Browsing by Subject "Pulmonary function"

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  • Päivinen, Marja; Keskinen, Kari; Putus, Tuula; Kujala, Urho M.; Kalliokoski, Pentti; Tikkanen, Heikki O. (2021)
    Background Respiratory symptoms are common in competitive swimmers. However, among these and in swimmers at other activity levels the swimming distance, the total spent time in swimming halls and their medical background varies. Our objectives were, first, to assess their medical histories and the associations with respiratory symptoms among swimmers in different activity groups and then second, to study the pulmonary function findings and related medications in competitive swimmers who exercise in swimming hall environments the most. Methods First, 1118 participants consisting of 133 competitive-, 734 fitness- and 251 occasional swimmers answered questionnaires concerning their medical background, their respiratory symptoms in connection to swimming distance and their amount of time spent in swimming halls. Secondly, in 130 competitive swimmers, pulmonary function was tested by spirometry and a specific questionnaire was used to assess respiratory symptoms, medical histories and prescribed medication. Results Respiratory symptoms were reported by 18% of the studied swimmers. Competitive swimmers had significantly more symptoms than fitness- and occasional swimmers. Naturally competitive swimmers swum more than 2000 m and stayed by the pool more than 90 min, longer than the other activity groups of swimmers. Spirometry testing showed airway obstruction in 15 swimmers, which was 12% of the 130 competitive swimmers. 21 of them, had physician-diagnosed asthma and 16 of these individuals had prescribed medication for it. Conclusions Competitive swimmers had the highest swimming hall exposure and reported significantly more respiratory symptoms. A high prevalence of airway obstruction findings in competitive swimmers with asthma and allergies suggests a need for future recommendations for regular testing and special medical care for competitive swimmers.
  • Malmström, Kristiina; Lehto, Maili; Majuri, Marja-Leena; Paavonen, Timo; Sarna, Seppo; Pelkonen, Anna S.; Malmberg, L. Pekka; Lindahl, Harry; Kajosaari, Merja; Saglani, Sejal; Alenius, Harri; Makela, Mika J. (2014)
    Background: Few data are available about the inflammatory cytokine profile of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from young children with frequent wheeze. The first aim was to investigate the BAL cellular and cytokine profiles in infants with recurrent lower respiratory symptoms in whom bronchoscopy was indicated for clinical symptom evaluation. The second aim was to relate the BAL results with the histological findings of the endobronchial carina biopsies. Methods: Thirty-nine infants (median age 0.9 years) underwent lung function testing by whole-body plethysmography prior to the bronchoscopy. The BAL differential cell counts and cytokine levels were quantified. These findings were compared with the histological findings of the endobronchial carina biopsies. Results: The differential cytology reflected mainly that described for healthy infants with lymphocyte counts at the upper range level. A positive association between BAL CD8+ lymphocytes and neutrophils and endobronchial reticular basement membrane was found. Detectable levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine proteins IL-1 beta, IL-17A, IL-18, IL-23, and IL-33 were found, whereas levels of Th2-type cytokine proteins were low. Frequent wheeze was the only clinical characteristic significantly related to detectable combined pro-inflammatory cytokine profile. Lung function did not correlate with any cytokine. Conclusions: A positive association between BAL CD8+ lymphocytes and neutrophils and endobronchial reticular basement thickness was found. Detectable production of pro-inflammatory cytokines associated positively with frequent wheeze.
