Browsing by Subject "Porcine"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-6 of 6
  • Ramsay, Eva; del Amo, Eva M.; Toropainen, Elisa; Tengvall-Unadike, Unni; Ranta, Veli-Pekka; Urtti, Arto; Ruponen, Marika (2018)
    On the surface of the eye, both the cornea and conjunctiva are restricting ocular absorption of topically applied drugs, but barrier contributions of these two membranes have not been systemically compared. Herein, we studied permeability of 32 small molecular drug compounds across an isolated porcine cornea and built a quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) model for the permeability. Corneal drug permeability (data obtained for 25 drug molecules) showed a 52-fold range in permeability (0.09-4.70x10(-6) cm/s) and the most important molecular descriptors in predicting the permeability were hydrogen bond donor, polar surface area and halogen ratio. Corneal permeability values were compared to their conjunctival drug permeability values. Ocular drug bioavailability and systemic absorption via conjunctiva were predicted for this drug set with pharmacokinetic calculations. Drug bioavailability in the aqueous humour was simulated to be <5% and trans-conjunctival systemic absorption was 34-79% of the dose. Loss of drug across the conjunctiva to the blood circulation restricts significantly ocular drug bioavailability and, therefore, ocular absorption does not increase proportionally with the increasing corneal drug permeability.
  • Trevisan, Chiara; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Laranjo-Gonzalez, Minerva; Dermauw, Veronique; Wang, Ziqi; Kaerssin, Age; Cvetkovikj, Aleksandar; Winkler, Andrea S.; Abraham, Annette; Bobic, Branko; Lassen, Brian; Cretu, Carmen Michaela; Vasile, Cozma; Arvanitis, Dimitris; Deksne, Gunita; Boro, Ilievski; Kucsera, Istvan; Karamon, Jacek; Stefanovska, Jovana; Koudela, Bretislav; Pavlova, Maja Jurhar; Varady, Marian; Pavlak, Marina; Sarkunas, Mindaugas; Kaminski, Miriam; Djurkovic-Djakovic, Olgica; Jokelainen, Pikka; Jan, Dagny Stojcevic; Schmidt, Veronika; Dakic, Zorica; Gabriel, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Devleesschauwer, Brecht (2018)
    Background: Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are food-borne parasites of global importance. In eastern Europe only fragmented information is available on the epidemiology of these zoonotic parasites in humans and animal populations. In particular for T. solium, on-going transmission is suspected. The aim of this systematic review was to collect the available data and describe the current knowledge on the epidemiology of T. solium and T. saginata in eastern Europe. Methods: Literature published in international databases from 1990 to 2017 was systematically reviewed. Furthermore, local sources and unpublished data from national databases were retrieved from local eastern European experts. The study area included 22 countries. Results: Researchers from 18 out of the 22 countries provided data from local and unpublished sources, while no contacts could be established with researchers from Belarus, Kosovo, Malta and Ukraine. Taeniosis and human cysticercosis cases were reported in 14 and 15 out of the 22 countries, respectively. Estonia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Serbia, and Slovakia reported cases of porcine cysticercosis. Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, and Ukraine reported bovine cysticercosis. Conclusions: There is indication that taeniosis and cysticercosis are present across eastern Europe but information on the occurrence of T. solium and T. saginata across the region remains incomplete. Available data are scarce and species identification is in most cases absent. Given the public health impact of T. solium and the potential economic and trade implications due to T. saginata, notification of taeniosis and human cysticercosis should be implemented and surveillance and notification systems in animals should be improved.
  • Trevisan, Chiara; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Laranjo-González, Minerva; Dermauw, Veronique; Wang, Ziqi; Kärssin, Age; Cvetkovikj, Aleksandar; Winkler, Andrea S; Abraham, Annette; Bobić, Branko; Lassen, Brian; Cretu, Carmen M; Vasile, Cozma; Arvanitis, Dimitris; Deksne, Gunita; Boro, Ilievski; Kucsera, István; Karamon, Jacek; Stefanovska, Jovana; Koudela, Břetislav; Pavlova, Maja J; Varady, Marian; Pavlak, Marina; Šarkūnas, Mindaugas; Kaminski, Miriam; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica; Jokelainen, Pikka; Jan, Dagny S; Schmidt, Veronika; Dakić, Zorica; Gabriël, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Devleesschauwer, Brecht (BioMed Central, 2018)
    Abstract Background Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are food-borne parasites of global importance. In eastern Europe only fragmented information is available on the epidemiology of these zoonotic parasites in humans and animal populations. In particular for T. solium, on-going transmission is suspected. The aim of this systematic review was to collect the available data and describe the current knowledge on the epidemiology of T. solium and T. saginata in eastern Europe. Methods Literature published in international databases from 1990 to 2017 was systematically reviewed. Furthermore, local sources and unpublished data from national databases were retrieved from local eastern European experts. The study area included 22 countries. Results Researchers from 18 out of the 22 countries provided data from local and unpublished sources, while no contacts could be established with researchers from Belarus, Kosovo, Malta and Ukraine. Taeniosis and human cysticercosis cases were reported in 14 and 15 out of the 22 countries, respectively. Estonia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Serbia, and Slovakia reported cases of porcine cysticercosis. Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, and Ukraine reported bovine cysticercosis. Conclusions There is indication that taeniosis and cysticercosis are present across eastern Europe but information on the occurrence of T. solium and T. saginata across the region remains incomplete. Available data are scarce and species identification is in most cases absent. Given the public health impact of T. solium and the potential economic and trade implications due to T. saginata, notification of taeniosis and human cysticercosis should be implemented and surveillance and notification systems in animals should be improved.
