Browsing by Subject "Prospective study"

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  • Lonnrot, Maria; Lynch, Kristian; Larsson, Helena Elding; Lernmark, Ake; Rewers, Marian; Hagopian, William; She, Jin-Xiong; Simell, Olli; Ziegler, Anette-G; Akolkar, Beena; Krischer, Jeffrey; Hyoty, Heikki; TEDDY Study Grp; Knip, Mikael (2015)
    Background: Early childhood environmental exposures, possibly infections, may be responsible for triggering islet autoimmunity and progression to type 1 diabetes (T1D). The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) follows children with increased HLA-related genetic risk for future T1D. TEDDY asks parents to prospectively record the child's infections using a diary book. The present paper shows how these large amounts of partially structured data were reduced into quantitative data-sets and further categorized into system-specific infectious disease episodes. The numbers and frequencies of acute infections and infectious episodes are shown. Methods: Study subjects (n = 3463) included children who had attended study visits every three months from age 3 months to 4 years, without missing two or more consecutive visits during the follow-up. Parents recorded illnesses prospectively in a TEDDY Book at home. The data were entered into the study database during study visits using ICD-10 codes by a research nurse. TEDDY investigators grouped ICD-10 codes and fever reports into infectious disease entities and further arranged them into four main categories of infectious episodes: respiratory, gastrointestinal, other, and unknown febrile episodes. Incidence rate of infections was modeled as function of gender, HLA-DQ genetic risk group and study center using the Poisson regression. Results: A total of 113,884 ICD-10 code reports for infectious diseases recorded in the database were reduced to 71,578 infectious episodes, including 74.0% respiratory, 13.1% gastrointestinal, 5.7% other infectious episodes and 7.2% febrile episodes. Respiratory and gastrointestinal infectious episodes were more frequent during winter. Infectious episode rates peaked at 6 months and began declining after 18 months of age. The overall infectious episode rate was 5.2 episodes per person-year and varied significantly by country of residence, sex and HLA genotype. Conclusions: The data reduction and categorization process developed by TEDDY enables analysis of single infectious agents as well as larger arrays of infectious agents or clinical disease entities. The preliminary descriptive analyses of the incidence of infections among TEDDY participants younger than 4 years fits well with general knowledge of infectious disease epidemiology. This protocol can be used as a template in forthcoming time-dependent TEDDY analyses and in other epidemiological studies.
  • Jarvinen, Jyri; Karppinen, Jaro; Niinimaki, Jaakko; Haapea, Marianne; Gronblad, Mats; Luoma, Katariina; Rinne, Eeva (2015)
    Background: The association of Modic changes (MC) with low back pain (LBP) is unclear. The purpose of our study was to investigate the associations between the extent of Type 1 (M1) and Type 2 (M2) MC and low back symptoms over a two-year period. Methods: The subjects (n = 64, mean age 43.8 y; 55 [86%] women) were consecutive chronic LBP patients who had M1 or mixed M1/M2 on lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Size and type of MC on sagittal lumbar MRI and clinical data regarding low back symptoms were recorded at baseline and two-year follow-up. The size (%) of each MC in relation to vertebral size was estimated from sagittal slices (midsagittal and left and right quarter), while proportions of M1 and M2 within the MC were evaluated from three separate slices covering the MC. The extent (%) of M1 and M2 was calculated as a product of the size of MC and the proportions of M1 and M2 within the MC, respectively. Changes in the extent of M1 and M2 were analysed for associations with changes in LBP intensity and the Oswestry disability index (ODI), using linear regression analysis. Results: At baseline, the mean LBP intensity was 6.5 and the mean ODI was 33%. During follow-up, LBP intensity increased in 15 patients and decreased in 41, while ODI increased in 19 patients and decreased in 44. In univariate analyses, change in the extent of M1 associated significantly positively with changes in LBP intensity and ODI (beta 0.26, p = 0.036 and beta 0.30, p = 0.017; respectively), whereas the change in the extent of M2 did not associate with changes in LBP intensity and ODI (beta -0.24, p = 0.054 and beta -0.13, p = 0.306; respectively). After adjustment for age, gender, and size of MC at baseline, change in the extent of M1 remained significantly positively associated with change in ODI (beta 0.53, p = 0.003). Conclusion: Change in the extent of M1 associated positively with changes in low back symptoms.
