Browsing by Subject "Probiotic"

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  • Ottman, Noora; Geerlings, Sharon Y.; Aalvink, Steven; de Vos, Willem M.; Belzer, Clara (2017)
    The discovery of Akkermansia muciniphila has opened new avenues for the use of this abundant intestinal symbiont in next generation therapeutic products, as well as targeting microbiota dynamics. A. muciniphila is known to colonize the mucosal layer of the human intestine where it triggers both host metabolic and immune responses. A. muciniphila is particularly effective in increasing mucus thickness and increasing gut barrier function. As a result host metabolic markers ameliorate. The mechanism of host regulation is thought to involve the outer membrane composition, including the type IV pili of A. muciniphila, that directly signal to host immune receptors. At the same time the metabolic activity of A. muciniphila leads to the production of short chain fatty acids that are beneficial to the host and microbiota members. This contributes to host-microbiota and microbe-microbe syntrophy The mucolytic activity and metabolite production make A. muciniphila a key species in the mucus layer, stimulating beneficial mucosal microbial networks. This well studied member of the microbiota has been studied in three aspects that will be further described in this review: i) A. muciniphila characteristics and mucin adaptation, ii) its role as key species in the mucosal microbiome, and iii) its role in host health. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Megta, Abhin Kumar; Pratap, Shivendra; Kant, Abhiruchi; Palva, Airi; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Krishnan, Vengadesan (2020)
    To successfully colonize a host or environment, certain genera and species of Gram-positive bacteria have evolved to utilize the so-called sortase-dependent pilus, a long multi-subunit and non-flagellar surface adhesin. One example of this is Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, a gut-adapted probiotic strain that produces SpaCBA pili. These structures are covalent hetero-oligomers built from three types of pilin subunit, each with a specific location and function (i.e., backbone SpaA for length, tip SpaC for adhesion, and basal SpaB for anchoring). Functionally, the SpaCBA pilus exhibits a promiscuous affinity for components on intestinal surfaces (e.g., mucus, collagen, and epithelial cells), which is largely attributed to the SpaC subunit. Then again, the basal SpaB pilin, in addition to acting as the terminal subunit during pilus assembly, displays an out of character mucoadhesive function. To address the structural basis of this unusual dual functionality, we reveal the 2.39 A resolution crystal structure of SpaB. SpaB consists of one immunoglobulin-like CnaB domain and contains a putative intermolecular isopeptide bond-linking lysine and internal isopeptide bond-asparagine in an FPKN pilin motif within the C-terminal end. Remarkably, we found that a C-terminal stretch of positively charged lysine and arginine residues likely accounts for the atypical mucoadhesiveness of SpaB. Although harboring an autocatalytic triad of residues for a potential internal isopeptide interaction, the SpaB crystal structure lacked the visible electron density for intact bond formation, yet its presence was subsequently confirmed by mass spectral analysis. Finally, we propose a structural model that captures the exclusive basal positioning of SpaB in the SpaCBA pilus.
  • Watson, Victoria E.; Jacob, Megan E.; Bruno-Bárcena, José M.; Amirsultan, Sophia; Stauffer, Stephen H.; Píqueras, Victoria O.; Frias, Rafael; Gookin, Jody L. (2019)
    Typical enteropathogenic E. coli (tEPEC) carries the highest hazard of death in children with diarrhea and atypical EPEC (aEPEC) was recently identified as significantly associated with diarrheal mortality in kittens. In both children and kittens there is a significant association between aEPEC burden and diarrheal disease, however the infection can be found in individuals with and without diarrhea. It remains unclear to what extent, under what conditions, or by what mechanisms aEPEC serves as a primary pathogen in individuals with diarrhea. It seems likely that a combination of host and bacterial factors enable aEPEC to cause disease in some individuals and not in others. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of aEPEC on intestinal function and diarrhea in kittens following experimentally-induced carriage and the influence of a disrupted intestinal microbiota on disease susceptibility. Results of this study identify aEPEC as a potential pathogen in kittens. In the absence of disruption to the intestinal microbiota, kittens are resistant to clinical signs of aEPEC carriage but demonstrate significant occult changes in intestinal absorption and permeability. Antibiotic-induced disruption of the intestinal microbiota prior to infection increases subsequent intestinal water loss as determined by % fecal wet weight. Enrichment of the intestinal microbiota with a commensal member of the feline mucosa-associated microbiota, Enterococcus hirae, ameliorated the effects of aEPEC experimental infection on intestinal function and water loss. These observations begin to unravel the mechanisms by which aEPEC infection may be able to exploit susceptible hosts.
