Browsing by Subject "Prehospital"

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  • Irfan, Furqan B.; Consunji, Rafael; El-Menyar, Ayman; George, Pooja; Peralta, Ruben; Al-Thani, Hassan; Thomas, Stephen Hodges; Alinier, Guillaume; Shuaib, Ashfaq; Al-Suwaidi, Jassim; Singh, Rajvir; Castren, Maaret; Cameron, Peter A.; Djarv, Therese (2017)
    Background: Traumatic cardiac arrest studies have reported improved survival rates recently, ranging from 1.7-7.5%. This population-based nationwide study aims to describe the epidemiology, interventions and outcomes, and determine predictors of survival from out-of-hospital traumatic cardiac arrest (OHTCA) in Qatar. Methods: An observational retrospective population-based study was conducted on OHTCA patients in Qatar, from January 2010 to December 2015. Traumatic cardiac arrest was redefined to include out-of-hospital traumatic cardiac arrest (OHTCA) and in-hospital traumatic cardiac arrest (IHTCA). Results: A total of 410 OHTCA patients were included in the 6-year study period. The mean annual crude incidence rate of OHTCA was 4.0 per 100,000 population, in Qatar. OHTCA mostly occurred in males with a median age of 33. There was a preponderance of blunt injuries (94.3%) and head injuries (66.3%). Overall, the survival rate was 2.4%. Shockable rhythm, prehospital external hemorrhage control, in-hospital blood transfusion, and surgery were associated with higher odds of survival. Adrenaline (Epinephrine) lowered the odds of survival. Conclusion: The incidence of OHTCA was less than expected, with a low rate of survival. Thoracotomy was not associated with improved survival while Adrenaline administration lowered survival in OHTCA patients with majority blunt injuries. Interventions to enable early prehospital control of hemorrhage, blood transfusion, thoracostomy and surgery improved survival. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Venesoja, Anu; Lindström, Veronica; Aronen, Pasi; Castrén, Maaret; Tella, Susanna (2021)
    Background: Emergency Medical Services (EMS) is, by its nature, a challenging context that may create risks for both patients and employees. It is also known that an organisation’s safety culture has an influence on both patient and employee safety. Finnish EMS organisations lack knowledge of how their safety culture is perceived by their employees. Aim: This study aims to test the psychometric properties of the Emergency Medical Services Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (EMS-SAQ) in a Finnish EMS setting. We also explore the connections between individual- and organisation-based characteristics and safety attitudes in the Finnish EMS. Methods: A cross-sectional survey study design was used. The EMS-SAQ was used to collect data via social media. The instrument measures six domains of workplace safety culture: safety climate, teamwork climate, perceptions of management, job satisfaction, working conditions and stress recognition. The 5-point Likert scale was converted to a 100-point scale and mean ≥ 75 was dichotomized as a positive. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was carried out to validate the EMS-SAQ in a Finnish setting. Other results were analysed by using non-parametric tests. Results: 327 responses were included in the analysis. CFA showed that the total EMS-SAQ model had acceptable goodness-of-fit values in the Finnish EMS setting. Total mean scores for each safety culture domain were identified non-positively (mean score < 75); safety climate 60.12, teamwork climate 60.92, perceptions of management 56.31, stress recognition 64.55, working conditions 53.43 and job satisfaction 70.36. Higher education was connected to lower job satisfaction and the teamwork climate within the individual characteristics. All organisation-based characteristics caused at least one significant variation in the safety culture domain scores. Working area significantly affected (p < 0.05) five out of the six safety culture domain scores. Conclusions: The EMS-SAQ is a valid tool to evaluate safety culture among the Finnish EMS organisations; it offers a novel method to evaluate safety and patient safety within the Finnish EMS organisations. According to the findings, the organisation-based characteristics more likely had an impact on safety attitudes than did the individual-based characteristics. Therefore, it is suggested that the Finnish EMS organisations undertake safety culture development at the organisational level.
  • Sanmark, Johan (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Vid återupplivningar på HUCS Peijas sjukvårdsområde utlarmas såväl ambulans som läkarhelikopter. Denna undersökning jämför ambulanssjukvårdarnas och läkarhelikopterns läkares journalföring vid återupplivningssituationer under år 2011. Sammanlagt 85 patientfall identifierades och i 69 fall av dessa hittades såväl ambulansjournalen som läkarjournalen. I undersökningen framgick att det råder stora skillnader i dokumentationen mellan läkar- och ambulansjournalerna. Endast i 4 av 22 patienter som uppnått spontan circulation (ROSC) var ROSC-tiden samma i bägge journalerna. Också i de antecknade tidsintervallen för olika interventioner fanns stora diskrepanser. Endast i 1 fall av 69 var läkarens ankomsttid samma i bägge journalerna. Anteckning om säkrad luftväg saknades i 25 ambulansjournaler och 18 läkarjournaler. Den stora diskrepansen mellan journalerna var överraskande. Ifall man tyr sig till endast endera källan blir databortfallet stort och datans relevans och tillförlitlighet kan ifrågasättas. I fortsättningen borde journalerna utvecklas, så att journalföringen blir enklare och tillförlitligare.