  • Akbaraly, Tasnime; Sexton, Claire; Zsoldos, Enika; Mahmood, Abda; Filippini, Nicola; Kerleau, Clarisse; Verdier, Jean-Michel; Virtanen, Marianna; Gabelle, Audrey; Ebmeier, Klaus P.; Kivimäki, Mika (2018)
    BACKGROUND: Diet quality is associated with brain aging outcomes. However, few studies have explored in humans the brain structures potentially affected by long-term diet quality. We examined whether cumulative average of the Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010) score during adult life (an 11-year exposure period) is associated with hippocampal volume. METHODS: Analyses were based on data from 459 participants of the Whitehall II imaging sub-study (mean age [standard deviation] (SD) = 59.6 [5.3] years in 2002-2004, 19.2% women). Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging examination was performed at the end of follow-up (2015-2016). Structural images were acquired using a high-resolution 3-dimensional T1-weighted sequence and processed with Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain Software Library (FSL) tools. An automated model-based segmentation and registration tool was applied to extract hippocampal volumes. RESULTS: Higher AHEI-2010 cumulative average score (reflecting long-term healthy diet quality) was associated with a larger total hippocampal volume. For each 1 SD (SD = 8.7 points) increment in AHEI-2010 score, an increase of 92.5 mm(3) (standard error = 42.0 mm(3)) in total hippocampal volume was observed. This association was independent of sociodemographic factors, smoking habits, physical activity, cardiometabolic health factors, cognitive impairment, and depressive symptoms, and was more pronounced in the left hippocampus than in the right hippocampus. Of the AHEI-2010 components, no or light alcohol consumption was independently associated with larger hippocampal volume. CONCLUSIONS: Higher long-term AHEI-2010 scores were associated with larger hippocampal volume. Accounting for the importance of hippocampal structures in several neuropsychiatric diseases, our findings reaffirm the need to consider adherence to healthy dietary recommendation in multi-interventional programs to promote healthy brain aging. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Wiersema, Renske; Koeze, Jacqueline; Hiemstra, Bart; Pettilä, Ville; Perner, Anders; Keus, Frederik; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; SICS-I Study Grp; Clement, R. P.; Dieperink, W.; Hilbink, D. H.; Klasen, M.; Klaver, M.; Kaufmann, T.; Schokking, L. J.; Sikkens, V. W. (2019)
    Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs in up to 50% of all critically ill patients and hemodynamic abnormalities are assumed to contribute, but their nature and share is still unclear. We explored the associations between hemodynamic variables, including cardiac index and right ventricular function, and the occurrence of AKI in critically ill patients. In this prospective cohort study, we included all patients acutely admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). Within 24 h after ICU admission clinical and hemodynamic variables were registered including ultrasonographic measurements of cardiac index and right ventricular function, assessed using tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and right ventricular systolic excursion (RV S'). Maximum AKI stage was assessed according to the KDIGO criteria during the first 72 h after admission. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used including both known predictors and univariable significant predictors of AKI. Secondary outcomes were days alive outside ICU and 90-day mortality. A total of 622 patients were included, of which 338 patients (54%) had at least AKI stage 1 within 72 h after ICU admission. In the final multivariate model higher age (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.03, for each year), higher weight (OR 1.03 CI 1.02-1.04, for each kg), higher APACHE IV score (OR 1.02, CI 1.01-1.03, per point), lower mean arterial pressure (OR 1.02, CI 1.01-1.03, for each mmHg decrease) and lower TAPSE (OR 1.05, CI 1.02-1.09 per millimeter decrease) were all independent predictors for AKI in the final multivariate logistic regression model. Sepsis, cardiac index, RV S' and use of vasopressors were not significantly associated with AKI in our data. AKI patients had fewer days alive outside of ICU, and their mortality rate was significantly higher than those without AKI. In our cohort of acutely admitted ICU patients, the incidence of AKI was 54%. Hemodynamic variables were significantly different between patients with and without AKI. A worse right ventricle function was associated with AKI in the final model, whereas cardiac index was not.
