). Symptoms were considered clinically relevant if they caused distress or help-seeking or there were at least three of them. Lifetime psychotic disorders were screened from the sample and were diagnosed with DSM-IV using SCID-I interview and information from medical records. All data were available for 5906 participants. We adjusted for variables related to T. gondii seropositivity (age, gender, education, region of residence, cat ownership, and C-reactive protein measuring inflammation) in regression models. We found that T. gondii seropositivity was significantly associated with clinically relevant psychotic-like symptoms (OR 1.77, p = 0.001) and with the number of psychotic-like symptoms (IRR = 1.55, p = 0.001). The association between toxoplasma and diagnosed psychotic disorders did not reach statistical significance (OR 1.45 for schizophrenia). In a large sample representing the whole Finnish adult population, we found that serological evidence of toxoplasma infection predicted psychotic-like symptoms, independent of demographic factors and levels of C-reactive protein. Toxoplasma infection may be a risk factor for manifestation of psychotic-like symptoms. (c) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.