Browsing by Subject "Protein kinase C"

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  • Boije af Gennäs, Gustav; Talman, Virpi; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Tuominen, Raimo K.; Ekokoski, Elina (2011)
    The second messenger diacylglycerol (DAG) plays a central role in the signal transduction of G-protein coupled receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases by binding to C1 domain of effector proteins. C1 domain was first identified in protein kinase C (PKC) which comprises a family of ten isoforms that play roles in diverse cellular processes such as proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. Aberrant signaling through PKC isoforms and other C1 domain-containing proteins has been implicated in several pathological disorders. Drug discovery concerning C1 domains has exploited both natural products and rationally designed compounds. Currently, molecules from several classes of C1 domain-binding compounds are in clinical trials; however, still more have the potential to enter the drug development pipeline. This review gives a summary of the recent developments in C1 domain-binding compounds.
  • Talman, Virpi; Gateva, Gergana; Ahti, Marja; Ekokoski, Elina; Lappalainen, Pekka; Tuominen, Raimo K. (2014)
    Diacylglycerol (DAG) is a central mediator of signaling pathways that regulate cell proliferation, survival and apoptosis. Therefore, C1 domain, the DAG binding site within protein kinase C (PKC) and other DAG effector proteins, is considered a potential cancer drug target. Derivatives of 5-(hydroxymethyl)isophthalic acid are a novel group of C1 domain ligands with antiproliferative and differentiation-inducing effects. Our previous work showed that these isophthalate derivatives exhibit antiproliferative and elongation-inducing effects in HeLa human cervical cancer cells. In this study we further characterized the effects of bis(3-trifluoromethylbenzyl) 5-(hydroxymethyl)isophthalate (HMI-1a3) on HeLa cell proliferation and morphology. HMI-1a3-induced cell elongation was accompanied with loss of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers, and exposure to HMI-1a3 induced a prominent relocation of cofilin-1 into the nucleus regardless of cell phenotype. The antiproliferative and morphological responses to HMI-1a3 were not modified by coexposure to pharmacological inhibition or activation of PKC, or by RNAi knock-down of specific PKC isoforms, suggesting that the effects of HMI-1a3 were not mediated by PKC. Genome-wide gene expression microarray and gene set enrichment analysis suggested that, among others, HMI-1a3 induces changes in small GTPase-mediated signaling pathways. Our experiments revealed that the isophthalates bind also to the C1 domains of β2-chimaerin, protein kinase D (PKD) and myotonic dystrophy kinase-related Cdc42-binding kinase (MRCK), which are potential mediators of small GTPase signaling and cytoskeletal reorganization. Pharmacological inhibition of MRCK, but not that of PKD attenuated HMI-1a3-induced cell elongation, suggesting that MRCK participates in mediating the effects of HMI-1a3 on HeLa cell morphology.
  • Sarajärvi, T.; Jäntti, M.; Paldanius, K. M. A.; Natunen, T.; Wu, J. C.; Mäkinen, P.; Tarvainen, I.; Tuominen, R. K.; Talman, V.; Hiltunen, M. (2018)
    Abnormal protein kinase C (PKC) function contributes to many pathophysiological processes relevant for Alzheimer's disease (AD), such as amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing. Phorbol esters and other PKC activators have been demonstrated to enhance the secretion of soluble APP alpha (sAPP alpha), reduce the levels of beta-amyloid (A beta), induce synaptogenesis, and promote neuroprotection. We have previously described isophthalate derivatives as a structurally simple family of PKC activators. Here, we characterised the effects of isophthalate derivatives HMI-1a3 and HMI-1b11 on neuronal viability, neuroinflammatory response, processing of APP and dendritic spine density and morphology in in vitro. HMI-1a3 increased the viability of embryonic primary cortical neurons and decreased the production of the pro-inflammatory mediator TNF alpha, but not that of nitric oxide, in mouse neuron-BV2 microglia co-cultures upon LPS- and IFN-gamma-induced neuroinflammation. Furthermore, both HMI-1a3 and HMI-1b11 increased the levels of sAPPa relative to total sAPP and the ratio of A beta 42/A beta 40 in human SH-Sv5v neuroblastoma cells. Finally, bryostatin-1, but not HMI-1a3, increased the number of mushroom spines in proportion to total spine density in mature mouse hippocampal neuron cultures. These results suggest that the PKC activator HMI-1a3 exerts neuroprotective functions in the in vitro models relevant for AD by reducing the production of TNF alpha and increasing the secretion of neuroprotective sAPPa.
  • Sorvari, Salla (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative brain disease and it is the leading cause of dementia worldwide. However, there are not any medical treatments available to slow down or cure the disease. The typical microscopic changes in Alzheimer patients' brain are extracellular amyloid deposits and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. Serine/threonine kinases are protein kinases that take part in the regulation of cellular functions. At least protein kinase C (PKC), glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3), cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) are involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. There are currently molecules in development that either activate or inhibit these protein kinases in order to stop the progression of the disease. PKC is an interesting kinase considering this project. It has been shown that PKC activation prevents the formation of amyloid deposits and protects neurons from premature death. This could slow down or prevent the progression of the disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dialkyl 5-(hydroxy-methyl)isophthalates (HMI-1a3 and HMI-1b11) on SH-SY5Y-neuroblastoma cell proliferation and morphology with live cell imaging and to Alzheimer's disease-related Wnt, ERK1/2 and PKC signaling pathways with Western blotting. The main purpose was to evaluate the potential of the compounds for further in vitro and in vivo experiments. According to the results of this study both isophthalates, HMI-1a3 and HMI-1b11, had good binding affinities to PKCα and PKCδ. Both of them caused a dramatic increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation which may be due to PKC activation and may thus suggest a PKC-dependent mechanism of action. However, the possible PKC activation did not cause downregulation of the PKC-isoforms α, β and δ. In addition, both HMI-1a3 and HMI-1b11 inhibited SH-SY5Y cell proliferation. HMI-1a3 was cytotoxic at 20 µM, while HMI-1b11 did not cause any cell death. Both compounds also induced neurite outgrowth. In addition, HMI-1a3 increased the amount of β-catenin. That could indicate the activation of Wnt-signaling, which is inhibited in Alzheimer's disease. Both of the compounds have potential for further studies because of the good binding to PKC and the beneficial effects on neurite outgrowth and Wnt signaling.