  • Wiersema, Renske; Koeze, Jacqueline; Hiemstra, Bart; Pettilä, Ville; Perner, Anders; Keus, Frederik; van der Horst, Iwan C C (Springer International Publishing, 2019)
    Abstract Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs in up to 50% of all critically ill patients and hemodynamic abnormalities are assumed to contribute, but their nature and share is still unclear. We explored the associations between hemodynamic variables, including cardiac index and right ventricular function, and the occurrence of AKI in critically ill patients. Methods In this prospective cohort study, we included all patients acutely admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). Within 24 h after ICU admission clinical and hemodynamic variables were registered including ultrasonographic measurements of cardiac index and right ventricular function, assessed using tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and right ventricular systolic excursion (RV S’). Maximum AKI stage was assessed according to the KDIGO criteria during the first 72 h after admission. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used including both known predictors and univariable significant predictors of AKI. Secondary outcomes were days alive outside ICU and 90-day mortality. Results A total of 622 patients were included, of which 338 patients (54%) had at least AKI stage 1 within 72 h after ICU admission. In the final multivariate model higher age (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00–1.03, for each year), higher weight (OR 1.03 CI 1.02–1.04, for each kg), higher APACHE IV score (OR 1.02, CI 1.01–1.03, per point), lower mean arterial pressure (OR 1.02, CI 1.01–1.03, for each mmHg decrease) and lower TAPSE (OR 1.05, CI 1.02–1.09 per millimeter decrease) were all independent predictors for AKI in the final multivariate logistic regression model. Sepsis, cardiac index, RV S’ and use of vasopressors were not significantly associated with AKI in our data. AKI patients had fewer days alive outside of ICU, and their mortality rate was significantly higher than those without AKI. Conclusions In our cohort of acutely admitted ICU patients, the incidence of AKI was 54%. Hemodynamic variables were significantly different between patients with and without AKI. A worse right ventricle function was associated with AKI in the final model, whereas cardiac index was not.
  • Hjort, Rebecka; Ahlqvist, Emma; Carlsson, Per-Ola; Grill, Valdemar; Groop, Leif; Martinell, Mats; Rasouli, Bahareh; Rosengren, Anders; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Asvold, Bjorn Olav; Carlsson, Sofia (2018)
    Aims/hypothesis Excessive weight is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes, but its role in the promotion of autoimmune diabetes is not clear. We investigated the risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) in relation to overweight/obesity in two large population-based studies. Methods Analyses were based on incident cases of LADA (n = 425) and type 2 diabetes (n = 1420), and 1704 randomly selected control participants from a Swedish case-control study and prospective data from the Norwegian HUNT Study including 147 people with LADA and 1,012,957 person-years of follow-up (1984-2008). We present adjusted ORs and HRs with 95% CI. Results In the Swedish data, obesity was associated with an increased risk of LADA (OR 2.93, 95% CI 2.17, 3.97), which was even stronger for type 2 diabetes (OR 18.88, 95% CI 14.29, 24.94). The association was stronger in LADA with low GAD antibody (GADA; Conclusions/interpretation Overweight/obesity is associated with increased risk of LADA, particularly when in combination with FHD. These findings support the hypothesis that, even in the presence of autoimmunity, factors linked to insulin resistance, such as excessive weight, could promote onset of diabetes.
  • Nurmi-Lüthje, I.; Tiihonen, R.; Paattiniemi, E. -L.; Naboulsi, H.; Pigg, S.; Sarkkinen, H.; Kaukonen, J-P; Toivanen, A.; Salmio, K.; Kataja, M.; Lüthje, P. (2018)
    Hypovitaminosis D is a problem among hip fracture patients. In a 1-year cohort study comprising 245 hip fracture patients (mean age of females 81 years and males 78 years) from south-eastern Finland, the mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25(OH)D] concentration was 73(SD 31) nmol/L. Vitamin D supplementation has been integrated into our current practice. The objectives of this study are to verify vitamin D levels among hip fracture patients and to compare the results with a similar study conducted in the same two hospitals covering the same geographic area 12 years ago. A prospective cohort comprising 245 Caucasian hip fracture patients was enrolled in the study in two acute hospitals in south-eastern Finland (61A degrees N) over a 12-month period in 2015-2016. The S-25(OH)D was measured using 25-hydroxyvitamin D electrochemiluminescence binding assay. The S-25(OH)D concentrations were compared with the corresponding concentrations of a similar cohort analyzed in the same two hospitals 12 years ago. Of the 245 patients, 70% were women with a mean age of 81 (SD 10) years, while the men had a mean age of 78 (SD 12) years (p <0.01). The total mean S-25(OH)D concentration was 73 (SD 31.3) nmol/L. Regional differences were found: 15% in hospital A and 36% in hospital B had a S-25(OH(D level <50 nmol/L, and the mean S-25(OH)D level was 79.2 (SD 31.7) nmol/L in hospital A and 62.4 (SD 27.5) nmol/L in hospital B (p <0.001). No differences were found in S-25(OH)D concentrations by either the place of residence or the time of year. Overall, the percentage of patients with a sufficient vitamin D level (> 50 nmol/L) was remarkably higher in 2015-2016 (77%) than in 2003-2004 (22%). Our results indicate that vitamin D supplementation has been widely integrated into our current practice. However, regional differences were found in the S-25(OH)D concentrations for which the reasons are unknown.
