Browsing by Subject "Portugal"

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  • Macias-Hernandez, Nuria; Ramos, Cândida; Domènech, Marc; Febles, Sara; Santos, Irene; Arnedo, Miquel A.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Emerson, Brent C.; Cardoso, Pedro (2020)
    Background There is an increasing demand for databases including species trait information for biodiversity and community ecology studies. The existence of trait databases is useful for comparative studies within taxa or geographical regions, but there is low availability of databases for certain organisms. Here we present an open access functional trait database for spiders from Macaronesia and the Iberian Peninsula, recording several morphological and ecological traits related to the species life histories, microhabitat and trophic preferences. New information We present a database that includes 12 biological traits for 506 spider species present in natural forests of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain) and three Macaronesian archipelagoes (Azores, Madeira and Canary Islands). The functional trait database consists of two sections: 1. individual-level data for six morphological traits (total body size, prosoma length, prosoma width, prosoma height, tibia I length and fang length), based on direct measurements of 2844 specimens of all spider species; and 2. species-level aggregate data for 12 traits (same 6 morphological traits as in the previous section plus dispersal ability, vertical stratification, circadian activity, foraging strategy, trophic specialization and colonization status), based on either the average of the direct measurements or bibliographic searches. This functional trait database will serve as a data standard for currently ongoing analyses that require trait and functional diversity statistics.
  • Fredriksson, Mikael Karl-Johan (2007)
    Syftet med avhandlingen är att göra en komparativ studie av demokratiseringsprocessen i Spanien och Portugal under perioden 1974 - 1986. Studien fokuseras på den politiska transitionen från diktatur till demokrati och speciellt konsolideringen av demokratin i de berörda länderna. Avhandlingen är förklarande och teoriprövande, vilket betyder att en eller flera teorier i form av konkreta hypoteser prövas på ett empiriskt material. Frågan jag undersöker är således om man med hjälp av vissa faktorer kan förklara demokratins framåtskridande i de berörda länderna samt huruvida konsolideringen varit framgångsrik eller inte. Rent konkret innebär det att två demokratiseringsteorier står i centrum och att jag testar dem på demokratiseringsprocessen i de bägge länderna. Först behandlas Dankwart Rustows transitionsteori som utgår ifrån politiska processer och eliten som aktiva aktörer i demokratiseringsprocessen och sedan tar jag upp Juan Linz och Alfred Stepans tredimensionella definition av konsoliderad demokrati. Mitt val motiverar jag med att eftersom de undersökta länderna, Spanien och Portugal, båda är ekonomiskt utvecklade länder, går det inte att använda den traditionella moderniseringsskolan och enbart ekonomiska variabler som förklaring till demokratiseringen. Avhandlingen består av en deskriptiv teoretisk del och en analytisk empirisk del. I den teoretiska delen redogörs först allmänt om vilka olika syner på demokrati som finns och hur man kan mäta graden av demokrati. Vidare beskrivs själva demokratiseringsprocessen som består av övergången, det vill säga transitionen, från diktatur till demokrati samt konsolideringen av demokratin. Den empiriska delen av avhandlingen, som egentligen är tvådelad behandlar först transitionsprocessen i de båda länderna och sedan själva konsolideringen av demokratin. De oberoende variabler jag analyserar i den empiriska delen är i stort sett de variabler som Linz och Stepan använder i sin teori, förutom att jag har velat ta med en internationell dimension av demokratins konsolidering i de bägge länderna. De sju undersökta variablerna är: 1) Statsbildning och nationell identitet, 2) Civilsamhälle, 3) Politiskt samhälle, elitförhållanden och ändrade strukturer, 4) Rättsstat, 5) Statsbyråkrati och statens roll, 6) Ekonomiskt samhälle och ekonomisk utveckling samt 7) Geopolitiska och internationella faktorer. Utfallet av den empiriska undersökningen visar att även om utgångsläget var liknande för både Spanien och Portugal, var slutligen skillnaderna fler än likheterna när man jämför demokratiseringsprocessen i de bägge länderna. Man talar om den spanska reformen i motsats till den portugisiska sönderbrytningen. Trots de stora skillnaderna kan man konstatera att den empiriska analysen har visat att både Spaniens och Portugals demokratier bör anses vara väl konsoliderade och att de uppfyller de krav på en konsoliderad demokrati som Linz och Stepan ställer.
  • Levinthal, Cristiana; Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi (2021)
    The current educational reforms in Finland and Portugal require a holistic engagement of parents with learning, bringing parents and teachers together as partners. This qualitative study, which interviewed Finnish (N = 10) and Portuguese (N = 9) parents, aimed to explore parents’ views on the role of teachers in supporting parent–teacher partnerships and parental engagement with the school. Inductive content analysis was performed to analyze the interviews. From a general standpoint, three patterns were found in the parents’ narratives about the role of teachers in supporting partnership and engagement: communication, professionalism, and invitations to active parental participation. From a cross-cultural standpoint, Finnish parents evidenced partnerships and engagement grounded in little face-to-face contact but consistent online communication with the teacher, as well as trust in their professionalism and independent work. The Portuguese parents revealed rather frequent active participation within the school premises, more recurrent face-to-face communication with the teacher, and appreciation for teachers’ timely responses and support. Recommendations for a holistic approach of engagement and partnerships were brought forward within the context of teacher education, such as the need to maintain simple but regular communication with parents and the relevance of reconsidering the frequency of parental activities in the school.