  • Nokireki, T.; Laine, T.; London, L.; Ikonen, N.; Huovilainen, A. (2013)
    Background: Swine influenza is an infectious acute respiratory disease of pigs caused by influenza A virus. We investigated the time of entry of swine influenza into the Finnish pig population. We also describe the molecular detection of two types of influenza A (H1N1) viruses in porcine samples submitted in 2009 and 2010. This retrospective study was based on three categories of samples: blood samples collected for disease monitoring from pigs at major slaughterhouses from 2007 to 2009; blood samples from pigs in farms with a special health status taken in 2008 and 2009; and diagnostic blood samples from pigs in farms with clinical signs of respiratory disease in 2008 and 2009. The blood samples were tested for influenza A antibodies with an antibody ELISA. Positive samples were further analyzed for H1N1, H3N2, and H1N2 antibodies with a hemagglutination inhibition test. Diagnostic samples for virus detection were subjected to influenza A M-gene-specific real-time RT-PCR and to pandemic influenza A H1N1-specific real-time RT-PCR. Positive samples were further analyzed with RT-PCRs designed for this purpose, and the PCR products were sequenced and sequences analyzed phylogenetically. Results: In the blood samples from pigs in special health class farms producing replacement animals and in diagnostic blood samples, the first serologically positive samples originated from the period July–August 2008. In samples collected for disease monitoring, < 0.1%, 0% and 16% were positive for antibodies against influenza A H1N1 in the HI test in 2007, 2008, and 2009, respectively. Swine influenza A virus of avian-like H1N1 was first detected in diagnostic samples in February 2009. In 2009 and 2010, the avian-like H1N1 virus was detected on 12 and two farms, respectively. The pandemic H1N1 virus (A(H1N1) pdm09) was detected on one pig farm in 2009 and on two farms in 2010. Conclusions: Based on our study, swine influenza of avian-like H1N1 virus was introduced into the Finnish pig population in 2008 and A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in 2009. The source of avian-like H1N1 infection could not be determined. Cases of pandemic H1N1 in pigs coincided with the period when the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus was spread in humans in Finland.
  • Santoro, Azzurra; Tagel, Maarja; Must, Kärt; Laine, Miia; Lassen, Brian; Jokelainen, Pikka (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread occurring parasite infecting warm-blooded animals, including pigs and humans. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies and to evaluate risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity in breeding pigs raised in Estonia. Sera from 382 pigs were tested with a commercial direct agglutination test, using a cut-off titer of 40 for seropositivity, for the presence of anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies. Results Twenty-two (5.8%) of the 382 pigs tested seropositive for T. gondii, and 6 of the 14 herds had at least one seropositive pig. The proportion of seropositive pigs within the herds ranged between 0 and 43%. Gender appeared as a significant factor, with sows having 5.6 times higher odds to be seropositive to T. gondii than boars. Seroprevalence did not increase with age. Conclusions Anti-T. gondii antibodies were present in a substantial proportion of breeding pig herds in Estonia. On the other hand, the presence of herds without seropositive pigs illustrates that porcine T. gondii infections can be avoided even in a country where the parasite is endemic and common in several other host species.
  • Santoro, Azzurra; Tagel, Maarja; Must, Kart; Laine, Miia; Lassen, Brian; Jokelainen, Pikka (2017)
    Background: Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread occurring parasite infecting warm-blooded animals, including pigs and humans. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies and to evaluate risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity in breeding pigs raised in Estonia. Sera from 382 pigs were tested with a commercial direct agglutination test, using a cut-off titer of 40 for seropositivity, for the presence of anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies. Results: Twenty-two (5.8%) of the 382 pigs tested seropositive for T. gondii, and 6 of the 14 herds had at least one seropositive pig. The proportion of seropositive pigs within the herds ranged between 0 and 43%. Gender appeared as a significant factor, with sows having 5.6 times higher odds to be seropositive to T. gondii than boars. Seroprevalence did not increase with age. Conclusions: Anti-T. gondii antibodies were present in a substantial proportion of breeding pig herds in Estonia. On the other hand, the presence of herds without seropositive pigs illustrates that porcine T. gondii infections can be avoided even in a country where the parasite is endemic and common in several other host species.