Browsing by Subject "Prostate cancer"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 30
  • ERSPC Investigators; Hugosson, Jonas; Roobol, Monique J.; Mansson, Marianne; Tammela, Teuvo L. J.; Talala, Kirsi M.; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas P.; Stenman, Ulf H.; Kujala, Paula; Taari, Kimmo; Auvinen, Anssi (2019)
    Background: The European Randomized study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) has previously demonstrated that prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening decreases prostate cancer (PCa) mortality. Objective: To determine whether PSA screening decreases PCa mortality for up to 16 yr and to assess results following adjustment for nonparticipation and the number of screening rounds attended. Design, setting, and participants: This multicentre population-based randomised screening trial was conducted in eight European countries. Report includes 182 160 men, followed up until 2014 (maximum of 16 yr), with a predefined core age group of 162 389 men (55-69 yr), selected from population registry. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: The outcome was PCa mortality, also assessed with adjustment for nonparticipation and the number of screening rounds attended. Results and limitations: The rate ratio of PCa mortality was 0.80 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.72-0.89, p <0.001) at 16 yr. The difference in absolute PCa mortality increased from 0.14% at 13 yr to 0.18% at 16 yr. The number of men needed to be invited for screening to prevent one PCa death was 570 at 16 yr compared with 742 at 13 yr. The number needed to diagnose was reduced to 18 from 26 at 13 yr. Men with PCa detected during the first round had a higher prevalence of PSA >20 ng/ml (9.9% compared with 4.1% in the second round, p <0.001) and higher PCa mortality (hazard ratio = 1.86, p <0.001) than those detected subsequently. Conclusions: Findings corroborate earlier results that PSA screening significantly reduces PCa mortality, showing larger absolute benefit with longer follow-up and a reduction in excess incidence. Repeated screening may be important to reduce PCa mortality on a population level. Patient summary: In this report, we looked at the outcomes from prostate cancer in a large European population. We found that repeated screening reduces the risk of dying from prostate cancer. (C) 2019 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of European Association of Urology.
  • Anttinen, Mikael; Ettala, Otto; Malaspina, Simona; Jambor, Ivan; Sandell, Minna; Kajander, Sami; Rinta-Kiikka, Irina; Schildt, Jukka; Saukko, Ekaterina; Rautio, Pentti; Timonen, Kirsi L.; Matikainen, Tuomas; Noponen, Tommi; Saunavaara, Jani; Loyttyniemi, Eliisa; Taimen, Pekka; Kemppainen, Jukka; Dean, Peter B.; Sequeiros, Roberto Blanco; Aronen, Hannu J.; Seppanen, Marko; Boström, Peter J. (2021)
    Background: Computed tomography (CT) and bone scintigraphy (BS) are the imaging modalities currently used for distant metastasis staging of prostate cancer (PCa). Objective: To compare standard staging modalities with newer and potentially more accurate imaging modalities. Design, setting, and participants: This prospective, single-centre trial (NCT03537391) enrolled 80 patients with newly diagnosed high-risk PCa (International Society of Urological Pathology grade group >= 3 and/or prostate-specific antigen [PSA] >= 20 and/or cT >= T3; March 2018-June 2019) to undergo primary metastasis staging with two standard and three advanced imaging modalities. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: The participants underwent the following five imaging examinations within 2 wk of enrolment and without a prespecified sequence: BS, CT, Tc-99m-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (Tc-99m-HMDP) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-CT, 1.5 T whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WBMRI) using diffusion-weighted imaging, and F-18-prostate-specific membrane antigen-1007 (F-18-PSMA-1007) positron emission tomography(PET)-CT. Each modality was reviewed by two independent experts blinded to the results of the prior studies, who classified lesions as benign, equivocal, or malignant. Pessimistic and optimistic analyses were performed to resolve each equivocal diagnosis. The reference standard diagnosis was defined using all available information accrued during at least 12 mo of clinical follow-up. Patients with equivocal reference standard diagnoses underwent MRI and/or CT to search for the development of anatomical correspondence. PSMA PET-avid lesions without histopathological verification were rated to be malignant only if there was a corresponding anatomical finding suspicious for malignancy at the primary or follow-up imaging. Results and limitations: Seventy-nine men underwent all imaging modalities except for one case of interrupted MRI. The median interval per patient between the first and the last imaging study was 8 d (interquartile range [IQR]: 6-9). The mean age was 70 yr (standard deviation: 7) and median PSA 12 ng/mL (IQR:7-23). The median follow-up was 435 d (IQR: 378-557). Metastatic disease was detected in 20 (25%) patients. The imaging modality F-18-PSMA-1007 PET-CT had superior sensitivity and highest inter-reader agreement. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) values for bone metastasis detection with PSMA PET-CT were 0.90 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.85-0.95) and 0.91 (95% CI: 0.87-0.96) for readers 1 and 2, respectively, while the AUC values for BS, CT, SPECT-CT, and WBMRI were 0.71 (95% CI: 0.58-0.84) and 0.8 (95% CI: 0.67-0.92), 0.53 (95% CI: 0.39-0.67) and 0.66 (95% CI: 0.54-0.77), 0.77 (95% CI: 0.65-0.89) and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.62-0.88), and 0.85 (95% CI: 0.74-0.96) and 0.67 (95% CI: 0.54-0.80), respectively, for the other four pairs of readers. The imaging method F-18-PSMA-1007 PET-CT detected metastatic disease in 11/20 patients in whom standard imaging was negative and influenced clinical decision making in 14/79 (18%) patients. In 12/79 cases, false positive bone disease was reported only by PSMA PET-CT. Limitations included a nonrandomised study setting and few histopathologically validated suspicious lesions. Conclusions: Despite the risk of false positive bone lesions, F-18-PSMA-1007 PET-CT outperformed all other imaging methods studied for the detection of primary distant metastasis in high-risk PCa. Patient summary: In this report, we compared the diagnostic performance of conventional and advanced imaging. It was found that F-18-prostate-specific membrane antigen-1007 positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18-PSMA-1007 PET-CT) was superior to the other imaging modalities studied for the detection of distant metastasis at the time of initial diagnosis of high-risk prostate cancer. PSMA PET-CT also appears to detect some nonmetastatic bone lesions. (C) 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of European Association of Urology.
  • Pohjonen, Joona (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Prediction of the pathological T-stage (pT) in men undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) is crucial for disease management as curative treatment is most likely when prostate cancer (PCa) is organ-confined (OC). Although multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to predict pT findings and the risk of biochemical recurrence (BCR), none of the currently used nomograms allow the inclusion of MRI variables. This study aims to assess the possible added benefit of MRI when compared to the Memorial Sloan Kettering, Partin table and CAPRA nomograms and a model built from available preoperative clinical variables. Logistic regression is used to assess the added benefit of MRI in the prediction of non-OC disease and Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazards in the prediction of BCR. For the prediction of non-OC disease, all models with the MRI variables had significantly higher discrimination and net benefit than the models without the MRI variables. For the prediction of BCR, MRI prediction of non-OC disease separated the high-risk group of all nomograms into two groups with significantly different survival curves but in the Cox proportional hazards models the variable was not significantly associated with BCR. Based on the results, it can be concluded that MRI does offer added value to predicting non-OC disease and BCR, although the results for BCR are not as clear as for non-OC disease.
  • Dickerman, Barbra A.; Markt, Sarah Coseo; Koskenvuo, Markku; Pukkala, Eero; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Kaprio, Jaakko (2016)
    Purpose Alcohol intake may be associated with cancer risk, but epidemiologic evidence for prostate cancer is inconsistent. We aimed to prospectively investigate the association between midlife alcohol intake and drinking patterns with future prostate cancer risk and mortality in a population-based cohort of Finnish twins. Methods Data were drawn from the Older Finnish Twin Cohort and included 11,372 twins followed from 1981 to 2012. Alcohol consumption was assessed by questionnaires administered at two time points over follow-up. Over the study period, 601 incident cases of prostate cancer and 110 deaths from prostate cancer occurred. Cox regression was used to evaluate associations between weekly alcohol intake and binge drinking patterns with prostate cancer risk and prostate cancer-specific mortality. Within-pair co-twin analyses were performed to control for potential confounding by shared genetic and early environmental factors. Results Compared to light drinkers ( Conclusion Heavy regular alcohol consumption and binge drinking patterns may be associated with increased prostate cancer risk, while abstinence may be associated with increased risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality compared to light alcohol consumption.
