Browsing by Subject "Psychological distress"

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  • Sipila, Reetta M.; Haasio, Lassi; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Ripatti, Samuli; Estlander, Ann-Mari; Kalso, Eija A. (2017)
    The aim of this study was to identify clinical risk factors for unfavorable pain trajectories after breast cancer surgery, to better understand the association between pain expectation, psychological distress, and acute postoperative pain. This prospective study included 563 women treated for breast cancer. Psychological data included questionnaires for depressive symptoms and anxiety. Experimental pain tests for heat and cold were performed before surgery. The amount of oxycodone needed for satisfactory pain relief after surgery was recorded. Pain intensity in the area of operation before surgery and during the first postoperative week and expected intensity of postoperative pain were recorded using the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS 0-10). Pain trajectories were formed to describe both initial intensity (the intercept) and the direction of the pain path (the slope). Factors associated with higher initial pain intensity (the intercept) were the amount of oxycodone needed for adequate analgesia, psychological distress, type of axillary surgery, preoperative pain in the area of the operation, and expectation of postoperative pain. The higher the pain initially was, the faster it resolved over the week. Expectation of severe postoperative pain was associated with higher scores of both experimental and clinical pain intensity and psychological factors. The results confirm that acute pain after breast cancer surgery is a multidimensional phenomenon. Psychological distress, pain expectation, and the patients' report of preoperative pain in the area to be operated should be recognized before surgery. Patients having axillary clearance need more efficient analgesic approaches.
  • Viertiö, Satu; Kiviruusu, Olli; Piirtola, Maarit; Kaprio, Jaakko; Korhonen, Tellervo; Marttunen, Mauri; Suvisaari, Jaana (BioMed Central, 2021)
    Abstract Background Psychological distress refers to non-specific symptoms of stress, anxiety and depression, and it is more common in women. Our aim was to investigate factors contributing to psychological distress in the working population, with a special reference to gender differences. Methods We used questionnaire data from the nationally representative Finnish Regional Health and Well-being Study (ATH) collected in the years 2012–2016 (target population participants aged 20 +, n = 96,668, response rate 53%), restricting the current analysis to those persons who were working full-time and under 65 of age (n = 34,468). Psychological distress was assessed using the Mental Health Inventory-5 (MHI-5) (cut-off value <=52). We studied the following factors potentially associated with psychological distress: sociodemographic factors, living alone, having children under18 years of age, lifestyle-related factors, social support, helping others outside of the home and work-related factors. We used logistic regression analysis to examine association between having work-family conflict with the likelihood for psychological distress. We first performed the models separately for men and women. Then interaction by gender was tested in the combined data for those independent variables where gender differences appeared probable in the analyses conducted separately for men and women. Results Women reported more psychological distress than men (11.0% vs. 8.8%, respectively, p < 0.0001). Loneliness, job dissatisfaction and family-work conflict were associated with the largest risk of psychological distress. Having children, active participation, being able to successfully combine work and family roles, and social support were found to be protective factors. A significant interaction with gender was found in only two variables: ignoring family due to being absorbed in one’s work was associated with distress in women (OR 1.30 (95% CI 1.00–1.70), and mental strain of work in men (OR 2.71 (95% CI 1.66–4.41). Conclusions Satisfying work, family life and being able to successfully combine the two are important sources of psychological well-being for both genders in the working population.
  • Jokela, Markus; García-Velázquez, Regina; Gluschkoff, Kia; Airaksinen, Jaakko; Rosenström, Tom (2020)
    Objectives Smoking rates have declined with a slower pace among those with psychological distress compared to those without. We examined whether other health behaviors (heavy alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, short sleep duration) showed similar trends associated with sychological distress. We also examined differences by age and birth cohort. Methods Data were from the annually repeated cross-sectional U.S. National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) of 1997-2016 (total n = 603,518). Psychological distress was assessed with the 6-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6). Results Psychological distress became more strongly associated with smoking (OR 1.09 per 10 years; 95% CI 1.07, 1.12), physical inactivity (OR 1.08; 1.05, 1.11), and short sleep (OR 1.12; 1.06, 1.18), but less strongly associated with heavy alcohol consumption (OR 0.93; 0.89, 0.98). The associations of smoking and alcohol consumption attenuated with age, whereas the association with physical inactivity strengthened with age. Compared to older birth cohorts, smoking became more strongly associated with psychological distress among younger birth cohorts up to those born in the 1980s. Conclusions The strength of associations between psychological distress and health behaviors may vary by time period, age, and birth cohort.
