Browsing by Subject "Prevalence"

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  • Honkamäki, Jasmin; Hisinger-Mölkänen, Hanna; Ilmarinen, Pinja; Piirilä, Päivi; Tuomisto, Leena E.; Andersen, Heidi; Huhtala, Heini; Sovijärvi, Anssi; Backman, Helena; Lundbäck, Bo; Rönmark, Eva; Lehtimäki, Lauri; Kankaanranta, Hannu (2019)
    Background: Asthma is currently divided into different phenotypes, with age at onset as a relevant differentiating factor. In addition, asthma with onset in adulthood seems to have a poorer prognosis, but studies investigating age-specific incidence of asthma with a wide age span are scarce. Objective: To evaluate incidence of asthma diagnosis at different ages and differences between child- and adult-diagnosed asthma in a large population-based study, with gender-specific analyzes included. Methods: In 2016, a respiratory questionnaire was sent to 8000 randomly selected subjects aged 20-69 years in western Finland. After two reminders, 4173 (52.3%) subjects responded. Incidence rate of asthma was retrospectively estimated based on the reported age of asthma onset. Adult-diagnosed asthma was defined as a physician-diagnosis of asthma made at >= 18 years of age. Results: Among those with physician-diagnosed asthma, altogether, 63.7% of subjects, 58.4% of men and 67.8% of women, reported adult-diagnosed asthma. Incidence of asthma diagnosis was calculated in 10-year age groups and it peaked in young boys (0-9 years) and middle-aged women (40-49 years) and the average incidence rate during the examined period between 1946 and 2015 was 2.2/1000/year. Adult-diagnosed asthma became the dominant phenotype among those with physician-diagnosed asthma by age of 50 years and 38 years in men and women, respectively. Conclusions: Asthma is mainly diagnosed during adulthood and the incidence of asthma diagnosis peaks in middle-aged women. Asthma diagnosed in adulthood should be considered more in clinical practice and management guidelines.
  • Aro, Karoliina; Nieminen, Pekka; Louvanto, Karolina; Jakobsson, Maija; Virtanen, Seppo; Lehtinen, Matti; Dillner, Joakim; Kalliala, Ilkka (2019)
    Background and aim. Age-specific type-distribution of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) in cervical precancerous lesions is subject to change in the HPV vaccination era. Knowing the pre-vaccination type distribution helps to anticipate changes induced by mass vaccination and optimize screening. Methods. We recruited 1279 women referred to colposcopy for abnormal cytology into a population-based study on HPV type distribution in diagnostic cervical samples (ISRCTN10933736). The HPV genotyping findings were grouped as: HPV16/18+, other hrHPV+ (HPV31/33/35/39/45/51/52/56/58/59/66/68), non-vaccine targeted hrHPV+ (HPV35/39/51/56/59/66/68), low-risk HPV, and HPV negative. We estimated the HPV group-specific prevalence rates according to diagnostic histopathological findings in the age groups of = 45 (n = 326). Results. Altogether 503 cases with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse (HSIL+) were diagnosed. More than half, 285 (56.7%) of HSIL+ cases were associated with HPV16/18: 64.3% (101/157) in women = 45 years of age (RR 0.55, 95% CI 039-0.75). Conversely, other hrHPV's were associated with 191 (38.0%) of HSIL+: 31.9% (50/157) in women = 45 (RR 1.71, 95% CI 126-2.33). The proportion of non-vaccine targeted hrHPV and HPV negative HSIL+ increased with advancing age. Conclusions. Pre-vaccination HPV type distribution in HSIL+ was distinctly polarised by age with HPV16/18 attributed disease being markedly more prevalent in women aged
  • Pakkasela, Johanna; Ilmarinen, Pinja; Honkamäki, Jasmin; Tuomisto, Leena E.; Andersen, Heidi; Piirilä, Päivi; Hisinger-Mölkänen, Hanna; Sovijärvi, Anssi; Backman, Helena; Lundbäck, Bo; Rönmark, Eva; Kankaanranta, Hannu; Lehtimäki, Lauri (2020)
    Background Onset of allergic asthma has a strong association with childhood but only a few studies have analyzed incidence of asthma from childhood to late adulthood in relation to allergy. The purpose of the study was to assess age-specific incidence of allergic and non-allergic asthma. Methods Questionnaires were sent to 8000 randomly selected recipients aged 20-69 years in Finland in 2016. The response rate was 52.3% (n = 4173). The questionnaire included questions on e.g. atopic status, asthma and age at asthma diagnosis. Asthma was classified allergic if also a physician-diagnosed allergic rhinitis was reported. Results The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma and allergic rhinitis were 11.2 and 17.8%, respectively. Of the 445 responders with physician-diagnosed asthma, 52% were classified as allergic and 48% as non-allergic. Median ages at diagnosis of allergic and non-allergic asthma were 19 and 35 years, respectively. Among subjects with asthma diagnosis at ages 0-9, 10-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59 and 60-69 years, 70, 62, 58, 53, 38, 19 and 33%, respectively, were allergic. For non-allergic asthma, the incidence rate was lowest in children and young adults (0.7/1000/year). It increased after middle age and was highest in older age groups (2.4/1000/year in 50-59 years old). Conclusions The incidence of allergic asthma is highest in early childhood and steadily decreases with advancing age, while the incidence of non-allergic asthma is low until it peaks in late adulthood. After approximately 40 years of age, most of the new cases of asthma are non-allergic.
