Browsing by Subject "Probiotics"

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  • Douillard, Francois P.; de Vos, Willem M. (2019)
    Over the last decade, there has been an increasing scientific and public interest in bacteria that may positively contribute to human gut health and well-being. This interest is reflected by the ever-increasing number of developed functional food products containing health-promoting bacteria and reaching the market place as well as by the growing revenue and profits of notably bacterial supplements worldwide. Traditionally, the origin of probiotic-marketed bacteria was limited to a rather small number of bacterial species that mostly belong to lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. Intensifying research efforts on the human gut microbiome offered novel insights into the role of human gut microbiota in health and disease, while also providing a deep and increasingly comprehensive understanding of the bacterial communities present in this complex ecosystem and their interactions with the gut-liver-brain axis. This resulted in rational and systematic approaches to select novel health promoting bacteria or to engineer existing bacteria with enhanced probiotic properties. In parallel, the field of gut microbiomics developed into a fertile framework for the identification, isolation and characterization of a phylogenetically diverse array of health-promoting bacterial species, also called next-generation therapeutic bacteria. The present review will address these developments with specific attention for the selection and improvement of a selected number of health-promoting bacterial species and strains that are extensively studied or hold promise for future food or pharma product development.
  • Banić, Martina; Uroić, Ksenija; Leboš Pavunc, Andreja; Novak, Jasna; Zorić, Katarina; Durgo, Ksenija; Petković, Hrvoje; Jamnik, Polona; Kazazić, Saša; Kazazić, Snježana; Radović, Slobodanka; Scalabrin, Simone; Hynönen, Ulla; Šušković, Jagoda; Kos, Blaženka (2018)
    Abstract S-layers represent the simplest biological membranes developed during the evolution and are one of the most abundant biopolymers on Earth. Current fundamental and applied research aim to reveal the chemical structure, morphogenesis and function of S-layer proteins (Slps). This is the first paper that describes the Slps of certain Lactobacillus brevis strain isolated from sauerkraut. The whole genome sequence (WGS) analysis of the L. brevis SF9B strain uncovered three genes encoding the putative Slps, but merely one, identified as similar to the SlpB of L. brevis ATCC 14869, was expressed. Slp-expressing SF9B cells exhibited increased survival in simulated gastrointestinal (GI) conditions and during freeze-drying. Their survival in stress conditions was additionally enhanced by microencapsulation, especially when using alginate with gelatine as a matrix. Thus prepared cells were subjected to simulated GI conditions and their mortality was only 0.28 ± 0.45 log CFU/mL. Furthermore, a correlation between the high surface hydrophobicity and the remarkable aggregative capacity of SF9B strain was established. The results indicate a prominent role of Slps in adhesion to mucin, extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, and particularly to Caco-2 cells, where the removal of Slps utterly abolished the adhesiveness of SF9B cells for 7.78 ± 0.25 log CFU/mL.
  • Swann, J. R.; Rajilic-Stojanovic, M.; Salonen, A.; Sakwinska, O.; Gill, C.; Meynier, A.; Fanca-Berthon, P.; Schelkle, B.; Segata, N.; Shortt, C.; Tuohy, K.; Hasselwander, O. (2020)
    With the growing appreciation for the influence of the intestinal microbiota on human health, there is increasing motivation to design and refine interventions to promote favorable shifts in the microbiota and their interactions with the host. Technological advances have improved our understanding and ability to measure this indigenous population and the impact of such interventions. However, the rapid growth and evolution of the field, as well as the diversity of methods used, parameters measured and populations studied, make it difficult to interpret the significance of the findings and translate their outcomes to the wider population. This can prevent comparisons across studies and hinder the drawing of appropriate conclusions. This review outlines considerations to facilitate the design, implementation and interpretation of human gut microbiota intervention studies relating to foods based upon our current understanding of the intestinal microbiota, its functionality and interactions with the human host. This includes parameters associated with study design, eligibility criteria, statistical considerations, characterization of products and the measurement of compliance. Methodologies and markers to assess compositional and functional changes in the microbiota, following interventions are discussed in addition to approaches to assess changes in microbiota-host interactions and host responses. Last, EU legislative aspects in relation to foods and health claims are presented. While it is appreciated that the field of gastrointestinal microbiology is rapidly evolving, such guidance will assist in the design and interpretation of human gut microbiota interventional studies relating to foods.