  • Ollikainen, Ann-Sofie (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    I min avhandling pro gradu har jag granskat autodaféceremonierna i Lissabon åren 1709 och 1746. Ceremonierna organiserades av inkvisitionen i Lissabon för att offentligt döma människor som genom sitt beteende eller sina handlingar förolämpat den katolska tron, den dåtida samhällsordningen eller gjort sig skyldiga till moralbrott som tvegifte. Syftet med avhandlingen är att sammanfatta om det fanns något specifikt mönster angående de brott och straff som inkvisitionen särskilt intresserade sig för. Genom att analysera de utdelade straffen söker avhandlingen även granska om vissa samhällsgrupper var mer utsatta än andra för att hamna i onåd hos inkvisitionens och hur inkvisitionen motiverade de straff som utdelades för folket i staden. Genom att analysera de tillgängliga autodaféprotokollen från Portugals nationalarkiv Torre do Tombo i Lissabon har jag försökt skapa en bild av hurudana personer som dömdes och för vilka slags brott de dömdes av inkvisitionen i Lissabon. Jag har även sökt göra en analys av hur inkvisitionen presenterade dessa förbrytare, som under autodaféceremonin offentlig fick sina brott och straff förkunnade, för stadens befolkning. Avhandlingen består av sex huvudkapitel, varav tre är forskningskapitel som är uppbyggda enligt temana brott, straff och motiveringar för bestraffning. De övriga kapitlen består av en inledning och ett bakgrundskapitel samt ett sammanfattande kapitel. Det första forskningskapitlet handlar om de brott som inkvisitionen dömde folk för och kapitlet presenterar statistik över brotten för åren 1709 och 1746. Kapitel fyra presenterar de straff som inkvisitionen utdelade för förbrytarna under de sagda åren och kapitel fem fokuserar på hur det motiverades för folket att de som dömdes var förtjänta av de lidanden de fick. Även dessa kapitel innehåller statistik angående utdelade straffen och en översikt av hur samhällsgruppen påverkade de utdelade straffen. Forskningen är kvalitativ, men antalet domar per autodaféceremonier framförs i en kvantitativ del av forskningen. Resultatet i denna avhandling visar att de flesta som dömdes för att idka judiska seder eller vara anhängare av sagd religion dömdes till fängelsestraff. Detta var ett straff som alltid innebar att förbrytaren i fråga förlorade hela sin egendom till inkvisitionen, som delade de beslagtagna ekonomiska tillgångarna med kungen. Forskningen visar även att inkvisitionen i Lissabon inte var lika drakonisk i sin natur som den spanska inkvisitionen. I studien framkommer det också att det inte var allmänt att äldre medborgare dömdes till hårda fysiska straff, så som piskrapp eller tjänstgöring som galärslav. Personer som dömdes för moralbrott och personer som dömdes för mindre allvarliga trosbrott blev oftast bestraffade med exil och/eller prygel. Anmärkningsvärt är att det var nästan lika allmänt att män dömdes för utövandet av svartkonst som kvinnor. I praktiken var det väldigt få som dömdes till döden, om man även räknar med de individer som dött i fängelsecellerna. Inte ens tio procent av det totala antalet dömda mottog dödsdomen. De flesta som dömdes till döden fick sin dom på grund av att de var nykristna som enligt inkvisitionens uppfattning fortfarande idkade judiska seder och inte hade accepterat den katolska tron som den enda rätta. Resultatet visar också att ju närmare 1700-talets mitt man kommer, desto sällsyntare blir dödsstraffen.
  • Levinthal, Cristiana; Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi (2021)
    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore parental engagement in the home-learning environment, and parents’ implicit beliefs about learning underlying such engagement. Nineteen parents of elementary school children between seven and twelve years old were interviewed in two different cultural contexts, Finland (N = 10) and Portugal (N = 9). The interviews were subjected to inductive and deductive content analysis. Forms of parental engagement at home were similar in both countries, divided between two main categories: engagement with the child’s holistic development and engagement with the child’s schooling process. Parental narratives about engagement were, for the most part, embedded in a growth mindset (or an incremental meaning system). The most common actualizations of engagement included considering the child’s learning contexts and emotions; encouraging effort, persistence and practice; approaching difficulties as a natural part of learning and suggesting strategies for overcoming them. Parental practices of engagement were combined with the actualization of their implicit beliefs to create engagement–mindset parental profiles. Twelve parents were classified as having a Growth mindset to support the child’s holistic development profile, and the other seven were distributed amongst the three remaining profiles. The study contributes to the growing interest on the association between parental engagement and their learning-related implicit beliefs, giving clear first-person illustrations of how both occur and interact in the home-learning environment. Implications for practice are discussed.