  • Torniainen-Holm, Minna; Suvisaari, Jaana; Lindgren, Maija; Härkänen, Tommi; Dickerson, Faith; Yolken, Robert H. (2018)
    Background: Earlier studies have documented an association between cytomegalovirus and cognitive impairment, but results have been inconsistent. Few studies have investigated the association of cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus with cognitive decline longitudinally. Our aim was to examine whether cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus are associated with cognitive decline, in adults. Method: The study sample is from the Finnish Health 2000 Survey (BRIF8901, n = 7112), which is representative of the Finnish adult population. The sample was followed up after 11 years in the Health 2011 Survey. In addition, persons with dementia were identified from healthcare registers. Results: In the Finnish population aged 30 and over, the seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus was estimated to be 84% and the seroprevalence of Epstein-Barr virus 98%. Seropositivity of the viruses and antibody levels were mostly not associated with cognitive performance. In the middle-aged adult group, cytomegalovirus serointensity was associated with impaired performance in verbal learning. However, the association disappeared when corrected for multiple testing. No interactions between infection and time or between the two infections were significant when corrected for multiple testing. Seropositivity did not predict dementia diagnosis. Conclusions: The results suggest that adult levels of antibodies to cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus may not be associated with a significant decline in cognitive function or with dementia at population level. (C) 2018 Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Koskenmies, Sari; Ilmonen, Suvi; Mäkitie, Antti (2020)
  • Siirala, Waltteri; Vainionpää, Aki; Kainu, Annette; Korpela, Jaana; Olkkola, Klaus; Aantaa, Riku (2017)
  • Grönthal, Thomas; Ollilainen, Matti; Eklund, Marjut; Piiparinen, Heli; Gindonis, Veera; Junnila, Jouni; Saijonmaa-Koulumies, Leena; Liimatainen, Riitta; Rantala, Merja (2015)
    Background: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) and Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are common multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria in dogs. In 2012-2013 three dogs of the Guide Dog School of the Finnish Federation of the Visually Impaired were found to be MRSP positive. Guide dogs have regular contact with each other during their first year of life and prolonged contact when in training. Since dogs are placed in different parts of Finland after training, there is a risk for national spread of MDR bacteria. In this study the prevalence of MRSP and MRSA, as well as the risk factors for MRSP were determined in the Finnish guide dog population. MRSP isolates were investigated using molecular methods and compared to the earlier isolates. Results: Out of 132 tested dogs 4 were MRSP positive thus giving the prevalence estimate of 3% (95% CI: 1-8%) for MRSP in the target population. MRSA was not detected (prevalence estimate 0%, 95% CI: 0-3%). Risk factors associated with MRSP were being a breeding bitch (OR = 8.4; 95% CI: 1.1-64.1, P = 0.012), the number of veterinary visits (OR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.0-1.5, P = 0.025) and number of antimicrobial courses (OR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.0-2.55; P = 0.035). Identified MRSP isolates belonged to five different sequence types (ST45, 71, 402, 403 and 404). All ST71 isolates carried SCCmec II-III, while the SCCmec type of the ST45 and ST402 (a single locus variant of ST45) isolates were non-typeable with the method used. Conclusions: MRSP and MRSA had low prevalence in the studied dog population despite the close contact between dogs, and the MRSP population was heterogenic. Antimicrobial therapy and veterinary visits are risk factors for MRSP even among a small case group.