  • Murtojärvi, Mika; Halkola, Anni S.; Airola, Antti; Laajala, Teemu D.; Mirtti, Tuomas; Aittokallio, Tero; Pahikkala, Tapio (2020)
    Introduction Predictive survival modeling offers systematic tools for clinical decision-making and individualized tailoring of treatment strategies to improve patient outcomes while reducing overall healthcare costs. In 2015, a number of machine learning and statistical models were benchmarked in the DREAM 9.5 Prostate Cancer Challenge, based on open clinical trial data for metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). However, applying these models into clinical practice poses a practical challenge due to the inclusion of a large number of model variables, some of which are not routinely monitored or are expensive to measure. Objectives To develop cost-specified variable selection algorithms for constructing cost-effective prognostic models of overall survival that still preserve sufficient model performance for clinical decision making. Methods Penalized Cox regression models were used for the survival prediction. For the variable selection, we implemented two algorithms: (i) LASSO regularization approach; and (ii) a greedy cost-specified variable selection algorithm. The models were compared in three cohorts of mCRPC patients from randomized clinical trials (RCT), as well as in a real-world cohort (RWC) of advanced prostate cancer patients treated at the Turku University Hospital. Hospital laboratory expenses were utilized as a reference for computing the costs of introducing new variables into the models. Results Compared to measuring the full set of clinical variables, economic costs could be reduced by half without a significant loss of model performance. The greedy algorithm outperformed the LASSO-based variable selection with the lowest tested budgets. The overall top performance was higher with the LASSO algorithm. Conclusion The cost-specified variable selection offers significant budget optimization capability for the real-world survival prediction without compromising the predictive power of the model.
  • Lázaro-Ibáñez, Elisa; Lunavat, Taral R; Jang, Su C; Escobedo-Lucea, Carmen; Oliver-De La Cruz, Jorge; Siljander, Pia; Lötvall, Jan; Yliperttula, Marjo (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Multiple types of extracellular vesicles (EVs), including microvesicles (MVs) and exosomes (EXOs), are released by all cells constituting part of the cellular EV secretome. The bioactive cargo of EVs can be shuffled between cells and consists of lipids, metabolites, proteins, and nucleic acids, including multiple RNA species from non-coding RNAs to messenger RNAs (mRNAs). In this study, we hypothesized that the mRNA cargo of EVs could differ based on the EV cellular origin and subpopulation analyzed. Methods We isolated MVs and EXOs from PC-3 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells by differential centrifugation and compared them to EVs derived from the benign PNT2 prostate cells. The relative mRNA levels of 84 prostate cancer-related genes were investigated and validated using quantitative reverse transcription PCR arrays. Results Based on the mRNA abundance, MVs rather than EXOs were enriched in the analyzed transcripts, providing a snapshot of the tumor transcriptome. LNCaP MVs specifically contained significantly increased mRNA levels of NK3 Homeobox 1 (NKX3-1), transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), and tumor protein 53 (TP53) genes, whereas PC-3 MVs carried increased mRNA levels of several genes including, caveolin-2 (CAV2), glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1), pescadillo ribosomal biogenesis factor 1 (PES1), calmodulin regulated spectrin associated protein 1 (CAMSAP1), zinc-finger protein 185 (ZNF185), and others compared to PNT2 MVs. Additionally, ETS variant 1 (ETV1) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) mRNAs identified in LNCaP- and PC-3- derived MVs highly correlated with prostate cancer progression. Conclusions Our study provides new understandings of the variability of the mRNA cargo of MVs and EXOs from different cell lines despite same cancer origin, which is essential to better understand the the proportion of the cell transcriptome that can be detected within EVs and to evaluate their role in disease diagnosis.