  • Ervasti, Jenni; Kivimaki, Mika; Pentti, Jaana; Salo, Paula; Oksanen, Tuula; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna (2016)
    Objective: The proportion of aging employees with cardiometabolic diseases, such as heart or cerebrovascular disease, diabetes and chronic hypertension is on the rise. We explored the extent to which health- and work-related factors were associated with the risk of disability pension among individuals with such cardiometabolic disease. Methods: A cohort of 4798 employees with and 9716 employees without a cardiometabolic disease were followed up for 7 years (2005-2011) for disability pension. For these participants, register and survey data (from 2004) were linked to records on disability pensions. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used for estimating the hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Individuals with heart or cerebrovascular disease had 2.88-fold (95% CI = 2.50-331) higher risk of all cause disability pension compared to employees with no cardiometabolic disease. Diabetes was associated with a 1.84-fold (95% CI = 1.52-2.23) and hypertension a 1.50-fold (95% CI = 131-1.72) increased risk of disability pension. Obesity in cases of diabetes and hypertension (15%) and psychological distress in cases of heart or cerebrovascular disease (9%) were the strongest contributing factors. All 12 health- and work-related risk factors investigated accounted for 24% of the excess work disability in hypertension, 28% in diabetes, and 11% in heart or cerebrovascular disease. Cause-specific analyses (disability pension due to mental, musculoskeletal and circulatory system diseases) yielded similar results. Conclusions: In this study, modifiable risk factors, such as obesity and mental comorbidity, predicted permanent exit from the labor market due to disability in individuals with cardiometabolic disease. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Mustelin, Linda; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna (2017)
    Binge eating disorder (BED) is associated with high levels of obesity and psychological suffering, but little is known about 1) the distribution of features of BED in the general population and 2) their consequences for weight development and psychological distress in young adulthood. We investigated the prevalence of features of BED and their association with body mass index (BMI) and psychological distress among men (n = 2423) and women (n = 2825) from the longitudinal community-based FinnTwin16 cohort (born 1975-1979). Seven eating-related cognitions and behaviors similar to the defining features of BED were extracted from the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 and were assessed at a mean age of 24. BMI and psychological distress, measured with the General Health Questionnaire, were assessed at ages 24 and 34. We assessed prevalence of the features and their association with BMI and psychological distress cross-sectionally and prospectively. More than half of our participants reported at least one feature of BED; clustering of several features in one individual was less common, particularly among men. The most frequently reported feature was 'stuffing oneself with food', whereas the least common was 'eating or drinking in secrecy'. All individual features of BED and their clustering particularly were associated with higher BMI and more psychological distress cross-sectionally. Prospectively, the clustering of features of BED predicted increase in psychological distress but not additional weight gain when baseline BMI was accounted for. In summary, although some features of BED were common, the clustering of several features in one individual was not. The features were cumulatively associated with BMI and psychological distress and predicted further increase in psychological distress over ten years of follow-up. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Halonen, Jaana I.; Hiilamo, Aapo; Butterworth, Peter; Wooden, Mark; Ervasti, Jenni; Virtanen, Marianna; Sivertsen, Borge; Aalto, Ville; Oksanen, Tuula; Kivimäki, Mika; Lallukka, Tea (2020)
    Background: Uncertainty remains whether associations for psychological distress and sickness absence (SA) observed between and within individuals differ, and whether age, gender and work-related factors moderate these associations. Methods: We analyzed SA records of 41,184 participants of the Finnish Public Sector study with repeated survey data between 2000 and 2016 (119,024 observations). Psychological distress was measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), while data on SA days were from the employers' registers. We used a hybrid regression estimation approach adjusting for time-variant confounders-age, marital status, occupational class, body mass index, job contract type, months worked in the follow-up year, job demand, job control, and workplace social capital-and time-invariant gender (for between-individual analysis). Results: Higher levels of psychological distress were consistently associated with SA, both within- and between-individuals. The within-individual association (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.68, 95% CI 1.61-1.75 for SA at high distress), however, was substantially smaller than the between-individual association (IRR 2.53, 95% CI 2.39-2.69). High levels of psychological distress had slightly stronger within-individual associations with SA among older (>45 years) than younger employees, lower than higher occupational class, and among men than women. None of the assessed work unit related factors (e.g. job demand, job control) were consistent moderators. Limitations: These findings may not be generalizable to other working sectors or cultures with different SA policies or study populations that are male dominated. Conclusions: Focus on within-individual variation over time provides more accurate estimates of the contribution of mental health to subsequent sickness absence.
