Browsing by Subject "Private sector"

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  • Vehkalahti, Miira M; Palotie, Ulla; Valaste, Maria (2021)
    Objectives: This study assessed age-related variation in the volume and content of restorative dental care performed by private dentists for adults in Finland in 2012-2017. Methods: This retrospective register-based observational study utilized the Social Insurance database of private dental services in 2012 and 2017, including all patients. The data were aggregated into 5-year age groups for 20-89-year-olds; those aged 90+ formed one group. A patient was one who had received at least one treatment, and a restoration patient one who received at least one restoration (direct/indirect), excluding prosthetic crowns. Attendance rate was the proportion of the population treated. Volume of restorative treatment was the proportion of restoration patients among all patients using private dental services. Content of restorative treatment was described as the number of teeth receiving restoration and the size of restoration (number of surfaces restored). Correlation coefficient demonstrated associations between age groups and numbers of restorations. Results: Rate of restoration patients was 64.8 % in 2012 and 61.1 % in 2017, the rate for individuals aged under 80 years in each calendar year being smaller than in previous years. Mean number of restorations received per patient was 1.59 in 2012 and 1.42 in 2017, increasing with age (r = 0.85 in 2012; r = 0.95 in 2017). Small restorations dominated; one to two surfaces were covered in 72.3 % and 75.5 % of restorations in 2012 and 2017, respectively. Conclusions: Volume and content of restorative dental care for adults vary by age and have decreased slightly over time. Clinical significance: Restorative treatments are a prominent part of dental care for adults. This paper sheds light on the entity of restorative dental care for adults visiting private dentists. Variation in restoration volume and content is shown according to patient's age group, and changes are assessed across six years.
  • Ala-Nikkola, Taina; Sadeniemi, Minna; Kaila, Minna; Saarni, Samuli; Kontio, Raija; Pirkola, Sami; Joffe, Grigori; Oranta, Olli; Wahlbeck, Kristian (2016)
    Background: The diversity of mental health and substance abuse services (MHS) available to service users is seen as an indicator of the quality of the service system. In most countries MHS are provided by a mix of public, private and third sector providers. In Finland, officially, the municipalities are responsible for organizing the services needed, but the real extent and roles of private and third sector service providers are not known. Our previous study showed that the catchment area population size was strongly associated with diversity of mental health services. It is not known whether this was due to some types of services or some provider types being more sensitive to the size effect than others. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between area population size and diversity of mental health services, i.e. which types of services and which service providers' contributions are sensitive to population size. Methods: To map and classify services, we used the ESMS-R. The diversity of services was defined as the count of main types of care. Providers were classified as public, private or third sectors. Results: The diversity of outpatient, residential and voluntary services correlated positively with catchment area population size. The strongest positive correlation between the size of population and services available was found in third sector activities followed by public providers, but no correlation was found for diversity of private services. The third sector and public corporations each provided 44 % of the service units. Third sector providers produced all self-help services and most of the day care services. Third sector and private companies provided a significant part (59 %) of the residential care service units. Conclusions: Significant positive correlations were found between size of catchment area population and diversity of residential, outpatient and voluntary services, indicating that these services concentrate on areas with larger population bases. The third sector seems to significantly complement the public sector in providing different services. Thus the third sector be needs to be functionally integrated with other MHS services to achieve a diversified and integrated service system.
  • Klein, Johannes; Araos, Malcolm; Karimo, Aasa; Heikkinen, Milja; Ylä-Anttila, Tuomas; Juhola, Sirkku (2018)
    Expectations of cooperation between local authorities, the private sector, and citizens in climate change adaptation in cities are high because involvement of many actors is seen as critical to success. Scholars and policymakers argue that the private sector could be more efficient than the public authorities in implementing adaptation measures and argue for the need to engage citizens to ensure legitimacy of adaptation and inclusion of locally relevant knowledge. To what extent do cities address the private sector and citizens in their adaptation initiatives? What modes of governance do they use to do this? What kinds of cities are the most likely to address the private sector and citizens? Going beyond the existing case study approaches, this paper answers these questions using a large N data set covering 402 cities around the world. We find that a majority of adaptation initiatives focus exclusively on the public sector and do not address the private sector or citizens. In the cases where they do, the private sector is more often governed through partnerships and participation, whereas citizen participation is relatively rare. Initiatives involving citizens rely more often on a provision of information that encourages citizens to adapt. We find that the more advanced a city is in its adaptation process, the more likely it is to address the private sector than citizens in its initiatives to adapt to climate change. Whereas with partnerships and participation the private sector can influence urban adaptation arrangements at a broader scale, the provision of information allows citizens only to implement individual adaptation measures according to their capacities.