  • Kaunisto, Jaana; Salomaa, Eija-Riitta; Hodgson, Ulla; Kaarteenaho, Riitta; Myllärniemi, Marjukka (2013)
  • Charvat, Hadrien; Goto, Atsushi; Goto, Maki; Inoue, Machiko; Heianza, Yoriko; Arase, Yasuji; Sone, Hirohito; Nakagami, Tomoko; Song, Xin; Qiao, Qing; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Inoue, Manami (2015)
    Aims/IntroductionTo provide age- and sex-specific trends, age-standardized trends, and projections of diabetes prevalence through the year 2030 in the Japanese adult population. Materials and MethodsIn the present meta-regression analysis, we included 161,087 adults from six studies and nine national health surveys carried out between 1988 and 2011 in Japan. We assessed the prevalence of diabetes using a recorded history of diabetes or, for the population of individuals without known diabetes, either a glycated hemoglobin level of 6.5% (48mmol/mol) or the 1999 World Health Organization criteria (i.e., a fasting plasma glucose level of 126mg/dL and/or 2-h glucose level of 200mg/dL in the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test). ResultsFor both sexes, prevalence appeared to remain unchanged over the years in all age categories except for men aged 70years or older, in whom a significant increase in prevalence with time was observed. Age-standardized diabetes prevalence estimates based on the Japanese population of the corresponding year showed marked increasing trends: diabetes prevalence was 6.1% among women (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.5-6.7), 9.9% (95% CI 9.2-10.6) among men, and 7.9% (95% CI 7.5-8.4) among the total population in 2010, and was expected to rise by 2030 to 6.7% (95% CI 5.2-9.2), 13.1% (95% CI 10.9-16.7) and 9.8% (95% CI 8.5-12.0), respectively. In contrast, the age-standardized diabetes prevalence using a fixed population appeared to remain unchanged. ConclusionsThis large-scale meta-regression analysis shows that a substantial increase in diabetes prevalence is expected in Japan during the next few decades, mainly as a result of the aging of the adult population.
  • Tiittala, Paula; Ristola, Matti; Liitsola, Kirsi; Ollgren, Jukka; Koponen, Päivikki; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Hiltunen-Back, Eija; Davidkin, Irja; Kivela, Pia (2018)
    Background: Migrants are considered a key population at risk for sexually transmitted and blood-borne diseases in Europe. Prevalence data to support the design of infectious diseases screening protocols are scarce. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B and C, human immunodefiency virus (HIV) infection and syphilis in specific migrant groups in Finland and to assess risk factors for missed diagnosis. Methods: A random sample of 3000 Kurdish, Russian, or Somali origin migrants in Finland was invited to a migrant population-based health interview and examination survey during 2010-2012. Participants in the health examination were offered screening for hepatitis B and C, HIV and syphilis. Notification prevalence in the National Infectious Diseases Register (NIDR) was compared between participants and non-participants to assess non-participation. Missed diagnosis was defined as test-positive case in the survey without previous notification in NIDR. Inverse probability weighting was used to correct for non-participation. Results: Altogether 1000 migrants were screened for infectious diseases. No difference in the notification prevalence among participants and non-participants was observed. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was 2.3%, hepatitis C antibodies 1.7%, and Treponema pallidum antibodies 1.3%. No cases of HIV were identified. Of all test-positive cases, 61% (34/56) had no previous notification in NIDR. 48% of HBsAg, 62.5% of anti-HCV and 84.6% of anti-Trpa positive cases had been missed. Among the Somali population (n = 261), prevalence of missed hepatitis B diagnosis was 3.0%. Of the 324 Russian migrants, 3.0% had not been previously diagnosed with hepatitis C and 2.4% had a missed syphilis diagnosis. In multivariable regression model missed diagnosis was associated with migrant origin, living alone, poor self-perceived health, daily smoking, and previous diagnosis of another blood-borne infection. Conclusions: More than half of chronic hepatitis and syphilis diagnoses had been missed among migrants in Finland. Undiagnosed hepatitis B among Somali migrants implies post-migration transmission that could be prevented by enhanced screening and vaccinations. Rate of missed diagnoses among Russian migrants supports implementation of targeted hepatitis and syphilis screening upon arrival and also in later health care contacts. Coverage and up-take of current screening among migrants should be evaluated.
