Browsing by Subject "Pulmonary embolism"

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  • Violette, Philippe D.; Vernooij, Robin W. M.; Aoki, Yoshitaka; Agarwal, Arnav; Cartwright, Rufus; Arai, Yoichi; Tailly, Thomas; Novara, Giacomo; Baldeh, Tejan; Craigie, Samantha; Breau, Rodney H; Guyatt, Gordon H.; Tikkinen, Kari (2021)
    Background: The use of perioperative thromboprophylaxis in urological surgery is common but not standardized. Objective: To characterize international practice variation in thromboprophylaxis use in urological surgery. Design, setting, and participants: We conducted a scenario-based survey addressing the use of mechanical and pharmacological thromboprophylaxis in urological cancer procedures (radical cystectomy [RC], radical prostatectomy [RP], and radical nephrectomy [RN]) among practicing urologists in Canada, Finland, and Japan. The survey presented patient profiles reflecting a spectrum of risk for venous thromboembolism; the respondents described their clinical practice. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: The proportion of respondents who routinely used (1) mechanical, (2) pharmacological, and (3) extended pharmacological prophylaxis was stratified by procedure. A logistic regression identified characteristics associated with thromboprophylaxis use. Results and limitations: Of 1051 urologists contacted, 570 (54%) participated in the survey. Japanese urologists were less likely to prescribe pharmacological prophylaxis than Canadian or Finnish urologists (p < 0.001 for all procedures). Canadian and Finnish urologists exhibited large variation for extended pharmacological prophylaxis for RP and RN. Finnish urologists were most likely to prescribe extended prophylaxis versus Canadian and Japanese urologists (RC 98%, 84%, and 26%; Open RP 25%, 8%, and 3%; robotic RP 11%, 9%, and 0%; and RN 43%, 7%, and 1%, respectively; p < 0.001 for each procedure). Less variation was found regarding the prescription of mechanical prophylaxis, which was most commonly used until ambulation or discharge. The length of hospital stay was longer in Japan and may bias estimates of extended prophylaxis in Japan.
  • Sane , Markus Antero (2022)
    Pulmonary embolism (PE) mortality has decreased in the last decades but acute PE is still associated with significant fatality. Specific information on fatal PE patients could guide how to efficiently improve PE management but to date this information has been scarce. All the individuals with PE defined as an immediate or underlying cause of death were collected from the death certificate archive of the Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa, Finland, including approximately 1.7 million inhabitants (2015-2018). Crude and age-adjusted mortality rates and proportional mortality were calculated, and the distribution of comorbidities at death and death location (in-hospital, palliative care, or out-of-hospital) was analyzed. In total, 451 individuals with fatal PE were identified (238 females) with a mean age of 72 years (SD 13.5 year). Most of the fatal PEs (n = 264, 54.5%) occurred out-of-hospital and surprisingly, 70 (26.5%) of these individuals s had a history of mental illness or substance abuse. The out-of-hospital resuscitation was attempted in 108 (40.1%) individuals but only 7 (6.5%) received thrombolysis during resuscitation. Fatal PE occurred during hospitalization in 98 individuals and in 54 (55.1%), the diagnosis was only made postmortem. Majority of the fatal PEs occurred out-of-hospital and were diagnosed postmortem whereas only small proportion of deaths occurred to in-hospital PE patients. The earlier diagnosis of PE, which may be accomplished by raising the general awareness of PE, is necessary to prevent these sudden deaths of whom many occurred to individuals with history of mental illnesses or substance abuse.
  • Bajc, Marika; Schümichen, Carl; Grüning, Thomas; Lindqvist, Ari; Le Roux, Pierre-Yves; Alatri, Adriano; Bauer, Ralf W.; Dilic, Mirza; Neilly, Brian; Verberne, Hein J.; Delgado Bolton, Roberto C.; Jonson, Bjorn (2019)
    These guidelines update the previous EANM 2009 guidelines on the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE). Relevant new aspects are related to (a) quantification of PE and other ventilation/perfusion defects; (b) follow-up of patients with PE; (c) chronic PE; and (d) description of additional pulmonary physiological changes leading to diagnoses of left ventricular heart failure (HF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and pneumonia. The diagnosis of PE should be reported when a mismatch of one segment or two subsegments is found. For ventilation, Technegas or krypton gas is preferred over diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) in patients with COPD. Tomographic imaging with V/P-SPECT has higher sensitivity and specificity for PE compared with planar imaging. Absence of contraindications makes V/P-SPECT an essential method for the diagnosis of PE. When V/P-SPECT is combined with a low-dose CT, the specificity of the test can be further improved, especially in patients with other lung diseases. Pitfalls in V/P-SPECT interpretation are discussed. In conclusion, V/P-SPECT is strongly recommended as it accurately establishes the diagnosis of PE even in the presence of diseases like COPD, HF and pneumonia and has no contraindications.
