Browsing by Subject "Pragmatics"

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  • Jag vet 
    Lindström, Jan (Carlsson bokförlag, 2019)
    This chapter gives a concise account of the use of the sentence fragment "jag vet" (I know) in Swedish conversation. The literal content of the expression has bleached and "jag vet" often functions as a responsive device, displaying recognition and sometimes even resistance towards what the prior speaker has said or suggested. The expression is thus a vehicle for managing epistemic relations and intersubjectivity between participants in social interaction.
  • Henricson, Sofie; Lindström, Jan (2019)
    In this study we present an interactional linguistic analysis of pseudo-clefts in Swedish based on audio and video recordings of everyday and institutional conversations, resulting in a collection of 80 instances. The ‘free relative’ initiating the construction can have an English-style wh-word as an opener ("va" ‘what), but in the majority of cases there is a fused item consisting of a demonstrative and a relativizer ("det som"), in resemblance of "ce que" in French. Our collection shows that there is variation in the degree to which pseudo-cleft constructions are syntactically integrated: from fully integrated biclausal constructions (cleft clause + copula verb + main clause) to non-copular variants and further to variants in which the latter clause stands in a loose relation to the cleft clause or is aborted or even missing. The analysis shows that the initial part (cleft clause, or A-part) has an important turn-projecting function: it alerts the recipient about the pragmatic course of the speaker’s unfolding turn. This projected content is very much coded in the predicate verb of the A-part, which often refers to the speaker’s stance towards the issue at hand. Moreover, the construction constitutes a shift in the speaker’s ongoing reasoning or a narrative, signalling a transition from a positive to a critical stance or from the background of a telling to its peak or point. Half of our instances come from everyday interactions, the other half from institutional settings with asymmetric participant roles of the expert–non-expert kind. One feature that stands out in the institutional contexts is that pseudo-cleft constructions are typically produced by the expert part. Our findings shed new light on structural and functional properties of pseudo-clefts not only in the Swedish language but also more generally in mundane and institutional spoken interaction.
  • Norrby, Catrin; Lindström, Jan; Nilsson, Jenny; Wide, Camilla (John Benjamins, 2020)
    Many languages are pluricentric in nature, i.e. they exist as a national or official language in more than one nation. They range from languages diffused widely across different continents, such as English or Spanish, to languages predominantly used in neighbouring countries, such as Dutch or Swedish. In the following we introduce readers to both foundational and more recent research of pluricentric languages, as well as current debates in the field. While the first attempts to describe the conditions typical of pluricentric languages appeared in the 1960s, it took until the 1980s for the field to establish itself, through theoretical as well as empirical accounts of pluricentricity. From early on, there have been accounts of the power relationships between different varieties of pluricentric languages, in particular with regard to power asymmetries between national varieties, often expressed as dominant versus non-dominant varieties. Among other things, this has resulted in extensive research into the varying status of non-dominant national, or sub-national, varieties, an endeavour which also draws attention to language ideologies and linguistic rights of national (and other) varieties of pluricentric languages. A related issue here concerns whether the description primarily should follow national borders or concern regional variation within a language, often subsumed under the headings pluricentricity and pluriareality respectively. Parallel to such theoretically motivated inquiry, there has been substantial empirical research from the outset. The early, foundational work in the field was primarily concerned with the description of linguistic structural differences, such as phonological, morphological or lexical variation between varieties of pluricentric languages. This interest has hardly abated, but it has been complemented by other perspectives in more recent years. In particular, there has been an increasing emphasis on pragmatic and interactional variation. The shift in interest to include pragmatic variation can to a large extent be credited to work within the field variational pragmatics where pluricentricity is treated as a case of regional variation. While studies in variational pragmatics have explored micro-pragmatic variation, based on both experimental and actual discourse, more recently others have focused on the sequentiality of authentic interactional data from the perspective of conversation analysis and interactional linguistics. Even though some methodological differences exist between variational pragmatics and the interactional paradigm, they also have much in common and there has been cross-fruition between the two.
  • Lindström, Jan Krister; Wide, Camilla (Göteborg University, 2017)
    Göteborgsstudier i nordisk språkvetenskap
    I det här bidraget koncentrerar vi oss på inledningssekvenser i servicesamtal på svenska som spelats in vid biljettkassor på teatrar, arenor och kulturcenter i Sverige och Finland. Vi fokuserar specifikt ärendepresentationer, dvs. hur kunderna formulerar orsaken till sitt besök. Typiska ärenden i materialet utgörs av inköp av biljetter eller avhämtning av på förhand bokade biljetter. Våra frågeställningar gäller utformningen av ärendepresentationer: vilken variation finns det i den grammatiska formen av den här typen av social handling, vilka pragmatiska markörer förekommer i den, i vilken mån är variationen förknippad med ärendets art eller varieteten (sverigesvenska, finlandssvenska)? I vårt material kan vi observera en rätt stor variation i hur kunderna formulerar sitt ärende: från korthuggna, frasformade yttranden (Matchen ikväll) till satsformade deklarativa eller interrogativa yttranden med eller utan modala element (Ja skulle komma å lösa ut två biljetter; Har du några biljetter kvar på måndag?). Kundernas turer kan även innehålla pragmatiska markörer av typen du (Sverige), hördu (Finland), va (Sverige), dedär (Finland). Vidare kan turen där ärendet presenteras föregås av en förklarande försekvens eller följas av en eftersekvens i samma syfte. Undersökningsmaterialet omfattar ca 300 videoinspelade sverigesvenska och finlandssvenska servicesamtal från 2013–14. Materialet har insamlats inom forskningsprogrammet Interaktion och variation i pluricentriska språk (IVIP), som undersöker språkliga och interaktionella praktiker i sverigesvenska och finlandssvenska (se t.ex. Norrby m.fl. 2015). Metodiskt anknyter vår analys till variationspragmatik och interaktionell lingvistik (Schneider & Barron 2008, Couper-Kuhlen & Selting 2001).