Browsing by Subject "Potyvirus"

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  • Rajamaki, Minna-Liisa; Sikorskaite-Gudziuniene, Sidona; Sarmah, Nandita; Varjosalo, Markku; Valkonen, Jari P. T. (2020)
    BackgroundInfection of plants by viruses interferes with expression and subcellular localization of plant proteins. Potyviruses comprise the largest and most economically damaging group of plant-infecting RNA viruses. In virus-infected cells, at least two potyviral proteins localize to nucleus but reasons remain partly unknown.ResultsIn this study, we examined changes in the nuclear proteome of leaf cells from a diploid potato line (Solanum tuberosum L.) after infection with potato virus A (PVA; genus Potyvirus; Potyviridae) and compared the data with that acquired for healthy leaves. Gel-free liquid chromatography-coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify 807 nuclear proteins in the potato line v2-108; of these proteins, 370 were detected in at least two samples of healthy leaves. A total of 313 proteins were common in at least two samples of healthy and PVA-infected leaves; of these proteins, 8 showed differential accumulation. Sixteen proteins were detected exclusively in the samples from PVA-infected leaves, whereas other 16 proteins were unique to healthy leaves. The protein Dnajc14 was only detected in healthy leaves, whereas different ribosomal proteins, ribosome-biogenesis proteins, and RNA splicing-related proteins were over-represented in the nuclei of PVA-infected leaves. Two virus-encoded proteins were identified in the samples of PVA-infected leaves.ConclusionsOur results show that PVA infection alters especially ribosomes and splicing-related proteins in the nucleus of potato leaves. The data increase our understanding of potyvirus infection and the role of nucleus in infection. To our knowledge, this is the first study of the nuclear proteome of potato leaves and one of the few studies of changes occurring in nuclear proteomes in response to plant virus infection.
  • Rajamäki, Minna-Liisa; Sikorskaite-Gudziuniene, Sidona; Sarmah, Nandita; Varjosalo, Markku; Valkonen, Jari P.T. (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background Infection of plants by viruses interferes with expression and subcellular localization of plant proteins. Potyviruses comprise the largest and most economically damaging group of plant-infecting RNA viruses. In virus-infected cells, at least two potyviral proteins localize to nucleus but reasons remain partly unknown. Results In this study, we examined changes in the nuclear proteome of leaf cells from a diploid potato line (Solanum tuberosum L.) after infection with potato virus A (PVA; genus Potyvirus; Potyviridae) and compared the data with that acquired for healthy leaves. Gel-free liquid chromatography–coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify 807 nuclear proteins in the potato line v2–108; of these proteins, 370 were detected in at least two samples of healthy leaves. A total of 313 proteins were common in at least two samples of healthy and PVA-infected leaves; of these proteins, 8 showed differential accumulation. Sixteen proteins were detected exclusively in the samples from PVA-infected leaves, whereas other 16 proteins were unique to healthy leaves. The protein Dnajc14 was only detected in healthy leaves, whereas different ribosomal proteins, ribosome-biogenesis proteins, and RNA splicing–related proteins were over-represented in the nuclei of PVA-infected leaves. Two virus-encoded proteins were identified in the samples of PVA-infected leaves. Conclusions Our results show that PVA infection alters especially ribosomes and splicing-related proteins in the nucleus of potato leaves. The data increase our understanding of potyvirus infection and the role of nucleus in infection. To our knowledge, this is the first study of the nuclear proteome of potato leaves and one of the few studies of changes occurring in nuclear proteomes in response to plant virus infection.
  • Yan, Zhi-Yong; Xu, Xiao-Jie; Fang, Le; Cheng, De-Jie; Tian, Yan-Ping; Geng, Chao; Li, Xiang-Dong; Valkonen, Jari P. T. (2021)
    Potyviruses move to neighboring cells in the form of virus particles or a coat protein (CP)-containing ribonucleoprotein complex. However, the precise roles of RNA-binding residues in potyviral CP in viral cell-to-cell movement remain to be elucidated. In this study, we predicted the three-dimensional model of tobacco vein banding mosaic virus (TVBMV)-encoded CP and found nine residues presumably located in the CP RNA-binding pocket. Substitutions of the two basic residues at positions 192 and 225 (R-192 and K-225) with either alanine, cysteine, or glutamic acid abolished TVBMV cell-to cell and systemic movement in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. These substitutions also reduced the replication of the mutant viruses. Results from the electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that the RNA-binding activity of mutant CPs derived from R-192 or K-225 substitutions was significantly lower than that of wild-type CP. Analysis of purified virus particles showed that mutant viruses with R-192 or K-225 substitutions formed RNA-free virus-like particles. Mutations of R-192 and K-225 did not change the CP plasmodesmata localization. The wild-type TVBMV CP could rescue the deficient cell-to-cell movement of mutant viruses. Moreover, deletion of any of the other seven residues also abolished TVBMV cell-to-cell movement and reduced the CP RNA-binding activity. The corresponding nine residues in watermelon mosaic virus CP were also found to play essential roles in virus cell-to-cell movement. In conclusion, residues R-192 and K-225 in the CP RNA-binding pocket are critical for viral RNA binding and affect both virus replication and cell-to-cell movement.
  • Yan, Zhi-Yong; Cheng, De-Jie; Liu, Ling-Zhi; Geng, Chao; Tian, Yan-Ping; Li, Xiang-Dong; Valkonen, Jari P. T. (2021)
    Coat proteins (CPs) play critical roles in potyvirus cell-to-cell movement. However, the underlying mechanism controlling them remains unclear. Here, we show that substitutions of alanine, glutamic acid, or lysine for the conserved residue tryptophan at position 122 (W-122) in tobacco vein banding mosaic virus (TVBMV) CP abolished virus cell-to-cell movement in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. In agroinfiltrated N. benthamiana leaf patches, both the CP and RNA accumulation levels of three W-122 mutant viruses were significantly reduced compared with those of wild-type TVBMV, and CP accumulated to a low level similar to that of a replication-deficient mutant. The results of polyprotein transient expression experiments indicated that CP instability was responsible for the significantly low CP accumulation levels of the three W-122 mutant viruses. The substitution of W-122 did not affect CP plasmodesmata localization or virus particle formation; however, the substitution significantly reduced the number of virus particles. The wild-type TVBMV CP could complement the reduced replication and abolished cell-to-cell movement of the mutant viruses. When the codon for W-122 was mutated to that for a different aromatic residue, phenylalanine or tyrosine, the resultant mutant viruses moved systemically and accumulated up to 80% of the wild-type TVBMV level. Similar results were obtained for the corresponding amino acids of W-122 in the watermelon mosaic virus and potato virus Y CPs. Therefore, we conclude that the aromatic ring in W-122 in the core domain of the potyviral CP is critical for cell-to-cell movement through the effects on CP stability and viral replication.