Browsing by Subject "Positron emission tomography (PET)"

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  • Otaru, Sofia; Imlimthan, Surachet; Sarparanta, Mirkka; Helariutta, Kerttuli; Wähälä, Kristiina; Airaksinen, Anu (2020)
    Fluorine-18 is the most widely used positron emission tomography (PET) radionuclide currently in clinical application, due to its optimal nuclear properties. The synthesis of 18F-labeled radiotracers often requires harsh reaction conditions, limiting the use of sensitive bio- and macromolecules as precursors for direct radiolabeling with fluorine-18. We aimed to develop a milder and efficient in vitro and in vivo labeling method for trans-cyclooctene (TCO) functionalized proteins, through the bioorthogonal inverse-electron demand Diels-Alder (IEDDA) reaction with fluorine-18 radiolabeled tetrazine ([18F]SiFA-Tz). Here, we used TCO-modified bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the model protein, and isotopic exchange (IE) (19F/18F) chemistry as the labeling strategy. The radiolabeling of albumin-TCO with [18F]SiFA-Tz ([18F]6), providing [18F]fluoroalbumin ([18F]10) in high radiochemical yield (99.1 ± 0.2%, n = 3) and a molar activity (MA) of 1.1 GBq/µmol, confirmed the applicability of [18F]6 as a quick in vitro fluorination reagent for the TCO functionalized proteins. While the biological evaluation of [18F]6 demonstrated defluorination in vivo, limiting the utility for pretargeted applications, the in vivo stability of the radiotracer was dramatically improved when [18F]6 was used for the radiolabeling of albumin-TCO ([18F]10) in vitro, prior to administration. Due to the detected defluorination in vivo, structural optimization of the prosthetic group for improved stability is needed before further biological studies and application of pretargeted PET imaging.
  • Sarparanta, Mirkka; Pourat, Jacob; Carnazza, Kathryn E.; Tang, Jun; Paknejad, Navid; Reiner, Thomas; Kostiainen, Mauri A.; Lewis, Jason S. (2020)
    Methods We have developed a nuclear and fluorescence labeling strategy for nanocrystalline cellulose (CNC), an emerging biomaterial with versatile chemistry and facile preparation from renewable sources. We modified CNC through 1,1′-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) activation with radiometal chelators desferrioxamine B and 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA), allowing for the labeling with zirconium-89 (t½ = 78.41 h) and copper-64 (t½ = 12.70 h), respectively, for non-invasive positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The far-red fluorescent dye Cy5 was added for ex vivo optical imaging, microscopy and flow cytometry. The multimodal CNC were evaluated in the syngeneic orthotopic 4T1 tumor model of human stage IV breast cancer. Results Modified CNC exhibited low cytotoxicity in RAW 264.7 macrophages over 96 h, and high radiolabel stability in vitro. After systemic administration, radiolabeled CNC were rapidly sequestered to the organs of the reticulo-endothelial system (RES), indicating immune recognition and no passive tumor targeting by the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Modification with NOTA was a more favorable strategy in terms of radiolabeling yield, specific radioactivity, and both the radiolabel and dispersion stability in physiological conditions. Flow cytometry analysis of Cy5-positive immune cells from the spleen and tumor corroborated the uptake of CNC to phagocytic cells. Conclusions Future studies on the in vivo behavior of CNC should be concentrated on improving the nanomaterial stability and circulation half-life under physiological conditions and optimizing further the labeling yields for the multimodality imaging strategy presented. Advances in knowledge Our studies constitute one of the first accounts of a multimodality nuclear and fluorescent probe for the evaluation of CNC biodistribution in vivo and outline the pitfalls in radiometal labeling strategies for future evaluation of targeted CNC-based drug delivery systems. Implications for patient care Quantitative and sensitive molecular imaging methods provide information on the structure–activity relationships of the nanomaterial and guide the translation from in vitro models to clinically relevant animal models.
  • Husso, Minna; Nissi, Mikko J; Kuivanen, Antti; Halonen, Paavo; Tarkia, Miikka; Teuho, Jarmo; Saunavaara, Virva; Vainio, Pauli; Sipola, Petri; Manninen, Hannu; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Knuuti, Juhani; Töyräs, Juha (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background The reliable quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) with MRI, necessitates the correction of errors in arterial input function (AIF) caused by the T1 saturation effect. The aim of this study was to compare MBF determined by a traditional dual bolus method against a modified dual bolus approach and to evaluate both methods against PET in a porcine model of myocardial ischemia. Methods Local myocardial ischemia was induced in five pigs, which were subsequently examined with contrast enhanced MRI (gadoteric acid) and PET (O-15 water). In the determination of MBF, the initial high concentration AIF was corrected using the ratio of low and high contrast AIF areas, normalized according to the corresponding heart rates. MBF was determined from the MRI, during stress and at rest, using the dual bolus and the modified dual bolus methods in 24 segments of the myocardium (total of 240 segments, five pigs in stress and rest). Due to image artifacts and technical problems 53% of the segments had to be rejected from further analyses. These two estimates were later compared against respective rest and stress PET-based MBF measurements. Results Values of MBF were determined for 112/240 regions. Correlations for MBF between the modified dual bolus method and PET was rs = 0.84, and between the traditional dual bolus method and PET rs = 0.79. The intraclass correlation was very good (ICC = 0.85) between the modified dual bolus method and PET, but poor between the traditional dual bolus method and PET (ICC = 0.07). Conclusions The modified dual bolus method showed a better agreement with PET than the traditional dual bolus method. The modified dual bolus method was found to be more reliable than the traditional dual bolus method, especially when there was variation in the heart rate. However, the difference between the MBF values estimated with either of the two MRI-based dual-bolus methods and those estimated with the gold-standard PET method were statistically significant.