  • Tiittala, Paula; Ristola, Matti; Liitsola, Kirsi; Ollgren, Jukka; Koponen, Päivikki; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Hiltunen-Back, Eija; Davidkin, Irja; Kivelä, Pia (BioMed Central, 2018)
    Abstract Background Migrants are considered a key population at risk for sexually transmitted and blood-borne diseases in Europe. Prevalence data to support the design of infectious diseases screening protocols are scarce. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B and C, human immunodefiency virus (HIV) infection and syphilis in specific migrant groups in Finland and to assess risk factors for missed diagnosis. Methods A random sample of 3000 Kurdish, Russian, or Somali origin migrants in Finland was invited to a migrant population-based health interview and examination survey during 2010–2012. Participants in the health examination were offered screening for hepatitis B and C, HIV and syphilis. Notification prevalence in the National Infectious Diseases Register (NIDR) was compared between participants and non-participants to assess non-participation. Missed diagnosis was defined as test-positive case in the survey without previous notification in NIDR. Inverse probability weighting was used to correct for non-participation. Results Altogether 1000 migrants were screened for infectious diseases. No difference in the notification prevalence among participants and non-participants was observed. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was 2.3%, hepatitis C antibodies 1.7%, and Treponema pallidum antibodies 1.3%. No cases of HIV were identified. Of all test-positive cases, 61% (34/56) had no previous notification in NIDR. 48% of HBsAg, 62.5% of anti-HCV and 84.6% of anti-Trpa positive cases had been missed. Among the Somali population (n = 261), prevalence of missed hepatitis B diagnosis was 3.0%. Of the 324 Russian migrants, 3.0% had not been previously diagnosed with hepatitis C and 2.4% had a missed syphilis diagnosis. In multivariable regression model missed diagnosis was associated with migrant origin, living alone, poor self-perceived health, daily smoking, and previous diagnosis of another blood-borne infection. Conclusions More than half of chronic hepatitis and syphilis diagnoses had been missed among migrants in Finland. Undiagnosed hepatitis B among Somali migrants implies post-migration transmission that could be prevented by enhanced screening and vaccinations. Rate of missed diagnoses among Russian migrants supports implementation of targeted hepatitis and syphilis screening upon arrival and also in later health care contacts. Coverage and up-take of current screening among migrants should be evaluated.
  • Laatikainen, Tiina; Koponen, Päivikki; Reinikainen, Jaakko; Tolonen, Hanna; Jousilahti, Pekka; Suvisaari, Jaana; Mattila, Tiina; Niiranen, Teemu; Koskinen, Seppo (2020)
    Lähtökohdat : Väestön terveyden ja hyvinvoinnin seurannassa on tulevaisuudessa tärkeää väestö¬tutkimusten ohella hyödyntää rekisteritietoja. Tämä vaatii ymmärrystä tietojen luotettavuudesta erilaisten ilmiöiden kuvaajina. Menetelmät : FinTerveys 2017 -tutkimukseen osallistuneiden tutkimustietoja ja hoitoilmoitusrekistereistä saatuja tietoja verrattiin muutaman keskeisen sairauden ja riskitekijän yleisyyden arvioinnissa. Tulokset : Diabeteksen, sepelvaltimotaudin, astman ja keuhkoahtaumataudin yleisyydet olivat tutkitussa väestössä lähes samanlaisia sekä väestötutkimustiedon että rekisteritiedon perusteella. Masennusta tunnistettiin rekisteritietojen perusteella selvästi vähemmän kuin tutkimustietojen perusteella. Hoitoilmoitus¬rekisterien tiedot olivat täysin puutteellisia kohonneen verenpaineen ja lihavuuden tunnistamiseen. Päätelmät : Arviot sellaisten sairauksien yleisyydestä, jotka vaativat jatkuvaa seurantaa ja säännöllistä lääkitystä, ovat hyvin samanlaisia sekä rekisteri- että tutkimustiedon perusteella. Hoitoilmoitusrekisterien tieto ei sen sijaan anna luotettavaa kuvaa terveysriskien yleisyydestä.
