Browsing by Subject "Potato"

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  • Peivastegan, Bahram; Hadizadeh, Iman; Nykyri, Johanna; Nielsen, Kare Lehmann; Somervuo, Panu; Sipari, Nina; Tran, Cuong; Pirhonen, Minna (2019)
    BackgroundStored potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers are sensitive to wet conditions that can cause rotting in long-term storage. To study the effect of water on the tuber surface during storage, microarray analysis, RNA-Seq profiling, qRT-PCR and phytohormone measurements were performed to study gene expression and hormone content in wet tubers incubated at two temperatures: 4 degrees C and 15 degrees C. The growth of the plants was also observed in a greenhouse after the incubation of tubers in wet conditions.ResultsWet conditions induced a low-oxygen response, suggesting reduced oxygen availability in wet tubers at both temperatures when compared to that in the corresponding dry samples. Wet conditions induced genes coding for heat shock proteins, as well as proteins involved in fermentative energy production and defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are transcripts that have been previously associated with low-oxygen stress in hypoxic or anoxic conditions. Wet treatment also induced senescence-related gene expression and genes involved in cell wall loosening, but downregulated genes encoding protease inhibitors and proteins involved in chloroplast functions and in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Many genes involved in the production of phytohormones and signaling were also affected by wet conditions, suggesting altered regulation of growth by wet conditions. Hormone measurements after incubation showed increased salicylic acid (SA), abscisic acid (ABA) and auxin (IAA) concentrations as well as reduced production of jasmonate 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) in wet tubers. After incubation in wet conditions, the tubers produced fewer stems and more roots compared to controls incubated in dry conditions.ConclusionsIn wet conditions, tubers invest in ROS protection and defense against the abiotic stress caused by reduced oxygen due to excessive water. Changes in ABA, SA and IAA that are antagonistic to jasmonates affect growth and defenses, causing induction of root growth and rendering tubers susceptible to necrotrophic pathogens. Water on the tuber surface may function as a signal for growth, similar to germination of seeds.
  • Peivastegan, Bahram; Hadizadeh, Iman; Nykyri, Johanna; Nielsen, Kåre L; Somervuo, Panu; Sipari, Nina; Tran, Cuong; Pirhonen, Minna (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Stored potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers are sensitive to wet conditions that can cause rotting in long-term storage. To study the effect of water on the tuber surface during storage, microarray analysis, RNA-Seq profiling, qRT-PCR and phytohormone measurements were performed to study gene expression and hormone content in wet tubers incubated at two temperatures: 4 °C and 15 °C. The growth of the plants was also observed in a greenhouse after the incubation of tubers in wet conditions. Results Wet conditions induced a low-oxygen response, suggesting reduced oxygen availability in wet tubers at both temperatures when compared to that in the corresponding dry samples. Wet conditions induced genes coding for heat shock proteins, as well as proteins involved in fermentative energy production and defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are transcripts that have been previously associated with low-oxygen stress in hypoxic or anoxic conditions. Wet treatment also induced senescence-related gene expression and genes involved in cell wall loosening, but downregulated genes encoding protease inhibitors and proteins involved in chloroplast functions and in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Many genes involved in the production of phytohormones and signaling were also affected by wet conditions, suggesting altered regulation of growth by wet conditions. Hormone measurements after incubation showed increased salicylic acid (SA), abscisic acid (ABA) and auxin (IAA) concentrations as well as reduced production of jasmonate 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) in wet tubers. After incubation in wet conditions, the tubers produced fewer stems and more roots compared to controls incubated in dry conditions. Conclusions In wet conditions, tubers invest in ROS protection and defense against the abiotic stress caused by reduced oxygen due to excessive water. Changes in ABA, SA and IAA that are antagonistic to jasmonates affect growth and defenses, causing induction of root growth and rendering tubers susceptible to necrotrophic pathogens. Water on the tuber surface may function as a signal for growth, similar to germination of seeds.
