Browsing by Subject "Proteome"

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  • Utami, Kagistia Hana; Skotte, Nils H.; Colaco, Ana R.; Yusof, Nur Amirah Binte Mohammad; Sim, Bernice; Yeo, Xin Yi; Bae, Han-Gye; Garcia-Miralles, Marta; Radulescu, Carola I.; Chen, Qiyu; Chaldaiopoulou, Georgia; Liany, Herty; Nama, Srikanth; Peteri, Ulla-Kaisa A.; Sampath, Prabha; Castrén, Maija; Jung, Sangyong; Mann, Matthias; Pouladi, Mahmoud (2020)
    BACKGROUND: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by epigenetic silencing of FMR1 and loss of FMRP expression. Efforts to understand the molecular underpinnings of the disease have been largely performed in rodent or nonisogenic settings. A detailed examination of the impact of FMRP loss on cellular processes and neuronal properties in the context of isogenic human neurons remains lacking. METHODS: Using CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 to introduce indels in exon 3 of FMR1, we generated an isogenic human pluripotent stem cell model of FXS that shows complete loss of FMRP expression. We generated neuronal cultures and performed genome-wide transcriptome and proteome profiling followed by functional validation of key dysregulated processes. We further analyzed neurodevelopmental and neuronal properties, including neurite length and neuronal activity, using multielectrode arrays and patch clamp electrophysiology. RESULTS: We showed that the transcriptome and proteome profiles of isogenic FMRP-deficient neurons demonstrate perturbations in synaptic transmission, neuron differentiation, cell proliferation and ion transmembrane transporter activity pathways, and autism spectrum disorder-associated gene sets. We uncovered key deficits in FMRP-deficient cells demonstrating abnormal neural rosette formation and neural progenitor cell proliferation. We further showed that FMRP-deficient neurons exhibit a number of additional phenotypic abnormalities, including neurite outgrowth and branching deficits and impaired electrophysiological network activity. These FMRP-deficient related impairments have also been validated in additional FXS patient-derived human-induced pluripotent stem cell neural cells. CONCLUSIONS: Using isogenic human pluripotent stem cells as a model to investigate the pathophysiology of FXS in human neurons, we reveal key neural abnormalities arising from the loss of FMRP.
  • Rajamaki, Minna-Liisa; Sikorskaite-Gudziuniene, Sidona; Sarmah, Nandita; Varjosalo, Markku; Valkonen, Jari P. T. (2020)
    BackgroundInfection of plants by viruses interferes with expression and subcellular localization of plant proteins. Potyviruses comprise the largest and most economically damaging group of plant-infecting RNA viruses. In virus-infected cells, at least two potyviral proteins localize to nucleus but reasons remain partly unknown.ResultsIn this study, we examined changes in the nuclear proteome of leaf cells from a diploid potato line (Solanum tuberosum L.) after infection with potato virus A (PVA; genus Potyvirus; Potyviridae) and compared the data with that acquired for healthy leaves. Gel-free liquid chromatography-coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify 807 nuclear proteins in the potato line v2-108; of these proteins, 370 were detected in at least two samples of healthy leaves. A total of 313 proteins were common in at least two samples of healthy and PVA-infected leaves; of these proteins, 8 showed differential accumulation. Sixteen proteins were detected exclusively in the samples from PVA-infected leaves, whereas other 16 proteins were unique to healthy leaves. The protein Dnajc14 was only detected in healthy leaves, whereas different ribosomal proteins, ribosome-biogenesis proteins, and RNA splicing-related proteins were over-represented in the nuclei of PVA-infected leaves. Two virus-encoded proteins were identified in the samples of PVA-infected leaves.ConclusionsOur results show that PVA infection alters especially ribosomes and splicing-related proteins in the nucleus of potato leaves. The data increase our understanding of potyvirus infection and the role of nucleus in infection. To our knowledge, this is the first study of the nuclear proteome of potato leaves and one of the few studies of changes occurring in nuclear proteomes in response to plant virus infection.