  • HoT-PE Investigators; Barco, Stefano; Schmidtmann, Irene; Ageno, Walter; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Lankeit, Mareike (2020)
    Aims To investigate the efficacy and safety of early transition from hospital to ambulatory treatment in low-risk acute PE, using the oral factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban. Methods and results We conducted a prospective multicentre single-arm investigator initiated and academically sponsored management trial in patients with acute low-risk PE (EudraCT Identifier 2013-001657-28). Eligibility criteria included absence of (i) haemodynamic instability, (ii) right ventricular dysfunction or intracardiac thrombi, and (iii) serious comorbidities. Up to two nights of hospital stay were permitted. Rivaroxaban was given at the approved dose for PE for >= 3 months. The primary outcome was symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) or PE-related death within 3 months of enrolment. An interim analysis was planned after the first 525 patients, with prespecified early termination of the study if the null hypothesis could be rejected at the level of alpha = 0.004 ( Conclusion Early discharge and home treatment with rivaroxaban is effective and safe in carefully selected patients with acute low-risk PE. The results of the present trial support the selection of appropriate patients for ambulatory treatment of PE.
  • Ebner, Matthias; Sentler, Carmen; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Bueno, Hector; Lerchbaumer, Markus H.; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Konstantinides, Stavros; Lankeit, Mareike (2021)
    Aims The 2019 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines provide a revised definition of high-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) encompassing three clinical presentations: Cardiac arrest, obstructive shock, and persistent hypotension. This study investigated the prognostic implications of this new definition. Methods and results Data from 784 consecutive PE patients prospectively enrolled in a single-centre registry were analysed. Study outcomes include an in-hospital adverse outcome (PE-related death or cardiopulmonary resuscitation) and in-hospital all-cause mortality. Overall, 86 patients (11.0%) presented with high-risk PE and more often had an adverse outcome (43.0%) compared to intermediate-high-risk patients (6.1%; P Conclusion The revised ESC 2019 guidelines definition of high-risk PE stratifies subgroups at different risk of in-hospital adverse outcomes and all-cause mortality. Risk prediction can be improved by using an optimised venous lactate cut-off value to diagnose obstructive shock, which might help to better assess the risk-to-benefit ratio of systemic thrombolysis in different subgroups of high-risk patients.
  • Vainio, Tuomas J V; Mäkelä, Teemu Olavi; Savolainen, Sauli; Kangasniemi, Marko Matti (2021)
    Background Chronic pulmonary embolism (CPE) is a life-threatening disease easily misdiagnosed on computed tomography. We investigated a three-dimensional convolutional neural network (CNN) algorithm for detecting hypoperfusion in CPE from computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Methods Preoperative CTPA of 25 patients with CPE and 25 without pulmonary embolism were selected. We applied a 48%-12%-40% training-validation-testing split (12 positive and 12 negative CTPA volumes for training, 3 positives and 3 negatives for validation, 10 positives and 10 negatives for testing). The median number of axial images per CTPA was 335 (min-max, 111-570). Expert manual segmentations were used as training and testing targets. The CNN output was compared to a method in which a Hounsfield unit (HU) threshold was used to detect hypoperfusion. Receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (AUC) and Matthew correlation coefficient (MCC) were calculated with their 95% confidence interval (CI). Results The predicted segmentations of CNN showed AUC 0.87 (95% CI 0.82-0.91), those of HU-threshold method 0.79 (95% CI 0.74-0.84). The optimal global threshold values were CNN output probability >= 0.37 and
  • Ebner, Matthias; Pagel, Charlotta F.; Sentler, Carmen; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Bueno, Hector; Lerchbaumer, Markus H.; Stangl, Karl; Pieske, Burkert; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Konstantinides, Stavros; Lankeit, Mareike (2021)
    Background: Arterial lactate is an established risk marker in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). However, its clinical applicability is limited by the need of an arterial puncture. In contrast, venous lactate can easily be measured from blood samples obtained via routine peripheral venepuncture. Methods: We investigated the prognostic value of venous lactate with regard to in-hospital adverse outcomes and mortality in 419 consecutive PE patients enrolled in a single-center registry between 09/2008 and 09/2017. Results: An optimised venous lactate cut-off value of 3.3 mmol/l predicted both, in-hospital adverse outcome (OR 11.0 [95% CI 4.6?26.3]) and all-cause mortality (OR 3.8 [95%CI 1.3?11.3]). The established cut-off value for arterial lactate (2.0 mmol/l) and the upper limit of normal for venous lactate (2.3 mmol/l) had lower prognostic value for adverse outcomes (OR 3.6 [95% CI 1.5?8.7] and 5.7 [95% CI 2.4?13.6], respectively) and did not predict mortality. If added to the 2019 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) algorithm, venous lactate Conclusion: Venous lactate above the upper limit of normal was associated with increased risk for adverse outcomes and an optimised cut-off value of 3.3 mmol/l predicted adverse outcome and mortality. Adding venous lactate to the 2019 ESC algorithm may improve risk stratification. Importantly, the established cut-off value for arterial lactate has limited specificity in venous samples and should not be used.