  • Martelius, Timi; Pyöriä, Lari; Hedman, Klaus (2017)
  • Markkula, Niina; Suvisaari, Jaana (2018)
    Maailmanlaajuisesti masennuksen esiintyvyys ei ole muuttunut viime vuosikymmeninä. Suomessa masennushäiriöiden esiintyvyys edustavissa väestötutkimuksissa oli vuonna 2000 7,3% ja vuonna 2011 9,6%. Esiintyvyyden kasvu oli merkitsevä naisilla, mutta ei miehillä. Masennuslääkkeiden kulutus ja erikoissairaanhoidon polikliiniset käynnit masennuksen vuoksi ovat myös lisääntyneet 2000-luvulla, kun taas sairaalahoito on vähentynyt. Masennushäiriöiden hoito on lisääntynyt enemmän kuin esiintyvyys, mikä viittaa siihen, että entistä useampi osaa hakeutua oireiden vuoksi hoitoon. Masennushäiriöiden esiintyvyyden vertailua vaikeuttavat mittaus- ja haastattelumenetelmien erot ja osallistumisaktiivisuuden vaihteluun liittyvä valikoitumisharha. Masennushäiriöiden esiintyvyys Suomessa on jonkin verran korkeampi kuin maailmanlaajuinen keskiarvo, mutta lukuja vertailtaessa on otettava huomioon, että suomalaisissa esiintyvyysarvioissa on korjattu valikoitumisharhan vaikutusta moni-imputoinnilla, toisin kuin useimmissa muissa tutkimuksissa. Siksi voidaan päätellä, että masennuksen esiintyvyys Suomessa ei todennäköisesti ole poikkeuksellisen korkea verrattuna muihin länsimaihin. Masennuksen esiintyvyyden muutokset voivat heijastaa muita yhteiskunnallisia muutoksia. Erityisesti talouden laskusuhdanteilla on usein kielteisiä seurauksia mielenterveydelle. Masennuksen ilmeinen yleistyminen suomalaisilla naisilla on tapahtunut samaan aikaan 2010-luvun taloudellisen taantuman kanssa. On kuitenkin mahdollista, että masennushäiriöiden nykyiseen esiintyvyyteen vaikuttaa myös 1990-luvun lama, sillä lapsena koetut vaikeudet ovat voimakas riskitekijä masennushäiriöiden kehittymiselle. Masennushäiriöiden lisääntyminen Suomessa erityisesti naisten keskuudessa edellyttää tarkempia tutkimuksia ja toimenpiteitä tämän huolestuttavan kehityksen muuttamiseksi.
  • Katila, Maija; Saarenpaa-Heikkila, Outi; Saha, Marja-Terttu; Vuorela, Nina; Paavonen, E. Juulia (2019)
    Aim This prospective study examined the prevalence of snoring during infancy and the prenatal and postnatal risk factors for this condition. Methods The study population comprised 1388 infants from the CHILD-SLEEP birth cohort, who were recruited in the Pirkanmaa Hospital District, Finland, between 2011 and 2013. Sleep and background factor questionnaires were filled out prenatally by parents and when the infant was three and eight months old. Results The prevalence of habitual snoring was 3.2% at the age of three months and 3.0% at eight months, and snoring infants had more sleeping difficulties at those ages, with odds ratios (ORs) of 3.11 and 4.63, respectively. At three months, snoring infants slept for a shorter length of time (p = 0.001) and their sleep was more restless (p = 0.004). In ordinal logistic regression models, parental snoring (adjusted OR = 1.65 and 2.60) and maternal smoking (adjusted OR = 2.21 and 2.17) were significantly associated with infant snoring at three and eight months, while formula feeding and dummy use (adjusted OR = 1.48 and 1.56) were only associated with infant snoring at three months. Conclusion Parental snoring and maternal smoking increased the risk of snoring. Infants who snored also seemed to suffer more from other sleep difficulties.
