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  • Itokazu, Yutaka; Tajima, Nobuyoshi; Kerosuo, Laura; Somerharju, Pentti; Sariola, Hannu; Yu, Robert K.; Kakela, Reijo (2016)
    The central nervous system (CNS) harbors multiple glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expressing cell types. In addition to the most abundant cell type of the CNS, the astrocytes, various stem cells and progenitor cells also contain GFAP+ populations. Here, in order to distinguish between two types of GFAP expressing cells with or without the expression of the A2B5 antigens, we performed lipidomic analyses on A2B5+/GFAP+ and A2B5-/GFAP+ cells from rat spinal cord. First, A2B5+/GFAP- progenitors were exposed to the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) or bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) to induce their differentiation to A2B5+/GFAP+ cells or A2B5-/GFAP+ astrocytes, respectively. The cells were then analyzed for changes in their phospholipid, sphingolipid or acyl chain profiles by mass spectrometry and gas chromatography. Compared to A2B5+/GFAP- progenitors, A2B5-/GFAP+ astrocytes contained higher amounts of ether phospholipids (especially the species containing arachidonic acid) and sphingomyelin, which may indicate characteristics of cellular differentiation and inability for multipotency. In comparison, principal component analyses revealed that the lipid composition of A2B5+/GFAP+ cells retained many of the characteristics of A2B5+/GFAP- progenitors, but their lipid profile was different from that of A2B5-/GFAP+ astrocytes. Thus, our study demonstrated that two GFAP+ cell populations have distinct lipid profiles with the A2B5+/GFAP+ cells sharing a phospholipid profile with progenitors rather than astrocytes. The progenitor cells may require regulated low levels of lipids known to mediate signaling functions in differentiated cells, and the precursor lipid profiles may serve as one measure of the differentiation capacity of a cell population.
  • Kilpinen, Lotta; Tigistu-Sahle, Feven; Oja, Sofia; Greco, Dario; Parmar, Amarjit; Saavalainen, Päivi Marjaana; Nikkilä, Janne Tapio; Korhonen, Matti; Lehenkari, Petri; Käkelä, Reijo; Laitinen, Saara (2013)
  • Kauhanen, Dimple; Sysi-Aho, Marko; Koistinen, Kaisa M.; Laaksonen, Reijo; Sinisalo, Juha; Ekroos, Kim (2016)
    Monitoring the levels of the ceramides (Cer) d18:1/16:0, Cer d18:1/18:0, Cer d18:1/24:0, and Cer d18:1/24:1 and ratios thereof in human plasma empowers the prediction of fatal outcome of coronary artery disease (CAD). We describe a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methodology for clinical-scaled measurement of the four distinct ceramides. Rapid plasma precipitation was accomplished in 96-well format. Excellent extraction recoveries in the range of 98-109 % were achieved for each ceramide. Addition of corresponding D-7-labeled ceramide standards facilitated precise quantification of each plasma ceramide species utilizing a novel short 5-min LC-MS/MS method. Neither matrix interference nor carryover was observed. Robust intra- and inter-assay accuracy and precision <15 % at five different concentrations were obtained. Linear calibration lines with regressions, R (2) > 0.99, were achieved for all analytes. Short-term bench top, long-term plasma, and extract stability demonstrated that the distinct ceramides were stable in the conditions evaluated. The validity of the methodology was demonstrated by determining the precise ceramide concentrations in a small CAD case-control study. Thus, our LC-MS/MS methodology features simple sample preparation and short analysis time for accurate quantification of Cer d18:1/16:0, Cer d18:1/18:0, Cer d18:1/24:0, and Cer d18:1/24:1, designed for routine analysis.
  • Tsai, Feng-Ching; Bertin, Aurelie; Bousquet, Hugo; Manzi, John; Senju, Yosuke; Tsai, Meng-Chen; Picas, Laura; Miserey-Lenkei, Stephanie; Lappalainen, Pekka; Lemichez, Emmanuel; Coudrier, Evelyne; Bassereau, Patricia (2018)
    One challenge in cell biology is to decipher the biophysical mechanisms governing protein enrichment on curved membranes and the resulting membrane deformation. The ERM protein ezrin is abundant and associated with cellular membranes that are flat, positively or negatively curved. Using in vitro and cell biology approaches, we assess mechanisms of ezrin's enrichment on curved membranes. We evidence that wild-type ezrin (ezrinWT) and its phosphomimetic mutant T567D (ezrinTD) do not deform membranes but self-assemble antiparallelly, zipping adjacent membranes. EzrinTD's specific conformation reduces intermolecular interactions, allows binding to actin filaments, which reduces membrane tethering, and promotes ezrin binding to positively-curved membranes. While neither ezrinTD nor ezrinWT senses negative curvature alone, we demonstrate that interacting with curvature-sensing I-BAR-domain proteins facilitates ezrin enrichment in negatively-curved membrane protrusions. Overall, our work demonstrates that ezrin can tether membranes, or be targeted to curved membranes, depending on conformations and interactions with actin and curvature-sensing binding partners.