  • Lyra, Anna; Hillilä, Markku; Huttunen, Teppo; Mannikko, Sofia; Taalikka, Mikko; Tennila, Julia; Tarpila, Anneli; Lahtinen, Sampo; Ouwehand, Arthur C.; Veijola, Lea (2016)
    AIM To determine the effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms and quality of life (QoL). METHODS In this randomized triple-blind trial, adult IBS volunteers who were recruited according to Rome. criteria received 109 or 1010 colony-forming units of NCFM or placebo daily for 12 wk. IBS Symptom Severity Score (IBS-SSS), which constituted the primary outcome, and secondary outcomes, including individual IBS symptoms, IBS-related QoL questionnaire, anxiety and depression, defecation frequency, and stool consistency, were assessed at baseline at the end of the 8-wk runin period, after 4 and 12 wk of intervention, and after a 4-wk washout. RESULTS A total of 340 of 391 randomized volunteers completed the trial. IBS-SSS improved over 12 wk of treatment in all treatment groups, decreasing by a mean +/- SD of 44.0 +/- 80.2, 50.8 +/- 82.4, and 48.3 +/- 72.2 in the placebo, active low-dose, and active high-dose groups, respectively. Similarly, secondary outcomes did not differ between treatment groups. However, in a post hoc analysis of volunteers with moderate to severe abdominal pain at baseline (VAS > 35/100), the treatment significantly reduced the sensation of abdominal pain. Pain scores fell by 20.8 +/- 22.8, 29.4 +/- 17.9, and 31.2 +/- 21.9 in the placebo, active low-dose, and active high-dose groups, respectively (P value for placebo vs combined active doses = 0.0460). CONCLUSION NCFM alleviates moderate to severe abdominal pain, consistent with earlier observations of this strain mitigating visceral pain through increased analgesic receptor expression.
  • Jäsberg, Heli; Tervahartiala, Taina; Sorsa, Timo; Söderling, Eva; Haukioja, Anna (2018)
    Objective: To study the effect of orally administered Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on the salivary levels of Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMP)-8, MMP-9 and of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 in healthy adults. Furthermore, the correlations between MMP-8, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 and plaque and gingival indices, salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli counts, and stimulated saliva secretion rate were analysed. Design: The salivary samples originated from a randomized controlled trial where healthy student volunteers consumed probiotic or placebo lozenges twice a day for four weeks. The saliva samples were collected and clinical parameters measured at the baseline and at the end of the original study. For this study, the salivary levels of MMP-8, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were analysed with immunofluorometric assay (IFMA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: In the probiotic group (n = 29), salivary MMP-9 levels increased (p <0.01) and TIMP-1 levels decreased (p <0.01) significantly during the intervention. Furthermore, MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio differed significantly from the baseline level (p <0.01). These changes were not observed in the control group (n = 31). In the whole data, salivary MMP-9 and gingival index correlated (r = 0.260, p <0.05 at baseline and r = 0.354, p <0.01 at the end of the study). Intergroup differences or correlations with other clinical parameters were not found. Probiotic consumption did not affect the saliva flow rate. Conclusions: Increased MMP-9 and decreased TIMP-1 levels in saliva may indicate that probiotics have immunomodulatory effects in the oral cavity. Furthermore, increased salivary MMP-9 levels may be an indication of the defensive potential of matrix metalloproteinases.
  • Ventura, Marco; O'Toole, Paul W.; de Vos, Willem M.; van Sinderen, Douwe (2018)
    The gut microbiota represents a highly complex assembly of microbes, which interact with each other and with their host. These interactions have various implications in terms of health and disease, and this multi-author review issue will address a number of selected aspects pertaining to gut microbiota research.
  • Lebeer, Sarah; Claes, Ingmar J. J.; Balog, Crina I. A.; Schoofs, Geert; Verhoeven, Tine L. A.; Nys, Kris; von Ossowski, Ingemar; de Vos, Willem M.; Tytgat, Hanne L. P.; Agostinis, Patrizia; Palva, Airi; Van Damme, Els J. M.; Deelder, Andre M.; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C. J.; Wuhrer, Manfred; Vanderleyden, Jos (2012)