  • Jokela, Markus; Velázquez, Regina Garcia; Komulainen, Kaisla; Savelieva, Kateryna; Airaksinen, Jaakko; Gluschkoff, Kia (2021)
    Persistent psychological distress is more harmful than transient psychological distress, but little is known about the development of persistent distress. We examined whether some specific symptoms of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) were more important than others in predicting the persistence of psychological distress over a 3-year follow-up period among individuals who had at least moderate psychological distress at baseline (GHQ >= 3). Participants were from the UK Household Longitudinal Study (UKHLS; n = 6430) and British Household Panel Survey (BHPS; n = 5954). Sense of worthlessness, loss of self-confidence, loss of sleep over worry, and feelings of strain were associated with increasingly persistent distress. General happiness, feelings of unhappiness or depressed mood, and enjoyment of activities showed no such increasing associations. Symptoms of social functioning (capability of making decisions, concentration problems, feelings of usefulness, ability to face problems) showed some but not consistent associations. These results suggest that feelings of worthlessness, loss of self-confidence, loss of sleep over worry, and strain may be particularly important markers for persistent psychological distress.
  • Shiri, Rahman; Karhula, Kati; Turunen, Jarno; Koskinen, Aki; Ropponen, Annina; Ervasti, Jenni; Kivimäki, Mika; Härmä, Mikko (2021)
    Shift workers are at increased risk of health problems. Effective preventive measures are needed to reduce the unfavourable effects of shift work. In this study we explored whether use of digital participatory working time scheduling software improves employee well-being and perceived workability by analysing an observational cohort study as a pseudo-experiment. Participants of the Finnish Public Sector cohort study with payroll records available between 2015 and 2019 were included (N = 2427). After estimating the propensity score of using the participatory working time scheduling software on the baseline characteristics using multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression and assigning inverse probability of treatment weights for each participant, we used generalised linear model to estimate the effect of using the participatory working time scheduling software on employees’ control over scheduling of shifts, perceived workability, self-rated health, work-life conflict, psychological distress and short sleep (≤ 6 h). During a 2-year follow-up, using the participatory working time scheduling software reduced the risk of employees’ low control over scheduling of shifts (risk ratio [RR] 0.34; 95% CI 0.25–0.46), short sleep (RR 0.70; 95% CI 0.52–0.95) and poor workability (RR 0.74; 95% CI 0.55–0.99). The use of the software was not associated with changes in psychological distress, self-rated health and work-life conflict. In this observational study, we analysed as a pseudo-experiment, the use of participatory working time scheduling software was associated with increased employees’ perceived control over scheduling of shifts and improved sleep and self-rated workability.
  • Oksa, Reetta; Saari, Tiina; Kaakinen, Markus Aarno Ilmari; Oksanen, Atte (2021)
    Working life has digitalized considerably in recent decades and organizations have taken into use new forms of collaborative technologies such as social media platforms. This study examined the relationship between social media use at work and well-being at work for millennials and members of former generations in Finland. The research data contained focus group interviews (N = 52), an expert organization survey (N = 563), and a nationally representative survey (N = 1817). Well-being measures included technostress, burnout, psychological distress, and a set of background variables. Content analysis and linear regression models were used as analysis methods. The results showed that millennials have various intrinsic and extrinsic motivations for social media use at work. Intrinsic motivations included employees' personal choice and their pure interest to follow the market and discussions in their own field. Extrinsic motivations were related mainly to organizations' work culture and personal branding. The survey findings revealed, however, that millennials were not only more active social media users for work, but they also experienced higher technostress and burnout than members of former generations. Social media use motivations were associated with both higher and lower technostress and burnout depending on motivation, indicating that social media use can have both positive and negative effects. Overall, our findings suggest that employees tend to utilize social media more if their needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness are fulfilled.