  • Feijo Barreira, Luis Miguel; Duporte, Geoffroy; Rönkkö, Tuukka; Parshintsev, Jevgeni; Hartonen, Kari; Schulman, Lydia; Heikkinen, Enna; Jussila, Matti; Kulmala, Markku; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa (2018)
    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted by terrestrial vegetation participate in a diversity of natural processes. These compounds impact both on short-range processes, such as on plant protection and communication, and on high-range processes, by e.g. participation on aerosol particle formation and growth. The biodiversity of plant species around the Earth, the vast assortment of emitted BVOCs, and their trace atmospheric concentrations contribute to the high remaining uncertainties about the effects of these compounds on atmospheric chemistry and physics, and call for the development of novel collection devices that can offer portability with improved selectivity and capacity. In this study, a novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) Arrow sampling system was used for the static and dynamic collection of BVOCs from the boreal forest, and samples were subsequently analysed on-site by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This system offers higher sampling capacity and improved robustness than the traditional equilibrium-based SPME techniques, such as SPME fibers. Field measurements were performed in summer 2017 at the Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations (SMEAR II) in Hyytiälä, Finland. Complementary laboratory tests were also performed to compare the SPME-based techniques under controlled experimental conditions and to evaluate the effect of temperature and relative humidity on their extraction performance. The most abundant monoterpenes and aldehydes were successfully collected. A significant improvement on sampling capacity was observed with the new SPME Arrow system when compared to SPME fibers, with collected amounts being approximately 2 times higher for monoterpenes and 7-8 times higher for aldehydes. BVOC species exhibited different affinities for the type of sorbent materials used (PDMS/Carbon WR vs. PDMS/DVB). Higher extraction efficiencies were obtained with dynamic collection prior to equilibrium regime, but this benefit during the field measurements was small probably due to the natural agitation provided by the wind. An increase in temperature and relative humidity caused a decrease in the amounts of analytes extracted under controlled experimental conditions, even though the effect was more significant for PDMS/Carbon WR than for PDMS/DVB. Overall, results demonstrated the benefits and challenges of using SPME Arrow for the sampling of BVOCs in the atmosphere.
  • Macrì, Simone; Di-Poï, Nicolas (2020)
    Despite a remarkable conservation of architecture and function, the cerebellum of vertebrates shows extensive variation in morphology, size, and foliation pattern. These features make this brain subdivision a powerful model to investigate the evolutionary developmental mechanisms underlying neuroanatomical complexity both within and between anamniote and amniote species. Here, we fill a major evolutionary gap by characterizing the developing cerebellum in two non-avian reptile species—bearded dragon lizard and African house snake—representative of extreme cerebellar morphologies and neuronal arrangement patterns found in squamates. Our data suggest that developmental strategies regarded as exclusive hallmark of birds and mammals, including transit amplification in an external granule layer (EGL) and Sonic hedgehog expression by underlying Purkinje cells (PCs), contribute to squamate cerebellogenesis independently from foliation pattern. Furthermore, direct comparison of our models suggests the key importance of spatiotemporal patterning and dynamic interaction between granule cells and PCs in defining cortical organization. Especially, the observed heterochronic shifts in early cerebellogenesis events, including upper rhombic lip progenitor activity and EGL maintenance, are strongly expected to affect the dynamics of molecular interaction between neuronal cell types in snakes. Altogether, these findings help clarifying some of the morphogenetic and molecular underpinnings of amniote cerebellar corticogenesis, but also suggest new potential molecular mechanisms underlying cerebellar complexity in squamates. Furthermore, squamate models analyzed here are revealed as key animal models to further understand mechanisms of brain organization.