  • Wang, Tong; Wang, Weijing; Li, Weilong; Duan, Haiping; Xu, Chunsheng; Tian, Xiaocao; Zhang, Dongfeng (2021)
    Background Previous studies have determined the epigenetic association between DNA methylation and pulmonary function among various ethnics, whereas this association is largely unknown in Chinese adults. Thus, we aimed to explore epigenetic relationships between genome-wide DNA methylation levels and pulmonary function among middle-aged Chinese monozygotic twins. Methods The monozygotic twin sample was drawn from the Qingdao Twin Registry. Pulmonary function was measured by three parameters including forced expiratory volume the first second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC ratio. Linear mixed effect model was used to regress the methylation level of CpG sites on pulmonary function. After that, we applied Genomic Regions Enrichment of Annotations Tool (GREAT) to predict the genomic regions enrichment, and used comb-p python library to detect differentially methylated regions (DMRs). Gene expression analysis was conducted to validate the results of differentially methylated analyses. Results We identified 112 CpG sites with the level of P < 1 x 10(-4) which were annotated to 40 genes. We identified 12 common enriched pathways of three pulmonary function parameters. We detected 39 DMRs located at 23 genes, of which PRDM1 was related to decreased pulmonary function, and MPL, LTB4R2, and EPHB3 were related to increased pulmonary function. The gene expression analyses validated DIP2C, ASB2, SLC6A5, and GAS6 related to decreased pulmonary function. Conclusion Our DNA methylation sequencing analysis on identical twins provides new references for the epigenetic regulation on pulmonary function. Several CpG sites, genes, biological pathways and DMRs are considered as possible crucial to pulmonary function.
  • Päivinen, Marja; Keskinen, Kari; Tikkanen, Heikki (2021)
    Background A special improvement in pulmonary function is found in swimmers. In clinical testing the airway reactivity is observed at certain exercise intensity and target ventilation. However, in highly trained swimmers exercising in water the reactions may not function the same way. The aim was to study the combined effects of the water environment and swimming on pulmonary function and the associations with perceived symptoms. Methods First, 412 competitive swimmers completed questionnaires concerning respiratory symptoms at different swimming intensities. Then, pulmonary function testing was performed in 14 healthy elite swimmers. Spirometry and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) were measured on land and in water before and after swimming. While swimming, minute ventilation (VE) tidal volume (VT) and breathing frequency (fb) were measured during competition speed swimming. Results Swimmers reported the most symptoms at competition speed intensity swimming. In the transition from the land into the water swimming body position, the ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced expiratory capacity (FVC) (FEV1/FVC) decreased by a mean (SD) 5.3 % (3) in females and by 2.2 % (5) in males. During competition speed intensity swimming, the minute ventilation (VE) had a mean of 72 and 75 % of calculated maximal voluntary ventilation (cMVV) in females and in males, respectively. Conclusions Spirometry showed sex differences in water compared to land measurements. These differences should be considered when the effects of swimming are observed. During the intensity that triggered the symptoms the most, the VE was approximately 20 % higher than the target ventilations for clinical testing. These findings encourages specific modifications of clinical testing protocols for elite swimmers.
  • Päivinen, Marja; Keskinen, Kari; Tikkanen, Heikki (BioMed Central, 2021)
    Abstract Background A special improvement in pulmonary function is found in swimmers. In clinical testing the airway reactivity is observed at certain exercise intensity and target ventilation. However, in highly trained swimmers exercising in water the reactions may not function the same way. The aim was to study the combined effects of the water environment and swimming on pulmonary function and the associations with perceived symptoms. Methods First, 412 competitive swimmers completed questionnaires concerning respiratory symptoms at different swimming intensities. Then, pulmonary function testing was performed in 14 healthy elite swimmers. Spirometry and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) were measured on land and in water before and after swimming. While swimming, minute ventilation (VE) tidal volume (VT) and breathing frequency (fb) were measured during competition speed swimming. Results Swimmers reported the most symptoms at competition speed intensity swimming. In the transition from the land into the water swimming body position, the ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced expiratory capacity (FVC) (FEV1/FVC) decreased by a mean (SD) 5.3 % (3) in females and by 2.2 % (5) in males. During competition speed intensity swimming, the minute ventilation (VE) had a mean of 72 and 75 % of calculated maximal voluntary ventilation (cMVV) in females and in males, respectively. Conclusions Spirometry showed sex differences in water compared to land measurements. These differences should be considered when the effects of swimming are observed. During the intensity that triggered the symptoms the most, the VE was approximately 20 % higher than the target ventilations for clinical testing. These findings encourages specific modifications of clinical testing protocols for elite swimmers.