  • Bubolz, Jéssica (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary, is considered the most devastating disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production worldwide. Control methods involve mostly the use of fungicides, which are costly and are under political pressure for reduction in Europe. Potatoes from the major potato cultivar in Sweden, King Edward, previously stacked with three resistance (R) genes (RB, Rpi-blb2 and Rpi-vnt1.1) were tested in a local Swedish field, with spontaneous P. infestans infection over three seasons to evaluate the effectiveness and stability of the resistance on leaves. In addition, testing of resistance was done in both in leaves and tubers. Field results demonstrated that the 3R stacked into the cultivar King Edward, showed practically full resistance to infections of P. infestans, with no difference to fungicide use. Moreover, the resistance was effective in both leaves and tubers. The results reveal the 3R potatoes offer a functional field resistance, that could, alone, reduce the total use of fungicides in agriculture by several percent in Sweden, in an event of modifications in the EU legislation.
  • Niemi, Outi; Laine, Pia; Koskinen, Patrik; Pasanen, Miia; Pennanen, Ville; Harjunpaa, Heidi; Nykyri, Johanna; Holm, Liisa; Paulin, Lars; Auvinen, Petri; Palva, E. Tapio; Pirhonen, Minna (2017)
    Bacteria of the genus Pectobacterium are economically important plant pathogens that cause soft rot disease on a wide variety of plant species. Here, we report the genome sequence of Pectobacterium carotovorum strain SCC1, a Finnish soft rot model strain isolated from a diseased potato tuber in the early 1980's. The genome of strain SCC1 consists of one circular chromosome of 4,974,798 bp and one circular plasmid of 5524 bp. In total 4451 genes were predicted, of which 4349 are protein coding and 102 are RNA genes.
  • Niemi, Outi; Laine, Pia; Koskinen, Patrik; Pasanen, Miia; Pennanen, Ville; Harjunpää, Heidi; Nykyri, Johanna; Holm, Liisa; Paulin, Lars; Auvinen, Petri; Palva, E. Tapio; Pirhonen, Minna (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Bacteria of the genus Pectobacterium are economically important plant pathogens that cause soft rot disease on a wide variety of plant species. Here, we report the genome sequence of Pectobacterium carotovorum strain SCC1, a Finnish soft rot model strain isolated from a diseased potato tuber in the early 1980’s. The genome of strain SCC1 consists of one circular chromosome of 4,974,798 bp and one circular plasmid of 5524 bp. In total 4451 genes were predicted, of which 4349 are protein coding and 102 are RNA genes.
  • Kaila, Lotta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The mission of International Potato Centre (CIP) is to achieve food security for developing countries. Late blight is one of the most serious diseases of potato, and efficient control of the disease is needed to get proper yield. Chemical plant protection and resistant cultivars are the main keys in controlling late blight. CIP improves the food security by breeding late blight resistant genotypes, which are further tested in developing countries. In this research CIP’s breeding population B3 was studied for the inheritance and stability of late blight resistance. Inheritance of resistance was analysed by comparing the level of resistance in two consecutive cycles of recurrent selection (C2 and C3). The stability of resistance was analysed by comparing historical data of population B3 in nine different environments in years 2001–2006. Results showed that the fourth cycle of recombination will improve late blight resistance in the population and the resistance is mainly caused by genetic factors. The research also revealed 78 genotypes that had stable late blight resistance in studied environments. In addition, the study suggests that the population contains some still unidentified R genes. Population B3 has already high late blight resistance, which the fourth cycle of recombination will further improve. In addition, the population contains genotypes with stable and extremely high late blight resistance. Thus, the population serves as a strong material for further late blight resistance breeding and as trial genotypes for tropical highlands. However, the still unidentified R genes should be studied further at molecular level to get best out of the population.