  • Borch, Kristin Benjaminsen; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Braaten, Tonje; Hansen, Merethe Selnes; Licaj, Idlir (2019)
    We aimed to investigate physical activity (PA) and risk of different histological subtypes of lung cancer according to smoking status and body mass index using repeated measurements in a large cohort of women in Norway. The study sample for the multiple imputation analyses consisted of 86,499 and for the complete-case analysis 80,802 women. Repeated measurements of PA level, smoking habits, weight, and height were available for 54,691 women (63.2%), who were included in repeated measurement analyses combined with multiple imputation to address attrition. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals. During a median follow-up of 12.9years, 866 cases of primary lung cancer were identified. We found an inverse association between PA and lung cancer overall. The results were consistent from multiple imputed data analysis to complete-case analysis of PA and possible confounders. We observed a similar trend for adenocarcinoma, but not for squamous cell or small cell carcinomas. Our findings suggest a more pronounced association between lung cancer overall and PA levels in current and former smokers, and in normal-weight and overweight participants with increasing PA levels. The potential of a modifiable lifestyle factor as PA to reduce the risk of lung cancer independently of smoking status is important in public health.
  • Laine, Jaakko T.; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Salonen, Jukka T.; Virtanen, Jyrki K. (2020)
    Infections are one of the main causes of mortality in elderly due to the decrease of immune response, for which copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are claimed to be crucial. High serum copper-to-zinc-ratio (Cu/Zn-ratio) has been reported with infections, but little is known whether it could also predict the incidence of infections. The study cohort consisted of 1975 men aged 42-60 years and free of severe infectious disease at baseline in 1984-1989 from the prospective population-based Kuopio Ischaemic & xfeff; Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. The main outcome was an incident infection leading to hospitalization. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for statistical analysis. During the average follow-up of 19.2 years, 636 incident first cases of infections were diagnosed. The hazard ratio (HR) of developing an incident infectious disease in the highest compared to the lowest Cu/Zn-ratio quartile after adjustment for age and baseline examination year was 1.35 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07-1.69, P-trend across quartiles = 0.005]. The association was slightly attenuated after additional adjustment for potential confounders (HR = 1.21, 95% CI = 0.96-1.53, P-trend = 0.054). Furthermore, higher serum Cu concentration was associated with higher risk of an incident infection. The multivariable-adjusted HR was 1.39 (95% CI = 1.10-1.75, P-trend = 0.005) in the highest versus the lowest serum Cu quartile. Serum Zn concentration was not associated with the risk (multivariable-adjusted extreme-quartile HR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.67-1.04, P-trend = 0.218). In conclusion, our data suggest that an increased Cu/Zn-ratio and especially serum Cu concentration are associated with increased risk of incident infections in middle-aged and older men in Eastern Finland.
