Browsing by Subject "Public policy"

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  • Khmelnitskaya, Marina; Burdyak, Aleksandra (Routledge, 2020)
    The chapter examines the housing situation of the middle class, in comparison to other groups within Russian society. The analysis begins with a qualitative study of government housing policy since the early post-socialist period. It demonstrates that policy measures were not class-targeted, yet had important implications for people residing in accommodation of different qualities and locations and for households with different compositions. The chapter proceeds with a quantitative analysis of the SDMR and GKS-KOUZH-2016 survey data. The analysis reveals that the middle class was slightly better-housed compared to the working class in the objective (having a housing unit of their own and the availability of housing space per person), but particularly in the subjective (feeling a lack of space and the self-reported physical state of a housing unit) senses. The study also demonstrates that the middle class was more active in buying and constructing new housing, and in the use of savings, capital (mostly, existing housing) and mortgage credit to finance those activities. The inequality between classes, at the same time, was less pronounced in terms of what was defined as the ‘objective’ quality of housing, ownership structure, and the use of funding made available through the Maternity Capital programme. The study, overall, demonstrates that while policies were not class-targeted, with time, class structuration in the Russian housing sphere is expected to become more pronounced.
  • Ismail, Abdirashid A. (2019)
    This article reports on the relationship between the educational performance of second-generation students, the attitude of majority society towards immigrants and integration policy in the destination country. It argues that the educational underperformance of second-generation students is to some extent a product of an inequality in different students’ abilities to materialise educational opportunities provided by the destination country’s education system. This inequality in abilities is generated by the human diversity of the different groups: immigrants vs. non-immigrants; voluntary immigrants vs. refugees. Depending on the integration context, the human diversity may exacerbate the inequality and cause the performance gap to get wider. The article uses data from two qualitative studies with the Somali community in Finland and employs the capability approach. Due to their background as the children of refugees from Somalia and the attitude of people in mainstream society, Finnish-Somali students face more challenges in materialising educational opportunities. The Finnish context in which they find themselves puts these students in a less encouraging position for two reasons. First, prejudice and discrimination may weaken their will and confidence to learn and reduces their parents’ will to cooperate with their schools. Second, their parents—due to their lack of knowledge of the school system and proficiency in the Finnish language—are also relatively less effective in the Finnish schooling system. To deal with the performance gap between immigrant and native children in schooling, public policy should focus on how the integration context is shaping diverse students’ abilities (capability sets) to succeed.
  • Khmelnitskaya, Marina (2017)
    This paper offers an account of the organisation of the budget process on the social side and of the recent deal-making over indexation of benefits and the freezing of contributions to the cumulative pension funds.
  • Khmelnitskaya, Marina (Routledge, 2018)
    The chapter examines the process of the development of the Russian budget for the social sphere during 2015-2016. The analysis demonstrates the key contribution of the bureaucratic actors and the competition among different parts of the executive in the process of policy elaboration.
  • Khmelnitskaya, Marina (2017)
    The article analyses the use of policy tools in the Russian housing sector, associated with the government’s objective of development, and examines the pattern of complementarity that exists between the policy tools. Building on the insights of historical institutionalist and public policy literatures, it argues that the choices of policy tools are determined by institutional and policy sector specific structural factors and temporal calculations by the policy makers leading them to adopt specific ‘bundles’ of policy instruments as well as doubling policy arrangements.