Browsing by Subject "Propagation"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-3 of 3
  • Brunello, Cecilia A.; Merezhko, Maria; Uronen, Riikka-Liisa; Huttunen, Henri J. (2020)
    Accumulation of misfolded and aggregated forms of tau protein in the brain is a neuropathological hallmark of tauopathies, such as Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Tau aggregates have the ability to transfer from one cell to another and to induce templated misfolding and aggregation of healthy tau molecules in previously healthy cells, thereby propagating tau pathology across different brain areas in a prion-like manner. The molecular mechanisms involved in cell-to-cell transfer of tau aggregates are diverse, not mutually exclusive and only partially understood. Intracellular accumulation of misfolded tau induces several mechanisms that aim to reduce the cellular burden of aggregated proteins and also promote secretion of tau aggregates. However, tau may also be released from cells physiologically unrelated to protein aggregation. Tau secretion involves multiple vesicular and non-vesicle-mediated pathways, including secretion directly through the plasma membrane. Consequently, extracellular tau can be found in various forms, both as a free protein and in vesicles, such as exosomes and ectosomes. Once in the extracellular space, tau aggregates can be internalized by neighboring cells, both neurons and glial cells, via endocytic, pinocytic and phagocytic mechanisms. Importantly, accumulating evidence suggests that prion-like propagation of misfolding protein pathology could provide a general mechanism for disease progression in tauopathies and other related neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we review the recent literature on cellular mechanisms involved in cell-to-cell transfer of tau, with a particular focus in tau secretion.
  • Rostami, Jinar; Jäntti, Maria; Cui, Hengjing; Rinne, Maiju K.; Kukkonen, Jyrki P.; Falk, Anna; Erlandsson, Anna; Myöhänen, Timo (2020)
    Growing evidence emphasizes insufficient clearance of pathological alpha-synuclein (alpha SYN) aggregates in the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). Consequently, cellular degradation pathways represent a potential therapeutic target. Prolyl oligopeptidase (PREP) is highly expressed in the brain and has been suggested to increase alpha SYN aggregation and negatively regulate the autophagy pathway. Inhibition of PREP with a small molecule inhibitor, KYP-2407, stimulates autophagy and reduces the oligomeric species of alpha SYN aggregates in PD mouse models. However, whether PREP inhibition has any effects on intracellular alpha SYN fibrils has not been studied before. In this study, the effect of KYP2407 on alpha SYN preformed fibrils (PFFs) was tested in SH-SY5Y cells and human astmcytes. Immunostaining analysis revealed that both cell types accumulated alpha SYN PFFs intracellularly but KYP-2047 decreased intracellular alpha SYN deposits only in SH-SY5Y cells, as astrocytes did not show any PREP activity. Western blot analysis confirmed the reduction of high molecular weight alpha SYN species in SH-SY5Y cell lysates, and secretion of aSYN from SH-SY5Y cells also decreased in the presence of KYP-2407. Accumulation of alpha SYN inside the SH-SY5Y cells resulted in an increase of the auto-lysosomal proteins p62 and LC3BII, as well as calpain 1 and 2, which have been shown to be associated with PD pathology. Notably, treatment with KYP-2407 significantly reduced p62 and LC3BII levels, indicating an increased autophagic flux, and calpain 1 and 2 levels returned to normal in the presence of KYP-2407. Our findings indicate that PREP inhibition can potentially be used as therapy to reduce the insoluble intracellular alpha SYN aggregates.
  • Turc, Lucile; Roberts, O.W.; Verscharen, D.; Dimmock, A. P.; Kajdič, P.; Palmroth, Minna; Pfau-Kempf, Yann; Johlander, Erik Andreas; Dubart, Maxime; Kilpua, Emilia; Soucek, J.; Takahashi, K.; Takahashi, N.; Battarbee, Markus; Ganse, Urs (2023)
    The Earth's magnetosphere and its bow shock, which is formed by the interaction of the supersonic solar wind with the terrestrial magnetic field, constitute a rich natural laboratory enabling in situ investigations of universal plasma processes. Under suitable interplanetary magnetic field conditions, a foreshock with intense wave activity forms upstream of the bow shock. So-called 30 s waves, named after their typical period at Earth, are the dominant wave mode in the foreshock and play an important role in modulating the shape of the shock front and affect particle reflection at the shock. These waves are also observed inside the magnetosphere and down to the Earth's surface, but how they are transmitted through the bow shock remains unknown. By combining state-of-the-art global numerical simulations and spacecraft observations, we demonstrate that the interaction of foreshock waves with the shock generates earthward-propagating, fast-mode waves, which reach the magnetosphere. These findings give crucial insight into the interaction of waves with collisionless shocks in general and their impact on the downstream medium.