  • Hakulinen, Christian; McGrath, John J.; Timmerman, Allan; Skipper, Niels; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Agerbo, Esben (2019)
    Purpose Individuals with schizophrenia have been reported to have low employment rates. We examined the associations of schizophrenia with employment, income, and status of cohabitation from a work life course perspective. Methods Nationwide cohort study including all individuals (n = 2,390,127) born in Denmark between 1955 and 1991, who were alive at their 25th birthday. Diagnosis of schizophrenia (yes/no) between ages 15 and 25 was used as an exposure. Employment status, annual wage or self-employment earnings, level of education, and cohabitant status from the age of 25–61 (years 1980–2016) were used as outcomes. Results Schizophrenia diagnosis between ages 15 and 25 (n = 9448) was associated with higher odds of not being employed (at the age of 30: OR 39.4, 95% CI 36.5–42.6), having no secondary or higher education (7.4, 7.0–7.8), and living alone (7.6, 7.2–8.1). These odds ratios were two-to-three times lower and decreasing over time for those individuals who did not receive treatment in a psychiatric inpatient or outpatient clinic for schizophrenia after the age of 25. Between ages 25–61, individuals with schizophrenia have cumulative earning of $224,000, which is 14% of the amount that the individuals who have not been diagnosed with schizophrenia earn. Conclusions Individuals with schizophrenia are at high risk of being outside the labour market and living alone throughout their entire life, resulting in an enormous societal loss in earnings. Individuals with less chronic course of schizophrenia had a gradual but substantial improvement throughout their work life.
  • Serlachius, Anna; Elovainio, Marko; Juonala, Markus; Shea, Steven; Sabin, Matthew; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa; Pulkki-Raback, Laura (2017)
    The psychosocial determinants of prediabetes are poorly understood. The aims of our study were (1) to analyse the association between perceived social support in young adulthood and fasting glucose levels and prediabetes in mid-adulthood in a cohort of healthy Finns, (2) to explore whether body mass index (BMI), inflammation or depression mediate this relationship, (3) and to examine the association between social support trajectory groups and fasting glucose. A prospective design was used with an analytic sample of 1250 participants aged 3-18 years at baseline (1980) and aged 12-39 years when social support was measured. Fasting glucose and prediabetes were assessed 32 years after baseline. Linear and logistic regression was used to examine the association between social support and the outcome measures. A bootstrapping technique was used to examine mediation effects. Social support was associated with future glucose levels in women after adjusting for childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and youth depression (beta = -0.136, p = 0.001) and also predicted prediabetes in women after adjusting for childhood SES (beta = 1.31, 95 % CI 1.02 to 1.69, p = 0.031). Both associations were attenuated after adjusting for BMI in mid-adulthood. BMI was found to mediate the relationship between social support and prediabetes in women (beta for indirect effect beta = 0.09, SE = 0.03, CI = 0.03 to 0.16). Low perceived social support in young adulthood is associated with high fasting glucose and prediabetes in mid-adulthood in women but not men. The association between social support and prediabetes in women can be partly explained by BMI.
  • Kumaradev, Sushmithadev; Fayosse, Aurore; Dugravot, Aline; Dumurgier, Julien; Roux, Christian; Kivimäki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Sabia, Severine (2021)
    This study examines the importance of length of follow-up on the association between pain and incident dementia. Further objective was to characterize pain trajectories in the 27 years preceding dementia diagnosis and compare them with those among persons free of dementia during the same period. Pain intensity and pain interference (averaged as total pain) were measured on 9 occasions (1991-2016) using the Short-Form 36 Questionnaire amongst 9046 (women = 31.4%) dementia-free adults aged 40 to 64 years in 1991; 567 dementia cases were recorded between 1991 and 2019. Cox regression was used to assess the association between pain measures at different time points and incident dementia and mixed models to assess pain trajectories preceding dementia diagnosis or end point for dementia-free participants. Results from Cox regression showed moderate/severe compared with mild/no total pain, pain intensity, and pain interference not to be associated with dementia when the mean follow-up was 25.0, 19.6, 14.5, or 10.0 years. These associations were evident for a mean follow-up of 6.2 years: for total pain (hazard ratio = 1.72; 95% confidence intervals = 1.28-2.33), pain intensity (1.41; 1.04-1.92), and pain interference (1.80; 1.30-2.49). These associations were stronger when the mean follow-up for incidence of dementia was 3.2 years. Twenty-seven-year pain trajectories differed between dementia cases and noncases with small differences in total pain and pain interference evident 16 years before dementia diagnosis (difference in the total pain score = 1.4, 95% confidence intervals = 0.1-2.7) and rapidly increasing closer to diagnosis. In conclusion, these findings suggest that pain is a correlate or prodromal symptom rather than a cause of dementia.