Browsing by Subject "QUALITATIVE RESEARCH"

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  • Venäläinen, Satu (2018)
    The following poem crystallizes some of the core dilemmas and affects I have encountered in my research on the challenging and complex topic of women as perpetrators of violence. It engages, in particular, with the topic of emotions in research (e.g., Dickson-Swift et al. 2009); relations among research topics, theories, and methodologies; the possibilities for fluidity in these relations (see, e.g., Childers 2014); and the dilemmas in researching groups designated as "other" in wide-ranging socio- cultural practices (Kitzinger & Wilkinson 1996). Through the engagements with these issues, the poem also attunes to ambivalent relations between different research paradigms and their epistemological and ontological background assumptions. This attunement takes inspiration from socalled postqualitative approaches (St. Pierre 2011) that are based on questioning the assumptions at the very core of conventional research practices in qualitative inquiry and hence on troubling their taken-forgrantedness. The use of art forms such as poetic writing allows for practicing research in ways that question conventional methodologies by pointing toward a plurality of meanings that exceeds simplistic or reductionist interpretations (Richardson & St. Pierre 2005). It can therefore enhance reflexivity and ethicality in research by laying emphasis on the existence of alternatives in terms of approaches adopted and interpretations made. In line with these thoughts, the following poem aims to engage with the tension between different approaches and in relations between approaches and research areas, without attempting to dissolve it. To ensure anonymity, the descriptions of research encounters in the poem are purposefully vague and not based on any singular encounters but amalgams of various ones.
  • Weckström, Elina; Karlsson, Liisa; Pöllänen, Sinikka; Lastikka, Anna-Leena (2021)
    This study reports on critical participatory research in an early childhood education and care centre in Finland. The objective was to study which elements are critical in the development and construction of a culture of participation. The data comprise conversations, team meetings and educators' diaries. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. The results indicated that a culture of participation requires four elements: (a) a shared understanding of the image of the child, (b) a shared understanding of professional development, (c) leadership and (d) a shared we-narrative that enables the comprehensive understanding, promotion and maintenance of a culture of participation.
  • Wennlund, Klara Torlen; Kurland, Lisa; Olanders, Knut; Khoshegir, Amanda; Al Kamil, Hussein; Castren, Maaret; Bohm, Katarina (2022)
    Objectives To explore the emergency medical dispatchers (EMDs) experiences of managing emergency medical calls. Design A qualitative interview study with an inductive approach. EMDs were interviewed individually using a semistructured interview guide. The verbatim transcripts were analysed using a qualitative content analysis. Setting EMDs, without a professional background as registered nurses, were recruited from emergency medical communication centers (EMCCs) within Sweden. Participants To achieve a varied description of EMDs' experiences, participants were included from several EMCCs nationally, using a convenience sampling. Interviews were performed up until saturation of data, resulting in 13 EMDs from 7 EMCCs being interviewed. All the EMDs were women, ranging in age from 28 to 61 years (mean 42 years), and had worked in emergency medical dispatching between 1 and 13.5 years (mean 6.5 years). Results The analysis revealed the main category-to attentively manage a multifaceted, interactive task-made up of three categories: utilize creativity to gather information, continuously process and assess complex information, and engage in the professional role. The content of each category was reflected in several subcategories further described and illustrated with representative quotes. Conclusions Managing emergency medical calls was experienced by EMDs to attentively manage a multifaceted interactive task. Core parts were described as: the ability to utilize creativity to gather information, continuously process and asses complex information, and engage in the professional role. Our results could be beneficial for emergency care managers when designing training programmes and organising EMD work and the EMD work environment, including further development of dispatch protocols and implementation of regular feedback sessions. Moreover, the results indicate that aspects such as self-awareness and emotional challenges encountered during EMD work could be important matters to discuss during staff evaluations.
  • D'Amato, D.; Wan, M.; Li, Ning; Rekola, M.; Toppinen, A. (2018)
    A line of research is emerging investigating the private sector impacts and dependencies on critical biodiversity and ecosystem services, and related business risks and opportunities. While the ecosystem services narrative is being forwarded globally as a key paradigm for promoting business sustainability, there is scarce knowledge of how these issues are considered at managerial level. This study thus investigates managerial views of corporate sustainability after the ecosystem services concept. We analyse interviews conducted with 20 managers from domestic and international forestry companies operating with a plantation-based business model in China. Content analysis was employed to analyse the data, with a focus on four key areas: (1) interviewee familiarity with the ecosystem services concept; (2) their views of corporate dependencies and impacts on ecosystem services; (3) related business risks and opportunities; and (4) viability of existing instruments and practices that can be employed in detecting and addressing business impacts and dependencies on ecosystem services. Through an inductive approach to the empirical findings, we refined a framework that holds operational value for developing company response strategies to ecosystem services impact/dependence assessment, ensuring that all issues are addressed comprehensively, and that related risks and opportunities are properly acknowledged.