  • Lazaro-Ibanez, Elisa; Lunavat, Taral R.; Jang, Su Chul; Escobedo-Lucea, Carmen; Oliver-De La Cruz, Jorge; Siljander, Pia; Lotvall, Jan; Yliperttula, Marjo (2017)
    Background: Multiple types of extracellular vesicles (EVs), including microvesicles (MVs) and exosomes (EXOs), are released by all cells constituting part of the cellular EV secretome. The bioactive cargo of EVs can be shuffled between cells and consists of lipids, metabolites, proteins, and nucleic acids, including multiple RNA species from non-coding RNAs to messenger RNAs (mRNAs). In this study, we hypothesized that the mRNA cargo of EVs could differ based on the EV cellular origin and subpopulation analyzed. Methods: We isolated MVs and EXOs from PC-3 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells by differential centrifugation and compared them to EVs derived from the benign PNT2 prostate cells. The relative mRNA levels of 84 prostate cancer-related genes were investigated and validated using quantitative reverse transcription PCR arrays. Results: Based on the mRNA abundance, MVs rather than EXOs were enriched in the analyzed transcripts, providing a snapshot of the tumor transcriptome. LNCaP MVs specifically contained significantly increased mRNA levels of NK3 Homeobox 1 (NKX3-1), transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), and tumor protein 53 (TP53) genes, whereas PC-3 MVs carried increased mRNA levels of several genes including, caveolin-2 (CAV2), glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1), pescadillo ribosomal biogenesis factor 1 (PES1), calmodulin regulated spectrin associated protein 1 (CAMSAP1), zinc-finger protein 185 (ZNF185), and others compared to PNT2 MVs. Additionally, ETS variant 1 (ETV1) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) mRNAs identified in LNCaP-and PC-3-derived MVs highly correlated with prostate cancer progression. Conclusions: Our study provides new understandings of the variability of the mRNA cargo of MVs and EXOs from different cell lines despite same cancer origin, which is essential to better understand the the proportion of the cell transcriptome that can be detected within EVs and to evaluate their role in disease diagnosis.
  • Brausi, Maurizio; Hoskin, Peter; Andritsch, Elisabeth; Banks, Ian; Beishon, Marc; Boyle, Helen; Colecchia, Maurizio; Delgado-Bolton, Roberto; Hoeckel, Michael; Leonard, Kay; Loevey, Jozsef; Maroto, Pablo; Mastris, Ken; Medeiros, Rui; Naredi, Peter; Oyen, Raymond; de Reijke, Theo; Selby, Peter; Saarto, Tiina; Valdagni, Riccardo; Costa, Alberto; Poortmans, Philip (2020)
    Background ECCO Essential Requirements for Quality Cancer Care (ERQCC) are written by experts representing all disciplines involved in cancer care in Europe. They give oncology teams, patients, policymakers and managers an overview of essential care throughout the patient journey. Prostate cancer Prostate cancer is the second most common male cancer and has a wide variation in outcomes in Europe. It has complex diagnosis and treatment challenges, and is a major healthcare burden. Care must only be a carried out in prostate/urology cancer units or centres that have a core multidisciplinary team (MDT) and an extended team of health professionals. Such units are far from universal in European countries. To meet European aspirations for comprehensive cancer control, healthcare organisations must consider the requirements in this paper, paying particular attention to multidisciplinarity and patient-centred pathways from diagnosis, to treatment, to survivorship.
  • Hietikko, Ronja; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas P; Kenttämies, Anu; Ronkainen, Johanna; Ijäs, Kirsty; Lind, Kati; Marjasuo, Suvi; Oksala, Juha; Oksanen, Outi; Saarinen, Tuomas; Savolainen, Ritja; Taari, Kimmo; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Mirtti, Tuomas; Natunen, Kari; Auvinen, Anssi; Rannikko, Antti (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background The aim of this study is to investigate the potential impact of prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) -related interreader variability on a population-based randomized prostate cancer screening trial (ProScreen). Methods From January 2014 to January 2018, 100 men aged 50–63 years with clinical suspicion of prostate cancer (PCa) in Helsinki University Hospital underwent MRI. Nine radiologists individually reviewed the pseudonymized MRI scans of all 100 men in two ProScreen trial centers. All 100 men were biopsied according to a histological composite variable comprising radical prostatectomy histology (N = 38) or biopsy result within 1 year from the imaging (N = 62). Fleiss’ kappa (κ) was used to estimate the combined agreement between all individual radiologists. Sample data were subsequently extrapolated to 1000-men subgroups of the ProScreen cohort. Results Altogether 89% men of the 100-men sample were diagnosed with PCa within a median of 2.4 years of follow-up. Clinically significant PCa (csPCa) was identified in 76% men. For all PCa, mean sensitivity was 79% (SD ±10%, range 62–96%), and mean specificity 60% (SD ±22%, range 27–82%). For csPCa (Gleason Grade 2–5) MRI was equally sensitive (mean 82%, SD ±9%, range 67–97%) but less specific (mean 47%, SD ±20%, range 21–75%). Interreader agreement for any lesion was fair (κ 0.40) and for PI-RADS 4–5 lesions it was moderate (κ 0.60). Upon extrapolating these data, the average sensitivity and specificity to a screening positive subgroup of 1000 men from ProScreen with a 30% prevalence of csPCa, 639 would be biopsied. Of these, 244 men would be true positive, and 395 false positive. Moreover, 361 men would not be referred to biopsy and among these, 56 csPCas would be missed. The variation among the radiologists was broad as the least sensitive radiologist would have twice as many men biopsied and almost three times more men would undergo unnecessary biopsies. Although the most sensitive radiologist would miss only 2.6% of csPCa (false negatives), the least sensitive radiologist would miss every third. Conclusions Interreader agreement was fair to moderate. The role of MRI in the ongoing ProScreen trial is crucial and has a substantial impact on the screening process.
