Browsing by Subject "Psychiatric treatment"

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  • Nikolakaros, Georgios; Ilonen, Tuula; Kurki, Timo; Paju, Janina; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G.; Vataja, Risto (2016)
    Wernicke's encephalopathy is often undiagnosed, particularly in non-alcoholics. There are very few reports of non-alcoholic patients diagnosed with Korsakoff syndrome in the absence of a prior diagnosis of Wernicke's encephalopathy and no studies of diffusion tensor imaging in non-alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome. We report on three non-alcoholic psychiatric patients (all women) with long-term non-progressive memory impairment that developed after malnutrition accompanied by at least one of the three Wemicke's encephalopathy manifestations: ocular abnormalities, ataxia or unsteadiness, and an altered mental state or mild memory impairment. In neuropsychological examination, all patients had memory impairment, including intrusions. One patient had mild cerebellar vermis atrophy in MRI taken after the second episode of Wemicke's encephalopathy. The same patient had mild hypometabolism in the lateral cortex of the temporal lobes. Another patient had mild symmetrical atrophy and hypometabolism of the superior frontal lobes. Two patients were examined with diffusion tensor imaging. Reduced fractional anisotropy values were found in the corona radiata in two patients, and the uncinate fasciculus and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus in one patient. Our results suggest that non-alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome is underdiagnosed. Psychiatric patients with long-term memory impairment may have Korsakoff syndrome and, therefore, they should be evaluated for a history of previously undiagnosed Wernicke's encephalopathy. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Pitkänen, Joonas; Remes, Hanna; Aaltonen, Mikko; Martikainen, Pekka (2022)
    Background: Individuals in higher socioeconomic positions tend to utilise more mental health care, especially specialist services, than those in lower positions. Whether these disparities in treatment exist among adolescents and young adults who self-harm is currently unknown. Methods: The study is based on Finnish administrative register data on all individuals born 1986–1994. Adolescents and young adults with an episode of self-harm treated in specialised healthcare at ages 16–21 in 2002–2015 (n=4280, 64% female) were identified and followed 2 years before and after the episode. Probabilities of specialised psychiatric inpatient admissions and outpatient visits and purchases of psychotropic medication at different time points relative to self-harm were estimated using generalised estimation equations, multinomial models and cumulative averages. Socioeconomic differences were assessed based on parental education, controlling for income. Results: An educational gradient in specialised treatment and prescription medication was observed, with the highest probabilities of treatment among the adolescents and young adults with the highest educated parents and low- est probabilities among those whose parents had basic education. These differences emerged mostly after self-harm. The probability to not receive any treatment, either in specialised healthcare or psychotropic medication, was highest among youth whose parents had a basic level of education (before self-harm 0.39, 95% CI 0.34–0.43, and after 0.29, 95% CI 0.25–0.33 after) and lowest among youth with higher tertiary educated parents (before self-harm: 0.22, 95% CI 0.18–0.26, and after 0.18, 95% CI 0.14–0.22). The largest differences were observed in inpatient care. Conclusions: The results suggest that specialised psychiatric care and psychotropic medication use are common among youth who self-harm, but a considerable proportion have no prior or subsequent specialised treatment. The children of parents with lower levels of education are likely to benefit from additional support in initiating and adhering to treatment after an episode of self-harm. Further research on the mechanisms underlying the educational gradient in psychiatric treatment is needed.