Browsing by Subject "Prebiotics"

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  • Swann, J. R.; Rajilic-Stojanovic, M.; Salonen, A.; Sakwinska, O.; Gill, C.; Meynier, A.; Fanca-Berthon, P.; Schelkle, B.; Segata, N.; Shortt, C.; Tuohy, K.; Hasselwander, O. (2020)
    With the growing appreciation for the influence of the intestinal microbiota on human health, there is increasing motivation to design and refine interventions to promote favorable shifts in the microbiota and their interactions with the host. Technological advances have improved our understanding and ability to measure this indigenous population and the impact of such interventions. However, the rapid growth and evolution of the field, as well as the diversity of methods used, parameters measured and populations studied, make it difficult to interpret the significance of the findings and translate their outcomes to the wider population. This can prevent comparisons across studies and hinder the drawing of appropriate conclusions. This review outlines considerations to facilitate the design, implementation and interpretation of human gut microbiota intervention studies relating to foods based upon our current understanding of the intestinal microbiota, its functionality and interactions with the human host. This includes parameters associated with study design, eligibility criteria, statistical considerations, characterization of products and the measurement of compliance. Methodologies and markers to assess compositional and functional changes in the microbiota, following interventions are discussed in addition to approaches to assess changes in microbiota-host interactions and host responses. Last, EU legislative aspects in relation to foods and health claims are presented. While it is appreciated that the field of gastrointestinal microbiology is rapidly evolving, such guidance will assist in the design and interpretation of human gut microbiota interventional studies relating to foods.
  • Gerritsen, Jacoline; Hornung, Bastian; Renckens, Bernadette; van Hijum, Sacha A. F. T.; dos Santos, Vitor A. P. Martins; Rijkers, Ger T.; Schaap, Peter J.; de Vos, Willem M.; Smidt, Hauke (2017)
    Background. The microbiota in the small intestine relies on their capacity to rapidly import and ferment available carbohydrates to survive in a complex and highly competitive ecosystem. Understanding how these communities function requires elucidating the role of its key players, the interactions among them and with their environment/host. Methods. The genome of the gut bacterium Romboutsia ilealis CRIBT was sequenced with multiple technologies (Illumina paired-end, mate-pair and PacBio). The transcriptome was sequenced (Illumina HiSeq) after growth on three different carbohydrate sources, and short chain fatty acids were measured via HPLC. Results. We present the complete genome of Romboutsia ilealis CRIBT, a natural inhabitant and key player of the small intestine of rats. R. ilealis CRIBT possesses a circular chromosome of 2,581,778 bp and a plasmid of 6,145 bp, carrying 2,351 and eight predicted protein coding sequences, respectively. Analysis of the genome revealed limited capacity to synthesize amino acids and vitamins, whereas multiple and partially redundant pathways for the utilization of different relatively simple carbohydrates are present. Transcriptome analysis allowed identification of the key components in the degradation of glucose, L-fucose and fructo-oligosaccharides. Discussion. This revealed that R. ilealis CRIBT is adapted to a nutrient-rich environment where carbohydrates, amino acids and vitamins are abundantly available.
  • Knip, Mikael; Honkanen, Jarno (2017)
    Purpose of Review The purpose of this review is to summarize potential modulations of the intestinal microbiome aimed at preventing or delaying progression to overt type 1 diabetes in the light of recently identified perturbations of the gut microbiota associated with the development of type 1 diabetes. Recent Findings Accumulated data suggest that the gut microbiota is involved at two different steps in the evolution of type 1 diabetes. At the first step, the intestinal tract is colonized by a microbial community unable to provide an adequate education of the immune system. As a consequence, the infant acquires susceptibility to immune-mediated diseases, type 1 diabetes included. At the other step, the young child seroconverts to positivity for diabetes-associated autoantibodies. This is preceded or accompanied by a decrease in the diversity of the intestinal microbiota and an increased abundance of Bacteroides species. These changes will affect the disease process promoting progression toward overt type 1 diabetes. Summary By providing specific probiotics, one can affect the colonization of the intestinal tract in the newborn infant or strengthen the immune education in early life. Human milk oligosaccharides function as nutrients for "healthy" bacteria. Dietary interventions applying modified starches can influence the numbers and activities of both autoreactive and regulatory T cells and provide protection against autoimmune diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice. Modulation of the intestinal microbiome holds the promise of effective protection against human type 1 diabetes.