  • Oivio, Ulla-Maija; Pesonen, Paula; Ylipalosaari, Merja; Kullaa, Arja; Salo, Tuula (2020)
    Background In this cross-sectional study we investigated the oral mucosal changes in a middle-aged Finnish population. We analyzed the prevalence of potentially malignant disorders and the influence of smoking, snuff and alcohol use on the mucosal changes. Methods Of the 12,068 members of the NFBC 1966, a total of 1961 participants (16.2%) constituted the study population. Mucosal changes were diagnosed and photographed by seven general dentists, and two specialists re-analyzed all the diagnoses based on the documentation Cross-tabulation with Chi-square tests and logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Results Of the participants, 10.5% had some mucosal changes, of which 81.8% were diagnosed as oral mucosal lesions (OML) and 18.2% as normal variations. Of the normal variations, the most common were Fordyce granules (1.2%), fissured tongue (1.1%) and geographic tongue (0.9%). The most common OMLs were white lesions (6.5%), of which oral lichen planus (OLP) and lichenoid reactions (OLR), grouped as oral lichenoid diseases, were present in 3.5%, males more often (3.8% vs. 3.1%). OLP was found in 1.5% of all participants, females more often (1.8% vs. 1.2%), while OLR was more common in males (2.7% vs. 1.3%). Leukoplakia was identified in 0.5% of the population; twice more often in males (0.6% vs. 0.3%). Erythroplakia was not found. Current smokers had higher risk for oral mucosal changes than former or non-smokers (OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.11-4.28), and snuff, used occasionally or regularly, also raised the risk (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.48-4.70). Conclusions In the middle-aged northern Finland population, 4% of OMLs were potentially malignant disorders, including OLR (2%), OLP (1.5%) and leukoplakia (0.5%). In particular, smoking and snuff use increased the risk for having any oral mucosa changes.
  • Oivio, Ulla-Maija; Pesonen, Paula; Ylipalosaari, Merja; Kullaa, Arja; Salo, Tuula (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background In this cross-sectional study we investigated the oral mucosal changes in a middle-aged Finnish population. We analyzed the prevalence of potentially malignant disorders and the influence of smoking, snuff and alcohol use on the mucosal changes. Methods Of the 12,068 members of the NFBC 1966, a total of 1961 participants (16.2%) constituted the study population. Mucosal changes were diagnosed and photographed by seven general dentists, and two specialists re-analyzed all the diagnoses based on the documentation Cross-tabulation with Chi-square tests and logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Results Of the participants, 10.5% had some mucosal changes, of which 81.8% were diagnosed as oral mucosal lesions (OML) and 18.2% as normal variations. Of the normal variations, the most common were Fordyce granules (1.2%), fissured tongue (1.1%) and geographic tongue (0.9%). The most common OMLs were white lesions (6.5%), of which oral lichen planus (OLP) and lichenoid reactions (OLR), grouped as oral lichenoid diseases, were present in 3.5%, males more often (3.8% vs. 3.1%). OLP was found in 1.5% of all participants, females more often (1.8% vs. 1.2%), while OLR was more common in males (2.7% vs. 1.3%). Leukoplakia was identified in 0.5% of the population; twice more often in males (0.6% vs. 0.3%). Erythroplakia was not found. Current smokers had higher risk for oral mucosal changes than former or non-smokers (OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.11–4.28), and snuff, used occasionally or regularly, also raised the risk (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.48–4.70). Conclusions In the middle-aged northern Finland population, 4% of OMLs were potentially malignant disorders, including OLR (2%), OLP (1.5%) and leukoplakia (0.5%). In particular, smoking and snuff use increased the risk for having any oral mucosa changes.
  • Vanhala, Vasco; Junkkari, Antti; Korhonen, Ville E.; Kurki, Mitja I.; Hiltunen, Mikko; Rauramaa, Tuomas; Nerg, Ossi; Koivisto, Anne M.; Remes, Anne M.; Perälä, Jonna; Suvisaari, Jaana; Lehto, Soili M.; Viinamäki, Heimo; Soininen, Hilkka; Jääskeläinen, Juha E.; Leinonen, Ville (2019)
    BACKGROUND Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a progressive and potentially treatable neurodegenerative disease affecting elderly people, characterized by gait impairment and ventricular enlargement in brain imaging. Similar findings are seen in some patients with schizophrenia (SCZ). OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of SCZ among patients suffering from probable or possible iNPH and the specific effects of comorbid SCZ on the outcome of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting. METHODS All medical records of the 521 iNPH patients in the NPH registry were retrospectively analyzed from 1991 until 2017. The prevalence of comorbidity of SCZ was determined and compared to that of general aged (65 yr) population in Finland. RESULTS We identified a total of 16 (3.1%) iNPH patients suffering from comorbid SCZ. The prevalence of SCZ among the iNPH patients was significantly higher compared to the general population (3.1% vs 0.9%, P <.001). All iNPH patients with comorbid SCZ were CSF shunted and 12 (75%) had a clinically verified shunt response 3 to 12 mo after the procedure. The CSF shunt response rate did not differ between patients with and without comorbid SCZ. CONCLUSION SCZ seems to occur 3 times more frequently among iNPH patients compared to the general aged population in Finland. The outcome of the treatment was not affected by comorbid SCZ and therefore iNPH patients suffering from comorbid SCZ should not be left untreated. These results merit validation in other populations. In addition, further research towards the potential connection between these chronic conditions is warranted.