  • Harju, Eeva; Rantanen, Anja; Helminen, Mika; Kaunonen, Marja; Isotalo, Taina; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi (2018)
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore changes in HRQoL (health-related quality of life) and identify the associated factors in patients with prostate cancer and their spouses during the year following their diagnosis of prostate cancer. Methods: The longitudinal study design consisted of 179 patients and 166 spouses, using discretionary sampling, at five Finnish central hospitals. Participants completed a self-reported RAND-36-Item Health Survey at three time-points: time of diagnosis and 6 and 12 months later. Changes in HRQoL were analysed using descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests. Linear mixed-effects models were used to identify the factors associated with the changes in HRQoL in the patients and their spouses. Results: On average, the HRQoL of patients with prostate cancer changed in physical functioning (p = 0.015), emotional well-being (p = 0.029) and general health (p = 0.038) were statistically significant over the 12 month study period. In spouses, statistically significant changes in HRQoL were not observed. Interaction between the age of participants and changes in HRQoL were statistically significant. Conclusions: Findings in this study suggest that interventions aimed at improving the HRQoL of patients should support a few different dimensions of HRQoL for the patients themselves than for their spouses. Nurses should pay more attention to elderly couples.
  • Lazaro Ibañez, Elisa; Neuvonen, Katri Maarit; Takatalo-Laine, Sari Maarit; Thanigai Arasu, Uma; Capasso, Cristian; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Rhim, Johng; Rilla, Kirsi; Yliperttula, Marjo Liisa; Siljander, Pia Riitta-Maria (2017)
  • Saari, Heikki; Lazaro Ibanez, Elisa; Viitala, Tapani; Vuorimaa-Laukkanen, Elina; Siljander, Pia; Yliperttula, Marjo (2015)
    Background: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are naturally occurring membrane particles that mediate intercellular communication by delivering molecular information between cells. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of two different populations of EVs (microvesicle- and exosome-enriched) as carriers of Paclitaxel to autologous prostate cancer cells. Methods: EVs were isolated from LNCaP- and PC-3 prostate cancer cell cultures using differential centrifugation and characterized by electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis, and Western blot. The uptake of microvesicles and exosomes by the autologous prostate cancer cells was assessed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. The EVs were loaded with Paclitaxel and the effectiveness of EV-mediated drug delivery was assessed with viability assays. The distribution of EVs and EV-delivered Paclitaxel in cells was inspected by confocal microscopy. Results: Our main finding was that the loading of Paclitaxel to autologous prostate cancer cell-derived EVs increased its cytotoxic effect. This capacity was independent of the EV population and the cell line tested. Although the EVs without the drug increased cancer cell viability, the net effect of enhanced cytotoxicity remained. Both EV populations delivered Paclitaxel to the recipient cells through endocytosis, leading to the release of the drug from within the cells. The removal of EV surface proteins did not affect exosomes, while the drug delivery mediated by microvesicles was partially inhibited. Conclusions: Cancer cell-derived EVs can be used as effective carriers of Paclitaxel to their parental cells, bringing the drug into the cells through an endocytic pathway and increasing its cytotoxicity. However, due to the increased cell viability, the use of cancer cell-derived EVs must be further investigated before any clinical applications can be designed. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Bergroth, Robin; Matikainen, Mika; Rannikko, Antti (2021)