  • Parviainen, Tuuli; Goerlandt, Floris; Helle, Inari; Haapasaari, Päivi; Kuikka, Sakari (2021)
    The risk of a large-scale oil spill remains significant in marine environments as international maritime transport continues to grow. The environmental as well as the socio-economic impacts of a large-scale oil spill could be substantial. Oil spill models and modeling tools for Pollution Preparedness and Response (PPR) can support effective risk management. However, there is a lack of integrated approaches that consider oil spill risks comprehensively, learn from all information sources, and treat the system uncertainties in an explicit manner. Recently, the use of the international ISO 31000:2018 risk management framework has been suggested as a suitable basis for supporting oil spill PPR risk management. Bayesian networks (BNs) are graphical models that express uncertainty in a probabilistic form and can thus support decision-making processes when risks are complex and data are scarce. While BNs have increasingly been used for oil spill risk assessment (OSRA) for PPR, no link between the BNs literature and the ISO 31000:2018 framework has previously been made. This study explores how Bayesian risk models can be aligned with the ISO 31000:2018 framework by offering a flexible approach to integrate various sources of probabilistic knowledge. In order to gain insight in the current utilization of BNs for oil spill risk assessment and management (OSRA-BNs) for maritime oil spill preparedness and response, a literature review was performed. The review focused on articles presenting BN models that analyze the occurrence of oil spills, consequence mitigation in terms of offshore and shoreline oil spill response, and impacts of spills on the variables of interest. Based on the results, the study discusses the benefits of applying BNs to the ISO 31000:2018 framework as well as the challenges and further research needs.
  • Parviainen, Ville I.; Joenväärä, Sakari; Tohmola, Niina; Renkonen, Risto (2013)
  • Hallamaa, Raija; Batchu, Krishna (2016)
    Background: Lipids have become an important target for searching new biomarkers typical of different autoimmune and allergic diseases. The most common allergic dermatitis of the horse is related to stings of insects and is known as insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) or summer eczema, referring to its recurrence during the summer months. This intense pruritus has certain similarities with atopic dermatitis of humans. The treatment of IBH is difficult and therefore new strategies for therapy are needed. Autoserum therapy based on the use of serum phospholipids has recently been introduced for horses. So far, serum lipids relating to these allergic disorders have been poorly determined. The main aim of this study was to analyse phospholipid profiles in the sera of horses with allergic dermatitis and in their healthy controls and to further assess whether these lipid profiles change according to the clinical status after therapy. Methods: Sera were collected from 10 horses with allergic dermatitis and from 10 matched healthy controls both before and 4 weeks after the therapy of the affected horses. Eczema horses were treated with an autogenous preparation made from a horse's own serum and used for oral medication. Samples were analysed for their phospholipid content by liquid chromatography coupled to a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-MS). Data of phospholipid concentrations between the groups and over the time were analysed by using the Friedman test. Correlations between the change of concentrations and the clinical status were assessed by Spearman's rank correlation test. Results: The major phospholipid classes detected were phosphatidylcholine (PC), sphingomyelin (SM), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Eczema horses had significantly lower total concentrations of PC (p <0.0001) and SM (p = 0.0115) than their healthy controls. After a 4-week therapy, no significant differences were found between the groups. Changes in SM concentrations correlated significantly with alterations in clinical signs (p = 0.0047). Conclusions: Horses with allergic dermatitis have an altered phospholipid profile in their sera as compared with healthy horses and these profiles seem to change according to their clinical status. Sphingomyelin seems to have an active role in the course of equine insect bite hypersensitivity.
  • Solman, Maja; Ligabue, Alessio; Blazevits, Olga; Jaiswal, Alok; Zhou, Yong; Liang, Hong; Lectez, Benoit; Kopra, Kari; Guzman, Camilo; Harma, Harri; Hancock, John F.; Aittokallio, Tero; Abankwa, Daniel (2015)
    Hotspot mutations of Ras drive cell transformation and tumorigenesis. Less frequent mutations in Ras are poorly characterized for their oncogenic potential. Yet insight into their mechanism of action may point to novel opportunities to target Ras. Here, we show that several cancer-associated mutations in the switch III region moderately increase Ras activity in all isoforms. Mutants are biochemically inconspicuous, while their clustering into nanoscale signaling complexes on the plasma membrane, termed nanocluster, is augmented. Nanoclustering dictates downstream effector recruitment, MAPK-activity, and tumorigenic cell proliferation. Our results describe an unprecedented mechanism of signaling protein activation in cancer.