  • Rajamäki, Minna-Liisa; Sikorskaite-Gudziuniene, Sidona; Sarmah, Nandita; Varjosalo, Markku; Valkonen, Jari P.T. (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background Infection of plants by viruses interferes with expression and subcellular localization of plant proteins. Potyviruses comprise the largest and most economically damaging group of plant-infecting RNA viruses. In virus-infected cells, at least two potyviral proteins localize to nucleus but reasons remain partly unknown. Results In this study, we examined changes in the nuclear proteome of leaf cells from a diploid potato line (Solanum tuberosum L.) after infection with potato virus A (PVA; genus Potyvirus; Potyviridae) and compared the data with that acquired for healthy leaves. Gel-free liquid chromatography–coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify 807 nuclear proteins in the potato line v2–108; of these proteins, 370 were detected in at least two samples of healthy leaves. A total of 313 proteins were common in at least two samples of healthy and PVA-infected leaves; of these proteins, 8 showed differential accumulation. Sixteen proteins were detected exclusively in the samples from PVA-infected leaves, whereas other 16 proteins were unique to healthy leaves. The protein Dnajc14 was only detected in healthy leaves, whereas different ribosomal proteins, ribosome-biogenesis proteins, and RNA splicing–related proteins were over-represented in the nuclei of PVA-infected leaves. Two virus-encoded proteins were identified in the samples of PVA-infected leaves. Conclusions Our results show that PVA infection alters especially ribosomes and splicing-related proteins in the nucleus of potato leaves. The data increase our understanding of potyvirus infection and the role of nucleus in infection. To our knowledge, this is the first study of the nuclear proteome of potato leaves and one of the few studies of changes occurring in nuclear proteomes in response to plant virus infection.
  • Rueda, Ferran; Borras, Eva; Garcia-Garcia, Cosme; Iborra-Egea, Oriol; Revuelta-Lopez, Elena; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Cediel, German; Lassus, Johan; Tarvasmäki, Tuukka; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Sabido, Eduard; Bayes-Genis, Antoni (2019)
    Aims Cardiogenic shock (CS) is associated with high short-term mortality and a precise CS risk stratification could guide interventions to improve patient outcome. Here, we developed a circulating protein-based score to predict short-term mortality risk among patients with CS. Methods and results Mass spectrometry analysis of 2654 proteins was used for screening in the Barcelona discovery cohort (n = 48). Targeted quantitative proteomics analyses (n = 51 proteins) were used in the independent CardShock cohort (n = 97) to derive and cross-validate the protein classifier. The combination of four circulating proteins (Cardiogenic Shock 4 proteins-CS4P), discriminated patients with low and high 90-day risk of mortality. CS4P comprises the abundances of liver-type fatty acid-binding protein, beta-2-microglobulin, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase B, and SerpinG1. Within the CardShock cohort used for internal validation, the C-statistic was 0.78 for the CardShock risk score, 0.83 for the CS4P model, and 0.84 (P = 0.033 vs. CardShock risk score) for the combination of CardShock risk score with the CS4P model. The CardShock risk score with the CS4P model showed a marked benefit in patient reclassification, with a net reclassification improvement (NRI) of 0.49 (P = 0.020) compared with CardShock risk score. Similar reclassification metrics were observed in the IABP-SHOCK II risk score combined with CS4P (NRI =0.57; P = 0.032). The CS4P patient classification power was confirmed by enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). Conclusion A new protein-based CS patient classifier, the CS4P, was developed for short-term mortality risk stratification. CS4P improved predictive metrics in combination with contemporary risk scores, which may guide clinicians in selecting patients for advanced therapies.
  • Willcox, Mark D. P.; Argueso, Pablo; Georgiev, Georgi A.; Holopainen, Juha M.; Laurie, Gordon W.; Millar, Tom J.; Papas, Eric B.; Rolland, Jannick P.; Schmidt, Tannin A.; Stahl, Ulrike; Suarez, Tatiana; Subbaraman, Lakshman N.; Ucakhan, Omur O.; Jones, Lyndon (2017)
    The members of the Tear Film Subcommittee reviewed the role of the tear film in dry eye disease (DED). The Subcommittee reviewed biophysical and biochemical aspects of tears and how these change in DED. Clinically, DED is characterized by loss of tear volume, more rapid breakup of the tear film and increased evaporation of tears from the ocular surface. The tear film is composed of many substances including lipids, proteins, mucins and electrolytes. All of these contribute to the integrity of the tear film but exactly how they interact is still an area of active research. Tear film osmolarity increases in DED. Changes to other components such as proteins and mucins can be used as biomarkers for DED. The Subcommittee recommended areas for future research to advance our understanding of the tear film and how this changes with DED. The final report was written after review by all Subcommittee members and the entire TFOS DEWS II membership. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.