    The prevalence of prostate cancer (PCa) is increasing. As the prognosis of PCa continues to improve, the increasing follow-up requirements after radical prosta-tectomy or radiotherapy puts significant pressure on health care systems. Follow-up is typically conducted by treating urologists, specialized nurses, or general practitioners. Despite the increase in patient numbers, resources are not likely to increase in proportion. Furthermore, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has led to a paradigm shift in our thinking towards telehealth solutions, primarily to avoid or limit physical contact and to spare resources. Here we report our novel telehealth solution for PCa follow-up, called Mobile PSA. Currently, more than 4500 PCa patients have been using Mobile PSA follow-up in our center. Mobile PSA can increase follow-up accuracy, as all biochemical relapses will be detected in a timely manner, can significantly reduce delays in reporting prostate-specific antigen results to patients, and can significantly reduce costs. Patient summary: We assessed a new telehealth information system for prostate cancer follow-up that does not use an app. More than 4500 prostate cancer patients in our center have used this system, called Mobile PSA, for follow-up. The system significantly reduces delays in reporting prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test results to patients, increases the accuracy of detecting recurrence of elevated PSA, and reduces costs. (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of European Association of Urology. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creati-vecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
  • Eerola, Sini K.; Santio, Niina M.; Rinne, Sanni; Kouvonen, Petri; Corthals, Garry L.; Scaravilli, Mauro; Scala, Giovanni; Serra, Angela; Greco, Dario; Ruusuvuori, Pekka; Latonen, Leena; Rainio, Eeva-Marja; Visakorpi, Tapio; Koskinen, Päivi J. (2019)
    Background Progression of prostate cancer from benign local tumors to metastatic carcinomas is a multistep process. Here we have investigated the signaling pathways that support migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells, focusing on the role of the NFATC1 transcription factor and its post-translational modifications. We have previously identified NFATC1 as a substrate for the PIM1 kinase and shown that PIM1-dependent phosphorylation increases NFATC1 activity without affecting its subcellular localization. Both PIM kinases and NFATC1 have been reported to promote cancer cell migration, invasion and angiogenesis, but it has remained unclear whether the effects of NFATC1 are phosphorylation-dependent and which downstream targets are involved. Methods We used mass spectrometry to identify PIM1 phosphorylation target sites in NFATC1, and analysed their functional roles in three prostate cancer cell lines by comparing phosphodeficient mutants to wild-type NFATC1. We used luciferase assays to determine effects of phosphorylation on NFAT-dependent transcriptional activity, and migration and invasion assays to evaluate effects on cell motility. We also performed a microarray analysis to identify novel PIM1/NFATC1 targets, and validated one of them with both cellular expression analyses and in silico in clinical prostate cancer data sets. Results Here we have identified ten PIM1 target sites in NFATC1 and found that prevention of their phosphorylation significantly decreases the transcriptional activity as well as the pro-migratory and pro-invasive effects of NFATC1 in prostate cancer cells. We observed that also PIM2 and PIM3 can phosphorylate NFATC1, and identified several novel putative PIM1/NFATC1 target genes. These include the ITGA5 integrin, which is differentially expressed in the presence of wild-type versus phosphorylation-deficient NFATC1, and which is coexpressed with PIM1 and NFATC1 in clinical prostate cancer specimens. Conclusions Based on our data, phosphorylation of PIM1 target sites stimulates NFATC1 activity and enhances its ability to promote prostate cancer cell migration and invasion. Therefore, inhibition of the interplay between PIM kinases and NFATC1 may have therapeutic implications for patients with metastatic forms of cancer.