  • Skrifvars, Markus; Bailey, Michael; Presneill, Jeffrey; French, Craig; Nichol, Alistair; Little, Lorraine; Duranteau, Jacques; Huet, Olivier; Haddad, Samir; Arabi, Yaseen; McArthur, Colin; Cooper, D. James; Bellomo, Rinaldo (2017)
    To estimate the prevalence, risk factors, prophylactic treatment and impact on mortality for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) treated in the intensive care unit. A post hoc analysis of the erythropoietin in traumatic brain injury (EPO-TBI) trial that included twice-weekly lower limb ultrasound screening. Venous thrombotic events were defined as ultrasound-proven proximal deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or clinically detected pulmonary embolism (PE). Results are reported as events, percentages or medians and interquartile range (IQR). Cox regression analysis was used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for time to VTE and death. Of 603 patients, 119 (19.7%) developed VTE, mostly comprising DVT (102 patients, 16.9%) with a smaller number of PE events (24 patients, 4.0%). Median time to DVT diagnosis was 6 days (IQR 2-11) and to PE diagnosis 6.5 days (IQR 2-16.5). Mechanical prophylaxis (MP) was used in 91% of patients on day 1, 97% of patients on day 3 and 98% of patients on day 7. Pharmacological prophylaxis was given in 5% of patients on day 1, 30% of patients on day 3 and 57% of patients on day 7. Factors associated with time to VTE were age (HR per year 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03), patient weight (HR per kg 1.01, 95% CI 1-1.02) and TBI severity according to the International Mission for Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials risk of poor outcome (HR per 10% increase 1.12, 95% CI 1.01-1.25). The development of VTE was not associated with mortality (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.51-1.65). Despite mechanical and pharmacological prophylaxis, VTE occurs in one out of every five patients with TBI treated in the ICU. Higher age, greater weight and greater severity of TBI increase the risk. The development of VTE was not associated with excess mortality.
  • Ratasvuori, Maire; Lassila, Riitta; Laitinen, Minna (2016)
    Introduction and aim: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a severe complication associated both with major orthopaedic surgery and cancer. However, survival and postoperative complications of skeletal metastases despite their thrombogenic potential, have received little attention in both the clinical management and research setting. This single-centre observational cohort study aimed to evaluate the incidence and impact of VTE in association with cancer surgery targeted to the management of fractures secondary to skeletal metastases. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from the medical database. We included consecutive 306 patients operated for 343 non-spinal skeletal metastases during a 15-year period (1999-2014). The incidence of VTE and its risk factors were assessed using binary logistic regression analysis. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to evaluate variables affecting survival. Results: The rate of symptomatic VTE was 10% (30/306) during the 3-month postoperative period, while 79% received thromboprophylaxis. Fatal pulmonary embolism (PE) rate was high, 3.3% (10/306) after surgery. Intraoperative oxygen saturation drop, pulmonary metastases and intramedullary nailing were independent risk factors for VTE. Indicators of decreased survival were lung cancer, intramedullary nailing, multiple skeletal and pulmonary metastases, anaemia, leukocytosis, and PE. Conclusion: Relationship between fractures secondary to skeletal metastases and VTE needs further clinical attention. Whether the survival of patients with fractures secondary to skeletal metastases can be improved by targeted thromboprophylactic means should be studied further. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.