  • Gerritsen, Jacoline; Hornung, Bastian; Renckens, Bernadette; van Hijum, Sacha A. F. T.; dos Santos, Vitor A. P. Martins; Rijkers, Ger T.; Schaap, Peter J.; de Vos, Willem M.; Smidt, Hauke (2017)
    Background. The microbiota in the small intestine relies on their capacity to rapidly import and ferment available carbohydrates to survive in a complex and highly competitive ecosystem. Understanding how these communities function requires elucidating the role of its key players, the interactions among them and with their environment/host. Methods. The genome of the gut bacterium Romboutsia ilealis CRIBT was sequenced with multiple technologies (Illumina paired-end, mate-pair and PacBio). The transcriptome was sequenced (Illumina HiSeq) after growth on three different carbohydrate sources, and short chain fatty acids were measured via HPLC. Results. We present the complete genome of Romboutsia ilealis CRIBT, a natural inhabitant and key player of the small intestine of rats. R. ilealis CRIBT possesses a circular chromosome of 2,581,778 bp and a plasmid of 6,145 bp, carrying 2,351 and eight predicted protein coding sequences, respectively. Analysis of the genome revealed limited capacity to synthesize amino acids and vitamins, whereas multiple and partially redundant pathways for the utilization of different relatively simple carbohydrates are present. Transcriptome analysis allowed identification of the key components in the degradation of glucose, L-fucose and fructo-oligosaccharides. Discussion. This revealed that R. ilealis CRIBT is adapted to a nutrient-rich environment where carbohydrates, amino acids and vitamins are abundantly available.
  • Jiang, Qingru; Stamatova, Iva; Kainulainen, Veera; Korpela, Riitta; Meurman, Jukka H. (2016)
    Background: Probiotics have shown favourable properties in maintaining oral health. By interacting with oral microbial communities, these species could contribute to healthier microbial equilibrium. This study aimed to investigate in vitro the ability of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (L.GG) to integrate in oral biofilm and affect its species composition. Five oral strains, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Candida albicans were involved. The group setup included 6 mono-species groups, 3 dual-species groups (L.GG + S. mutans/S. sanguinis/C. albicans), and 4 multi-species groups (4/5 species and 4/5 species + L.GG, 4 species were all the tested strains except S. mutans). Cell suspensions of six strains were pooled according to the group setup. Biofilms were grown on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (HA) discs at 37 degrees C in anaerobic conditions for 64.5 h. Biofilm medium was added and refreshed at 0, 16.5, and 40.5 h. The pH of spent media was measured. Viable cells of the 16.5 h and 64.5 h biofilms were counted. 64.5 h biofilms were stained and scanned with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results: Our results showed that L.GG and S. mutans demonstrated stronger adhesion ability than the other strains to saliva-coated HA discs. L.GG, C. albicans, S. mutans and F. nucleatum, with poor ability to grow in mono-species biofilms demonstrated better abilities of adhesion and reproduction in dual-and/or multi-species biofilms. L.GG slightly suppressed the growth of C. albicans in all groups, markedly weakened the growth of S. sanguinis and F. nucleatum in 4sp + L.GG group, and slightly reduced the adhesion of S. mutans in L.GG+ S. mutans group. Conclusions: To conclude, in this in vitro model L.GG successfully integrated in all oral biofilms, and reduced the counts of S. sanguinis and C. albicans and lowered the biofilm-forming ability of F. nucleatum, but only slightly reduced the adhesion of S. mutans. C. albicans significantly promoted the growth of L.GG.
  • Jiang, Qingru; Kainulainen, Veera; Stamatova, Iva; Korpela, Riitta; Meurman, Jukka H. (2018)
    Probiotic administration may favour caries prevention, as recent research has shown. This in vitro study aimed to investigate the growth of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) in experimental biofilms exposed to various carbohydrates, and also to assess its cariogenic potential. Multispecies experimental oral biofilms with or without LGG were grown with a sole-carbohydrate source (fructose/glucose/lactose/sorbitol/sucrose). The viable cells of LGG and structure of the biofilms were examined after 64.5 h of incubation, and pH values of spent media were measured at 16.5, 40.5, and 64.5 h. Fermentation profiles of LGG in biofilm media were assessed with study carbohydrate as the sole energy source. Our results showed that LGG reached higher viable cell numbers with glucose and sucrose in 64.5-h multispecies experimental oral biofilms compared to other carbohydrates. When LGG was incorporated in biofilms, no distinct pH changes at any time points were observed under any of the carbohydrates used; the pH values of spent media at each time point were lower when lactose was used, compared to other carbohydrates. The fermentation profiles of LGG in biofilm media were similar to its growth in MRS (no obvious growth with lactose or sucrose). In conclusion, LGG in our in vitro multispecies experimental oral biofilms was capable of surviving and growing well in each carbohydrate source. LGG might not have harmful effects on dental hard tissues. Another finding from our study was that the lowest pH values were observed in the presence of lactose, and the thickest biofilms were in sucrose. (C) 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • Ran, Li; Yassami, Shiva; Kiviniemi, Eero Antero; Qiao, Wanjin; Takala, Timo; Saris, Per (2021)
    In this work, we studied the control of Listeria monocytogenes in raw chicken meat by marinating breast strips with beer containing bacteriocin leucocin C. An URA3 auxotrophic strain of probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 was used as a host to express the gene lecC encoding the bacteriocin leucocin C. Secretion of leucocin C was confirmed by the inhibition against L. monocytogenes using agar well diffusion assay. The new auxotrophic host secreted leucocin C better than previously constructed wild-type strain, and therefore it was used to brew anti-listerial beer. The beer was shown to maintain its anti-listerial activity for 38 days. Chicken breast strips spiked with L. monocytogenes were then marinated with the anti-listerial beer for overnight, and the killing of L. monocytogenes was analysed. Marination with beer containing leucocin C reduced the viable cells of L. monocytogenes by about 1.6 log from (2.2 +/- 0.6) x 10(7) CFU/g on day 24, and 2.2 log from (1.8 +/- 0.3) x 10(5) CFU/g on day 38. In conclusion, the URA3 auxotrophic S. boulardii efficiently secreted the bacteriocin leucocin C, and brewing beer with this strain resulted in anti-listerial beer. Such beer is effective as a marinade in reducing the Listeria risk in chicken breast strips.