  • Eerola, Sini K; Santio, Niina M; Rinne, Sanni; Kouvonen, Petri; Corthals, Garry L; Scaravilli, Mauro; Scala, Giovanni; Serra, Angela; Greco, Dario; Ruusuvuori, Pekka; Latonen, Leena; Rainio, Eeva-Marja; Visakorpi, Tapio; Koskinen, Päivi J (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Progression of prostate cancer from benign local tumors to metastatic carcinomas is a multistep process. Here we have investigated the signaling pathways that support migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells, focusing on the role of the NFATC1 transcription factor and its post-translational modifications. We have previously identified NFATC1 as a substrate for the PIM1 kinase and shown that PIM1-dependent phosphorylation increases NFATC1 activity without affecting its subcellular localization. Both PIM kinases and NFATC1 have been reported to promote cancer cell migration, invasion and angiogenesis, but it has remained unclear whether the effects of NFATC1 are phosphorylation-dependent and which downstream targets are involved. Methods We used mass spectrometry to identify PIM1 phosphorylation target sites in NFATC1, and analysed their functional roles in three prostate cancer cell lines by comparing phosphodeficient mutants to wild-type NFATC1. We used luciferase assays to determine effects of phosphorylation on NFAT-dependent transcriptional activity, and migration and invasion assays to evaluate effects on cell motility. We also performed a microarray analysis to identify novel PIM1/NFATC1 targets, and validated one of them with both cellular expression analyses and in silico in clinical prostate cancer data sets. Results Here we have identified ten PIM1 target sites in NFATC1 and found that prevention of their phosphorylation significantly decreases the transcriptional activity as well as the pro-migratory and pro-invasive effects of NFATC1 in prostate cancer cells. We observed that also PIM2 and PIM3 can phosphorylate NFATC1, and identified several novel putative PIM1/NFATC1 target genes. These include the ITGA5 integrin, which is differentially expressed in the presence of wild-type versus phosphorylation-deficient NFATC1, and which is coexpressed with PIM1 and NFATC1 in clinical prostate cancer specimens. Conclusions Based on our data, phosphorylation of PIM1 target sites stimulates NFATC1 activity and enhances its ability to promote prostate cancer cell migration and invasion. Therefore, inhibition of the interplay between PIM kinases and NFATC1 may have therapeutic implications for patients with metastatic forms of cancer.
  • Santio, Niina M.; Vainio, Veera; Hoikkala, Tuuli; Mung, Kwan Long; Lång, Mirka; Vahakoski, Riitta; Zdrojewska, Justyna; Coffey, Eleanor T.; Kremneva, Elena; Rainio, Eeva-Marja; Koskinen, Päivi J. (2020)
    Background: The PIM family kinases promote cancer cell survival and motility as well as metastatic growth in various types of cancer. We have previously identified several PIM substrates, which support cancer cell migration and invasiveness. However, none of them are known to regulate cellular movements by directly interacting with the actin cytoskeleton. Here we have studied the phosphorylation-dependent effects of PIM1 on actin capping proteins, which bind as heterodimers to the fast-growing actin filament ends and stabilize them. Methods: Based on a phosphoproteomics screen for novel PIM substrates, we have used kinase assays and fluorescence-based imaging techniques to validate actin capping proteins as PIM1 substrates and interaction partners. We have analysed the functional consequences of capping protein phosphorylation on cell migration and adhesion by using wound healing and real-time impedance-based assays. We have also investigated phosphorylation-dependent effects on actin polymerization by analysing the protective role of capping protein phosphomutants in actin disassembly assays. Results: We have identified capping proteins CAPZA1 and CAPZB2 as PIM1 substrates, and shown that phosphorylation of either of them leads to increased adhesion and migration of human prostate cancer cells. Phosphorylation also reduces the ability of the capping proteins to protect polymerized actin from disassembly. Conclusions: Our data suggest that PIM kinases are able to induce changes in actin dynamics to support cell adhesion and movement. Thus, we have identified a novel mechanism through which PIM kinases enhance motility and metastatic behaviour of cancer cells.