  • Hiitiö, Heidi; Vakkamäki, Johanna; Simojoki, Heli; Autio, Tiina; Junnila, Jouni; Pelkonen, Sinikka; Pyörälä, Satu (2017)
    Background: The dairy industry has undergone substantial structural changes as intensive farming has developed during recent decades. Mastitis continues to be the most common production disease of dairy cows. Nationwide surveys of mastitis prevalence are useful in monitoring udder health of dairy herds and to study the impact of structural changes on the dairy industry. This survey on bovine subclinical mastitis was the first based on cow composite milk somatic cell count (SCC) data from the Finnish national health monitoring and milk recording database. A cow with composite milk SCC = 200,000 cells/ml in at least one of the four test milkings during the year was considered to have subclinical mastitis and a cow with composite milk SCC = 200,000 cells/ml in three or in all four test milkings during the year to have chronic subclinical mastitis. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and chronic subclinical mastitis in Finland in 1991, 2001 and 2010 and to investigate cow and herd factors associated with elevated SCC. Results: Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in Finland decreased over recent decades from 22.3% (1991) and 20.1% (2001) to 19.0% (2010). Prevalence of chronic subclinical mastitis was 20.4% in 1991, 15.5% in 2001 and 16.1% in 2010. The most significant cow and herd factors associated with subclinical mastitis or high milk SCC were increasing parity, Holstein breed, free- stalls with an automatic milking system and organic production. Milk SCC were highest from July to September. Main factors associated with chronic mastitis were increasing parity and Holstein breed. Conclusions: Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in Finland decreased over recent decades, the greatest change taking place during the first decade of the study. Prevalence of chronic subclinical mastitis significantly decreased from 1991. The most significant factors associated with both types of mastitis were increasing parity and Holstein breed, and for subclinical mastitis also free-stalls with automatic milking. National surveys on mastitis prevalence should be carried out at regular intervals to monitor udder health of dairy cows and to study the impact of the ongoing structural changes in the dairy industry to enable interventions related to udder health to be made when needed.
  • Hiitiö, Heidi; Vakkamäki, Johanna; Simojoki, Heli; Autio, Tiina; Junnila, Jouni; Pelkonen, Sinikka; Pyörälä, Satu (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background The dairy industry has undergone substantial structural changes as intensive farming has developed during recent decades. Mastitis continues to be the most common production disease of dairy cows. Nationwide surveys of mastitis prevalence are useful in monitoring udder health of dairy herds and to study the impact of structural changes on the dairy industry. This survey on bovine subclinical mastitis was the first based on cow composite milk somatic cell count (SCC) data from the Finnish national health monitoring and milk recording database. A cow with composite milk SCC ≥200,000 cells/ml in at least one of the four test milkings during the year was considered to have subclinical mastitis and a cow with composite milk SCC ≥200,000 cells/ml in three or in all four test milkings during the year to have chronic subclinical mastitis. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and chronic subclinical mastitis in Finland in 1991, 2001 and 2010 and to investigate cow and herd factors associated with elevated SCC. Results Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in Finland decreased over recent decades from 22.3% (1991) and 20.1% (2001) to 19.0% (2010). Prevalence of chronic subclinical mastitis was 20.4% in 1991, 15.5% in 2001 and 16.1% in 2010. The most significant cow and herd factors associated with subclinical mastitis or high milk SCC were increasing parity, Holstein breed, free-stalls with an automatic milking system and organic production. Milk SCC were highest from July to September. Main factors associated with chronic mastitis were increasing parity and Holstein breed. Conclusions Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in Finland decreased over recent decades, the greatest change taking place during the first decade of the study. Prevalence of chronic subclinical mastitis significantly decreased from 1991. The most significant factors associated with both types of mastitis were increasing parity and Holstein breed, and for subclinical mastitis also free-stalls with automatic milking. National surveys on mastitis prevalence should be carried out at regular intervals to monitor udder health of dairy cows and to study the impact of the ongoing structural changes in the dairy industry to enable interventions related to udder health to be made when needed.