  • Knip, Mikael; Honkanen, Jarno (2017)
    Purpose of Review The purpose of this review is to summarize potential modulations of the intestinal microbiome aimed at preventing or delaying progression to overt type 1 diabetes in the light of recently identified perturbations of the gut microbiota associated with the development of type 1 diabetes. Recent Findings Accumulated data suggest that the gut microbiota is involved at two different steps in the evolution of type 1 diabetes. At the first step, the intestinal tract is colonized by a microbial community unable to provide an adequate education of the immune system. As a consequence, the infant acquires susceptibility to immune-mediated diseases, type 1 diabetes included. At the other step, the young child seroconverts to positivity for diabetes-associated autoantibodies. This is preceded or accompanied by a decrease in the diversity of the intestinal microbiota and an increased abundance of Bacteroides species. These changes will affect the disease process promoting progression toward overt type 1 diabetes. Summary By providing specific probiotics, one can affect the colonization of the intestinal tract in the newborn infant or strengthen the immune education in early life. Human milk oligosaccharides function as nutrients for "healthy" bacteria. Dietary interventions applying modified starches can influence the numbers and activities of both autoreactive and regulatory T cells and provide protection against autoimmune diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice. Modulation of the intestinal microbiome holds the promise of effective protection against human type 1 diabetes.
  • Savilahti, Erkki; Härkönen, Taina; Savilahti, Emma M.; Kukkonen, Kaarina; Kuitunen, Mikael; Knip, Mikael (2018)
  • Lintervo, Osmo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Afta on kivulias suun haavauma, joka vaivaa toistuvasti joka viidettä ihmistä. Vaikka kyseessä on yleinen, joskin harmiton vaiva, ei aftan etiologiaa ole kyetty selvittämään. Ehkäisevää tai nopeasti aftoja parantava lääkettä ei ole löydetty, vaan aftojen lääkkeellinen hoito pääosin lievittää kipuoireita. Syventävässä opinnäytetyössäni oli tarkoitus selvittää vaikuttaako Streptococcus salivarius M18 -probiootti (ToothGuide®) tabletit aftan kipuoireisiin ja nopeuttaako ne aftojen paranemista. Tutkimus toteutettiin lumekontrolloituna kaksoissokkoutettuna satunnaistettuna kokeena, johon rekrytoitiin perusterveitä suomalaisia yliopistoopiskelijoita (n=57, naisia 51%), jotka oman ilmoituksensa mukaan olivat saaneet aftoja vähintään kerran vuodessa. Koehenkilöille annettiin joko ToothGuide®-pureskelutabletteja tai maultaan ja rakenteeltaan samanlaista lumevalmistetta. valmistetta ohjeistettin kirjallisesti käytämään aftaepisodin alettua kahdesti päivässä hampaiden puhdistuksen yhteydessä ja tämän jälkeen koehenkilöt kirjasivat kymmenportaiselle VAS-asteikolle aftan aiheuttaman kivun määrän. Vuoden seurannan jälkeen tutkimusmateriaalit kerättiin ja analysoitiin. Tilastollisina menetelminä käytin Mann-Whitney U-testiä ja Wilcoxon merkittyjen sijalukujen testiä, jossa merkitsevänä erona pidettiin p < 0,05. Koehenkilöstä 48 palautti VAS-asteikot ja ylimääräiset pureskelutabletit vuoden tutkimusjakson loputtua. ToothGuide® valmistetta oli käyttänyt 38 ja lumelääkettä 10 koehenkilöä. Raportoituja aftaepisodeja oli ToothGuide®-ryhmässä yhteensä 32 ja lumeryhmässä 17. Molemmissa ryhmissä aftaperäinen kipu oli VAS-asteikolla tutkimuksen alussa pienempi kuin esitiedoissa ilmoitettu aftakipu. Ensimmäisen päivän aikana koehenkilöiden kiputuntemukset VASasteikolla olivat ToothGuide®-ryhmässä keskimäärin korkeammat (3,83) kuin lumeryhmässä (2,50; p<0.05), ja ero säilyi samana neljänteen päivään asti, muttei ollut enää tilastollisesti merkitsevä. Aftaepisodin kestossa lume- tai koeryhmien välillä ei ollut tilastollisesti merkitsevää eroa. Tutkimukseni tulosten perusteella ToothGuide® ei vaikuta aftan kipuoireisiin tai kestoon.
  • Kainulainen, Veera; Tang, Yurui; Spillmann, Thomas; Kilpinen, Susanne; Reunanen, Justus; Saris, Per E. J.; Satokari, Reetta (2015)