  • Pirneskoski, Jussi; Tamminen, Joonas; Kallonen, Antti; Nurmi, Jouni; Kuisma, Markku; Olkkola, Klaus T.; Hoppu, Sanna (2020)
    Aim of the study: The National Early Warning Score (NEWS) is a validated method for predicting clinical deterioration in hospital wards, but its performance in prehospital settings remains controversial. Modern machine learning models may outperform traditional statistical analyses for predicting short-term mortality. Thus, we aimed to compare the mortality prediction accuracy of NEWS and random forest machine learning using prehospital vital signs. Methods: In this retrospective study, all electronic ambulance mission reports between 2008 and 2015 in a single EMS system were collected. Adult patients (>= 18 years) were included in the analysis. Random forest models with and without blood glucose were compared to the traditional NEWS for predicting one-day mortality. A ten-fold cross-validation method was applied to train and validate the random forest models. Results: A total of 26,458 patients were included in the study of whom 278 (1.0%) died within one day of ambulance mission. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for one-day mortality was 0.836 (95% CI, 0.810-0.860) for NEWS, 0.858 (95% CI, 0.832-0.883) for a random forest trained with NEWS variables only and 0.868 (0.843-0.892) for a random forest trained with NEWS variables and blood glucose. Conclusion: A random forest algorithm trained with NEWS variables was superior to traditional NEWS for predicting one-day mortality in adult prehospital patients, although the risk of selection bias must be acknowledged. The inclusion of blood glucose in the model further improved its predictive performance.
  • Heino, A.; Laukkanen-Nevala, P.; Raatiniemi, L.; Tommila, M.; Nurmi, J.; Olkinuora, A.; Virkkunen, P.; Iirola, T. (2020)
    Background Several scores and codes are used in prehospital clinical quality registries but little is known of their reliability. The aim of this study is to evaluate the inter-rater reliability of the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status (ASA-PS) classification system, HEMS benefit score (HBS), International Classification of Primary Care, second edition (ICPC-2) and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status in a helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) clinical quality registry (CQR). Methods All physicians and paramedics working in HEMS in Finland and responsible for patient registration were asked to participate in this study. The participants entered data of six written fictional missions in the national CQR. The inter-rater reliability of the ASA-PS, HBS, ICPC-2 and ECOG were evaluated using an overall agreement and free-marginal multi-rater kappa (Kappa(free)). Results All 59 Finnish HEMS physicians and paramedics were invited to participate in this study, of which 43 responded and 16 did not answer. One participant was excluded due to unfinished data entering. ASA-PS had an overall agreement of 40.2% and Kappa(free) of 0.28 in this study. HBS had an overall agreement of 44.7% and Kappa(free) of 0.39. ICPC-2 coding had an overall agreement of 51.5% and Kappa(free) of 0.47. ECOG had an overall agreement of 49.6% and Kappa(free) of 0.40. Conclusion This study suggests a marked inter-rater unreliability in prehospital patient scoring and coding even in a relatively uniform group of practitioners working in a highly focused environment. This indicates that the scores and codes should be specifically designed or adapted for prehospital use, and the users should be provided with clear and thorough instructions on how to use them.
  • Heino, A.; Laukkanen-Nevala, P.; Raatiniemi, L.; Tommila, M.; Nurmi, J.; Olkinuora, A.; Virkkunen, I.; Iirola, T. (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background Several scores and codes are used in prehospital clinical quality registries but little is known of their reliability. The aim of this study is to evaluate the inter-rater reliability of the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status (ASA-PS) classification system, HEMS benefit score (HBS), International Classification of Primary Care, second edition (ICPC-2) and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status in a helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) clinical quality registry (CQR). Methods All physicians and paramedics working in HEMS in Finland and responsible for patient registration were asked to participate in this study. The participants entered data of six written fictional missions in the national CQR. The inter-rater reliability of the ASA-PS, HBS, ICPC-2 and ECOG were evaluated using an overall agreement and free-marginal multi-rater kappa (Κfree). Results All 59 Finnish HEMS physicians and paramedics were invited to participate in this study, of which 43 responded and 16 did not answer. One participant was excluded due to unfinished data entering. ASA-PS had an overall agreement of 40.2% and Κfree of 0.28 in this study. HBS had an overall agreement of 44.7% and Κfree of 0.39. ICPC-2 coding had an overall agreement of 51.5% and Κfree of 0.47. ECOG had an overall agreement of 49.6% and Κfree of 0.40. Conclusion This study suggests a marked inter-rater unreliability in prehospital patient scoring and coding even in a relatively uniform group of practitioners working in a highly focused environment. This indicates that the scores and codes should be specifically designed or adapted for prehospital use, and the users should be provided with clear and thorough instructions on how to use them.
  • Castren, M.; Mäkinen, M.; Nilsson, J.; Lindstrom, V. (2017)
    The aim of the study was to investigate whether interprofessional education (IPE) and interprofessional collaboration (IPC) during the educational program had an impact on prehospital emergency care nurses' (PECN) self-reported competence towards the end of the study program. A cross-sectional study using the Nurse Professional Competence (NPC) Scale was conducted. A comparison was made between PECN students from Finland who experienced IPE and IPC in the clinical setting, and PECN students from Sweden with no IPE and a low level of IPC. Forty-one students participated (Finnish n = 19, Swedish n = 22). The self-reported competence was higher among the Swedish students. A statistically significant difference was found in one competence area; legislation in nursing and safety planning (p <0.01). The Finnish students scored significantly higher on items related to interprofessional teamwork. Both the Swedish and Finnish students' self-reported professional competence was relatively low according to the NPC Scale. Increasing IPC and IPE in combination with offering a higher academic degree may be an option when developing the ambulance service and the study program for PECNs. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Vihonen, Hanna; Tierala, Ilkka; Kuisma, Markku; Puolakka, Jyrki; Westerbacka, Jukka; Nurmi, Jouni (2014)