  • Rajamaki, Minna-Liisa; Sikorskaite-Gudziuniene, Sidona; Sarmah, Nandita; Varjosalo, Markku; Valkonen, Jari P. T. (2020)
    BackgroundInfection of plants by viruses interferes with expression and subcellular localization of plant proteins. Potyviruses comprise the largest and most economically damaging group of plant-infecting RNA viruses. In virus-infected cells, at least two potyviral proteins localize to nucleus but reasons remain partly unknown.ResultsIn this study, we examined changes in the nuclear proteome of leaf cells from a diploid potato line (Solanum tuberosum L.) after infection with potato virus A (PVA; genus Potyvirus; Potyviridae) and compared the data with that acquired for healthy leaves. Gel-free liquid chromatography-coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify 807 nuclear proteins in the potato line v2-108; of these proteins, 370 were detected in at least two samples of healthy leaves. A total of 313 proteins were common in at least two samples of healthy and PVA-infected leaves; of these proteins, 8 showed differential accumulation. Sixteen proteins were detected exclusively in the samples from PVA-infected leaves, whereas other 16 proteins were unique to healthy leaves. The protein Dnajc14 was only detected in healthy leaves, whereas different ribosomal proteins, ribosome-biogenesis proteins, and RNA splicing-related proteins were over-represented in the nuclei of PVA-infected leaves. Two virus-encoded proteins were identified in the samples of PVA-infected leaves.ConclusionsOur results show that PVA infection alters especially ribosomes and splicing-related proteins in the nucleus of potato leaves. The data increase our understanding of potyvirus infection and the role of nucleus in infection. To our knowledge, this is the first study of the nuclear proteome of potato leaves and one of the few studies of changes occurring in nuclear proteomes in response to plant virus infection.
  • Rajamäki, Minna-Liisa; Sikorskaite-Gudziuniene, Sidona; Sarmah, Nandita; Varjosalo, Markku; Valkonen, Jari P.T. (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background Infection of plants by viruses interferes with expression and subcellular localization of plant proteins. Potyviruses comprise the largest and most economically damaging group of plant-infecting RNA viruses. In virus-infected cells, at least two potyviral proteins localize to nucleus but reasons remain partly unknown. Results In this study, we examined changes in the nuclear proteome of leaf cells from a diploid potato line (Solanum tuberosum L.) after infection with potato virus A (PVA; genus Potyvirus; Potyviridae) and compared the data with that acquired for healthy leaves. Gel-free liquid chromatography–coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify 807 nuclear proteins in the potato line v2–108; of these proteins, 370 were detected in at least two samples of healthy leaves. A total of 313 proteins were common in at least two samples of healthy and PVA-infected leaves; of these proteins, 8 showed differential accumulation. Sixteen proteins were detected exclusively in the samples from PVA-infected leaves, whereas other 16 proteins were unique to healthy leaves. The protein Dnajc14 was only detected in healthy leaves, whereas different ribosomal proteins, ribosome-biogenesis proteins, and RNA splicing–related proteins were over-represented in the nuclei of PVA-infected leaves. Two virus-encoded proteins were identified in the samples of PVA-infected leaves. Conclusions Our results show that PVA infection alters especially ribosomes and splicing-related proteins in the nucleus of potato leaves. The data increase our understanding of potyvirus infection and the role of nucleus in infection. To our knowledge, this is the first study of the nuclear proteome of potato leaves and one of the few studies of changes occurring in nuclear proteomes in response to plant virus infection.
  • Natsume, Masahiro; Nagagata, Asaho; Aittamaa, Marja; Okaniwa, Naoko; Somervuo, Panu; Fiedler, Hans-Peter; Kreuze, Jan F.; Rokka, Veli-Matti; Bang, Hans; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Valkonen, Jari P. T. (2018)
    Streptomyces spp. are a highly diverse group of bacteria most of which are soil-inhabiting saprophytes. A few are plant pathogens that produce a family of phytotoxins called thaxtomins and cause significant economic losses, e.g., by reducing the marketability of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum). In northern Europe, S. scabies, S. turgidiscabies and S. europaeiscabiei are the most common plant pathogenic species. In this study, a Streptomyces strain isolated from a netted scab lesion on a tuber of potato cv. Bintje in northern Sweden was identified as S. turgidiscabies but was found to differ in the genomic region carrying genes required for thaxtomin biosynthesis. Our results showed that the strain did not produce thaxtomin but rather phytotoxin fridamycin E, which is an anthraquinone novel to plant pathogenic Streptomyces spp. Fridamycin E was shown to reduce or inhibit sprouting of potato microtubers in vitro. While fridamycin E is known to have antibiotic activity against Gram-positive bacteria, the inhibitory activity of fridamycin E on plant growth is a novel finding.
  • Sikorskaite, Sidona; Rajamaki, Minna-Liisa; Baniulis, Danas; Stanys, Vidmantas; Valkonen, Jari P. T. (2013)