  • Santio, Niina M; Vainio, Veera; Hoikkala, Tuuli; Mung, Kwan L; Lång, Mirka; Vahakoski, Riitta; Zdrojewska, Justyna; Coffey, Eleanor T; Kremneva, Elena; Rainio, Eeva-Marja; Koskinen, Päivi J (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background The PIM family kinases promote cancer cell survival and motility as well as metastatic growth in various types of cancer. We have previously identified several PIM substrates, which support cancer cell migration and invasiveness. However, none of them are known to regulate cellular movements by directly interacting with the actin cytoskeleton. Here we have studied the phosphorylation-dependent effects of PIM1 on actin capping proteins, which bind as heterodimers to the fast-growing actin filament ends and stabilize them. Methods Based on a phosphoproteomics screen for novel PIM substrates, we have used kinase assays and fluorescence-based imaging techniques to validate actin capping proteins as PIM1 substrates and interaction partners. We have analysed the functional consequences of capping protein phosphorylation on cell migration and adhesion by using wound healing and real-time impedance-based assays. We have also investigated phosphorylation-dependent effects on actin polymerization by analysing the protective role of capping protein phosphomutants in actin disassembly assays. Results We have identified capping proteins CAPZA1 and CAPZB2 as PIM1 substrates, and shown that phosphorylation of either of them leads to increased adhesion and migration of human prostate cancer cells. Phosphorylation also reduces the ability of the capping proteins to protect polymerized actin from disassembly. Conclusions Our data suggest that PIM kinases are able to induce changes in actin dynamics to support cell adhesion and movement. Thus, we have identified a novel mechanism through which PIM kinases enhance motility and metastatic behaviour of cancer cells. Video abstract Graphical abstract
  • Wallström, Peter; Drake, Isabel; Sonestedt, Emily; Gullberg, Bo; Bjartell, Anders; Olsson, Håkan; Adlercreutz, Herman; Tikkanen, Matti J.; Wirfält, Elisabet (2018)
    Enterolactone (ENL) is formed in the human gut after consumption of lignans, has estrogenic properties, and has been associated with risk of prostate cancer. We examined the association between plasma ENL levels and prostate cancer in a nested case-control study within the population-based Malmo Diet and Cancer cohort. We also examined the association between plasma ENL and dietary and lifestyle factors. The study population consisted of 1010 cases occurring during a mean follow-up of 14.6 years, and 1817 controls matched on age and study entry date. We used national registers (95%) and hospital records (5%) to ascertain cases. Diet was estimated by a modified diet history method. Plasma ENL concentrations were determined by a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. Odds ratios were calculated by unconditional logistic regression. There were no significant associations between plasma ENL and incidence of all prostate cancer (odds ratio 0.99 [95% confidence interval 0.77-1.280] for the highest ENL quintile versus lowest, p for trend 0.66). However, in certain subgroups of men, including men with abdominal obesity (p for interaction = 0.012), we observed associations between high ENL levels and lower odds of high-risk prostate cancer. Plasma ENL was positively associated with consumption of high-fibre bread, fruit, tea, and coffee; with age, and with height, while it was negatively associated with smoking and waist circumference; however, although significant, all associations were rather weak (r ae |0.14|). ENL concentration was not consistently associated with lower prostate cancer risk, although it was weakly associated with a healthy lifestyle.
  • Vasarainen, Hanna; Salman, Jolanda; Salminen, Heidi; Valdagni, Riccardo; Pickles, Tom; Bangma, Chris; Roobol, Monique J.; Rannikko, Antti (2015)
    To evaluate the utility of percentage of free serum PSA (%fPSA) as a predictor of adverse rebiopsy findings, treatment change and radical prostatectomy (RP) findings in a prospective active surveillance (AS) trial. Patients enrolled in the global PRIAS study with baseline %fPSA available were included. Putative baseline predictors (e.g. PSA, %fPSA) of adverse rebiopsy findings were explored using logistic regression analysis. Association of variables with treatment change and RP findings over time were evaluated with Cox regression analysis. Active treatment-free survival was assessed with a Kaplan-Meier method. Of 3701 patients recruited to PRIAS, 939 had %fPSA measured at study entry. Four hundred and thirty-eight of them had %fPSA available after 1 year. Median follow-up was 17.2 months. First rebiopsy results were available for 595 patients and of those, 144 (24.2 %) had adverse findings. A total of 283 (30.1 %) patients discontinued surveillance, of those 181 (64.0 %) due to protocol-based reasons. Although median %fPSA values were significantly lower in patients who changed treatment, according to the multivariate regression analysis, initial %fPSA value was not predictive for treatment change or adverse rebiopsy findings. However, the probability of discontinuing AS was significantly lower in patients with "favourable" initial %fPSA characteristics and %fPSA during follow-up (initial %fPSA a parts per thousand yen15 and positive %fPSA velocity) compared to those with "adverse" %fPSA characteristics (initial %fPSA <15 and negative %fPSA velocity). Diagnostic %fPSA provides no additional prognostic value when compared to other predictors already in use in AS protocols. However, %fPSA velocity during surveillance may aid in predicting the probability for future treatment change.