  • Aunela, Hilja (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    This thesis is a study about Portuguese people who were learning mindfulness meditation in order to overcome stress. The primary question the thesis reflects on is: How do people attach value to what they are doing in situations where there is no clear set of criteria? The research is based on a 10-week ethnographic fieldwork which was conducted in Lisbon, Portugal during spring 2015. The data consists of material gathered by participant observation in two mindfulness meditation centers, combined with interviews and informal talks. By analyzing accounts of the research participants, the study identifies stress as an inherently social experience, and caused by an excess of work and a constant requirement to multitask. The study analyzes these notions by applying Marxist-influenced anthropological analyses of time and combines these with the anthropologist Marilyn Stathern’s (1992) concept of postpluralism. Building upon these theories, the study identifies stress which the research participants reported to be related to the logic of time within neoliberalism. The study observes that being mindful is experienced as a way to live with stressful situations, even though the practice does little to challenge the initial circumstances that caused the research participants feel stressed. Thus, the study suggests that mindfulness teaches the practitioners to recalibrate their values, offering the capacity to give less value to issues the practitioners found stressful. In this vein, mindfulness meditation is interpreted to respond to a particular Western problem in contrast to the Eastern (Buddhist) origins of the practice. The study however pays also attention to contradicting ideas of good life within the West, namely in gendered Portuguese expectations on how much time one should give for others in contrast to the individualistically oriented practice. Thus, the study highlights certain ambivalences present. On one hand, mindfulness responds to stress, as the practice helps keeping the contradictory logics of work and kinship separated. On the other hand, the practice is a retreat from the social and thus does not necessarily ease the initial problem the research participants had. As a conclusion, the study argues that the mindfulness practitioners feel the strain that neoliberal flexibility causes. It is however pointed out that people are not governed by the neoliberal logic and find ways to remove its logic from their own values.
  • Trivino, Maria; Kujala, Heini; Araujo, Miguel B.; Cabeza, Mar (2018)
    Species are expected to shift their distributions in response to global environmental changes and additional protected areas are needed to encompass the corresponding changes in the distributions of their habitats. Conservation policies are likely to become obsolete unless they integrate the potential impacts of climate and land-use change on biodiversity. We identify conservation priority areas for current and future projected distributions of Iberian bird species. We then investigate the extent to which global change informed priority areas are: (i) covered by existing protected area networks (national protected areas and Natura 2000); (ii) threatened by agricultural or urban land-use changes. We use outputs of species distributions models fitted with climatic data as inputs in spatial prioritization tools to identify conservation priority areas for 168 bird species. We use projections of land-use change to then discriminate between threatened and non-threatened priority areas. 19% of the priority areas for birds are covered by national protected areas and 23% are covered by Natura 2000 sites. The spatial mismatch between protected area networks and priority areas for birds is projected to increase with climate change. But there are opportunities to improve the protection of birds under climate change, as half of the priority areas are currently neither protected nor in conflict with urban or agricultural land-uses. We identify critical areas for bird conservation both under current and climate change conditions, and propose that they could guide the establishment of new conservation areas across the Iberian Peninsula complementing existing protected areas.
  • Vartiainen, Annastiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Evictions have been on the rise in Europe and around the globe during recent years. This study aims at giving voice to the people who are experiencing housing insecurity in the Portuguese capital city, Lisbon. Housing has become a key issue in local politics and this study sheds light on the topic in the context of the Portuguese welfare state. The first research question is to find out how the people, who are being evicted, or threatened to be evicted, see and describe their situation and how the situation has affected their lives. The second research object is to find out from where they have looked for assistance with their housing situations and how they perceive the help they have received. The literature review and the theoretical framework deal with the special features and development trajectories of the Portuguese welfare state. Despite the later democratic development, the legacies of Salazar´s authoritarian regime and of the colonial past are still visible in the form of considerable inequality within the society. The focus, though, is on the lived experiences of the participants. The approach of the study is qualitative and experience-centered narrative research. The data are made up of nine semi-structured interviews. All participants have experienced housing insecurity. Insecure housing, together with limited financial means, lead to a situation where the tenants are trapped in a dwelling which is insecure in terms of both legal rights and physical living conditions. Additionally, many tenants suffer from different types of harassment and intimidation by the landlords. Housing insecurity impacts various areas of people’s lives and the study reveals the downward spiral that the lives of the participants in the most insecure situations had taken. The insecure housing and economic deprivation increased the dependency on welfare provision and led to deepening poverty, with several unwanted practical, emotional and social consequences. Managing day-to-day life became physically and emotionally consuming for the participants and their personal relationships suffered. Many participants reported feelings of nervousness and depression, increasing health issues and a sense of being lost. Local authorities are involved in most cases and several participants had been in contact with the social services. The findings of the study support the existing literature about the short-comings of social protection and social welfare in Portugal. The housing issue in Portugal seems to be a structural problem arising from the societal inequalities, the pursued housing policies and the traditionally large role of the family in welfare and housing provision. Different grass-root organizations, such as Habita, seem to play a crucial role in supporting the individual, in raising awareness through publicity and in uniting people in a collective struggle for structural changes in society.