  • Joki, Anu; Mäkelä, Johanna; Fogelholm, Mikael (2017)
    Maintaining normal weight in the current obesogenic environment is a challenge. However, some people can do it. More insight is needed to understand how and why some people succeed in long-term weight maintenance. This study uses a rare, qualitative approach by describing the thoughts of successful weight management and self-perceived requirements for success in weight maintenance. We interviewed 39 individuals who have maintained normal weight for their entire lives (men and women). The content analysis revealed a main theme: flexible, permissive and conscious self-regulation, which was divided into two subthemes (eating-related behavior and weight-related behavior). The informants reported certain routines that supported their weight management: regular eating, sufficient meal sizes, eating in response to hunger, healthy and vegetable-rich diet along with moderate feasting and flexible eating restriction. Flexibility in routines allowed freedom in their eating behavior. In addition, informants regarded themselves as physically active, and they enjoyed regular exercise. Regular weighing was generally considered unnecessary. Normal weight was regarded as a valuable and worthwhile issue, and most of the informants worked to keep their weight stable. Although the perceived workload varied among informants, the weight management strategies were similar. It was crucial to be conscious of the balance between eating and energy consumption. Further, flexibility characterized their behavior and was the basis of successful weight management. Women were more aware of weight control practices and knowledge than men, but otherwise, women and men reported similar weight management methods and attitudes. In conclusion, the interviewees who have maintained the normal weight had created a personal weight-management support environment where weight management was a lifestyle. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Koivisto, Maaria; Melartin, Tarja; Lindeman, Sari (2022)
    Objective The ability to trust one's own perceptions is crucial for psychological well-being and growth. The relevance of its opposite, self-invalidation (SI), to the psychopathology of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is emphasized in many contemporary theories of evidence-based treatments for BPD. Empirical research on this topic remains scarce, however. This study aimed to describe manifestations of SI in individuals with BPD during a 40-session psychoeducational intervention based mainly on schema therapy. Method Transcripts of videotaped group sessions were analyzed inductively using qualitative content analysis. Results SI emerged as a recurrent, ubiquitous phenomenon. The content analysis yielded three core categories of SI: (1) a self-critical and harsh attitude towards the self (subcategories reflected punitive internalizations that could engender fear-based inertia, self-erasing, submissive coping behavior, and temporal fluctuation in SI), (2) a deficient sense of normalcy, and self-doubt, and (3) self-stigma. We also found an association of SI with various dimensions of BPD, including difficulty in the identification of emotions, secondary emotional reactions such as guilt, shame, anger, and resentment, self-related and interpersonal problems, and suicidal urges. Conclusions SI is a detrimental cognitive-emotional process relevant to BPD that merits treatment. Efforts to reduce self-stigma, a pernicious aspect of SI, are imperative.
  • Savela-Huovinen, Ulriikka; Muukkonen, Hanni; Toom, Auli (2018)
    The aim of this study was to identify competencies and learning contexts that are central when a standardized sensory expert assessor conducts food sensory evaluations in an authentic professional context. The aim was to answer the following questions: first, according to accessors, what competencies does sensory evaluation require? Second, what contexts of sensory evaluation do assessors report on? Thirteen assessors from three Finnish food companies were interviewed using semi-structured thematic interviews to map competencies and development intentions and explain established practices. In the study, 42% of analysis units described individual evaluation contexts, 53% described collaborative interactional contexts, and 5% described collaborative knowledge creation contexts. The findings contribute to the explanation of how assessors learn extensively from each other in collaborative interactional and knowledge creation contexts. Assessors' learning practices and abilities to work collaboratively in interactional and knowledge creation contexts need to be ensured for the development of expertise. Practical applicationsOur findings suggest that an important aspect of enhancing learning and achieving consistent results in assessors' work is to increase collaborative and knowledge creating practices in sensory training, in addition to training individual skills. Such practices are embedded in daily practices, especially the cases when product defects were sought and discussed. Advanced practices included: learning, sharing, and reviewing both external and in-house consumer panel feedback, developing methods to moderate small-panel evaluations and developing a product vocabulary collectively between the assessors. These practices supported sensory expert assessors in developing their personal and collective expertise in the workplace.
  • Aivelo, Tuomas; Uitto, Anna (2019)
    Science education strives to increase interest in science and facilitate active citizenship. Thus, the aspects of personal and societal relevance are increasingly emphasised in science curricula. Still, little is known about how teachers choose content for their teaching, although their choices translate curricula to teaching practice. We explored how teachers choose genetics content and contexts for biology courses on cells, heredity and biotechnology by interviewing ten Finnish upper-secondary school teachers. We studied how the teachers described teaching on three themes in which they have varying freedom afforded by curricula: genetically modified organisms, hereditary disorders, and complex human traits. We analysed interviews with theory-guiding content analysis and found consistent patterns in teachers' perceptions of the themes in genetics teaching and teacher inclinations towards teaching genetics in human context. These patterns, which we call emphasis of content in genetics teaching were Developmental, Structural and Hereditary. Teachers with Developmental emphasis embraced teaching genetics in a human context, while teachers with a Structural emphasis avoided them. In general, teachers justified their choices by national, local school, and personal factors. While teachers mentioned that societal and personal contexts are important, at the same time teachers never framed the main themes in genetics with these contexts.
  • Pettersson, Katarina; Sakki, Inari (2017)
    Political blogs have come to constitute important channels for expressing nationalist and anti-immigration political views. The new forms that this rhetoric may take, comprising an intricate intermingling of verbal, digital, (audio-)visual, and communicative elements, present challenges for qualitative research. In this article we propose a way for analysing this new" nationalist political discourse from a qualitative social psychological perspective. The suggested approach combines analytical procedures form critical discursive and rhetorical psychology with social semiotic and rhetorical studies of images, completed with analytical tools and concepts from narrative psychology and research into online political communication. Using two empirical examples of nationalist and anti-immigration political blog-entries written during the 2015 refugee crisis," we show this approach enables the researcher to adequately study how such political messages are conveyed through the multitude of elements provided by the blogs. In so doing, our ultimate goal is to contribute to the analytical capacity of qualitative social psychological research into contemporary political communication and persuasion.