Browsing by Subject "QUANTUM-GRAVITY"

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  • Bufalo, Rodrigo; Oksanen, Markku (2018)
    We consider a recently proposed generalization of unimodular gravity, where the lapse function is constrained to be equal to a function of the determinant of the spatial metric f(h), as a potential origin of a dark fluid with a generally h-dependent equation of state parameter. We establish the Hamiltonian analysis and the canonical path integral for the theory. All the special cases that do not match unimodular gravity involve the violation of general covariance, and consequently the physical content of the theory is changed significantly. Particularly, the case of a constant function f is shown to contain an extra physical degree of freedom in each point of space. Physical consequences of the extra degree of freedom are studied in a linearized theory, where the extra mode is carried by the trace of the metric perturbation. The trace mode does not propagate as a wave, since it satisfies an elliptic partial differential equation in spacetime. Consequently, the trace perturbation is shown to grow exponentially with time, which implies instability. The case of a general f(h) involves additional second-class constraints, which implies the presence of an extra global degree of freedom that depends only on time (instead of the extra local degree of freedom in the case of a constant f).
  • Brevik, I.; Chaichian, M.; Oksanen, M. (2021)
    Theoretical models and experimental observations suggest that gamma-ray bursts (GRB) and high-energy neutrino bursts travelling through the interstellar space may reach the Earth at different speeds. We propose and study in details the mechanism (i), which always exists, where GRB are slowed down due to the dispersion of light in the interstellar medium. In addition to the standard media such as electrons and photons as CMB, we consider the medium with invisible axions. The amount of GRB delays in different media are calculated in details utilizing a novel technique in QFT by using the hitherto known or estimated densities of particles in the space without introducing any arbitrary parameter. Previously, the GRB delays have been interpreted as a sign of Lorentz invariance violation by modifying the dispersion relation of Special Relativity, which relates the energy, the momentum and the mass of a particle, based on different mechanisms (ii), such as a stringy spacetime foam, coming from a quantum gravity effect and using an adjustable parameter. Obviously, all the above-mentioned mechanisms (i) and (ii) are induced (seeming) Lorentz invariance violations but not an intrinsic (genuine) one. The amount of GRB delay due to the two aforementioned interpretations can be distinguished by observing the time of arrival of light with different frequencies. Namely, dispersion of light (i) predicts that the higher energy GRB arrive the Earth earlier, while in the other interpretations (ii), they arrive later. We notice that the needed amount for delay due to the dispersion of light shall have the potential power to shed additional light on the microstructure of interstellar media with respect to the densities of constituent particles and the origins of their sources. Finally, we indicate the ways to detect the intrinsic Lorentz invariance violation and to interpret them theoretically.
  • Chaichian, M.; Ghalee, A.; Kluson, J. (2016)
    We investigate the f(R) theory of gravity with broken diffeomorphism due to the change of the coefficient in front of the total divergence term in the (3 + 1) decomposition of the scalar curvature. We perform the canonical analysis of this theory and show that its consistent form, i.e. with no unphysical degrees of freedom, is equivalent to the low-energy limit of the nonprojectable f(R) Horava-Lifshitz theory of gravity. We also analyze its cosmological solutions and show that the de Sitter solution can be obtained also in the case of this broken symmetry. The consequences of the proposed theory on the asymptotic solutions of a few specific models in the cosmological context are also presented.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    search is presented for physics beyond the standard model, based on measurements of dijet angular distributions in proton-proton collisions at root s = 13 TeV. The data collected with the CMS detector at the LHC correspond to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb(-1). The observed distributions, corrected to particle level, are found to be in agreement with predictions from perturbative quantum chromodynamics that include electroweak corrections. Constraints are placed on models containing quark contact interactions, extra spatial dimensions, quantum black holes, or dark matter, using the detector-level distributions. In a benchmark model where only left-handed quarks participate, contact interactions are excluded at the 95% confidence level up to a scale of 12.8 or 17.5 TeV, for destructive or constructive interference, respectively. The most stringent lower limits to date are set on the ultraviolet cutoff in the Arkani-Hamed-Dimopoulos-Dvali model of extra dimensions. In the Giudice-Rattazzi-Wells convention, the cutoff scale is excluded up to 10.1 TeV. The production of quantum black holes is excluded for masses below 5.9 and 8.2 TeV, depending on the model. For the first time, lower limits between 2.0 and 4.6 TeV are set on the mass of a dark matter mediator for (axial-)vector mediators, for the universal quark coupling g(q) = 1.0.
  • Kupiainen, Antti; Rhodes, Rémi; Vargas, Vincent (2018)
    We present a rigorous proof of the Dorn, Otto, Zamolodchikov, Zamolodchikov formula (the DOZZ formula) for the 3 point structure constants of Liouville Conformal Field Theory (LCFT) starting from a rigorous probabilistic construction of the functional integral defining LCFT given earlier by the authors and David. A crucial ingredient in our argument is a probabilistic derivation of the reflection relation in LCFT based on a refined tail analysis of Gaussian multiplicative chaos measures.
  • Saksman, Eero; Webb, Christian (2020)
    We prove that if omega is uniformly distributed on [0, 1], then as T -> infinity, t bar right arrow zeta (i omega T + it + 1/2) converges to a nontrivial random generalized function, which in turn is identified as a product of a very well-behaved random smooth function and a random generalized function known as a complex Gaussian multiplicative chaos distribution. This demonstrates a novel rigorous connection between probabilistic number theory and the theory of multiplicative chaos-the latter is known to be connected to various branches of modern probability theory and mathematical physics. We also investigate the statistical behavior of the zeta function on the mesoscopic scale. We prove that if we let delta(T) approach zero slowly enough as T -> infinity, then t bar right arrow zeta (1/2 + i delta(T)t + i omega T) is asymptotically a product of a divergent scalar quantity suggested by Selberg's central limit theorem and a strictly Gaussian multiplicative chaos. We also prove a similar result for the characteristic polynomial of a Haar distributed random unitary matrix, where the scalar quantity is slightly different but the multiplicative chaos part is identical. This says that up to scalar multiples, the zeta function and the characteristic polynomial of a Haar distributed random unitary matrix have an identical distribution on the mesoscopic scale.
  • Långvik, Miklos; Speziale, Simone (2016)
    The twisted geometries of spin network states are described by simple twistors, isomorphic to null twistors with a timelike direction singled out. The isomorphism depends on the Immirzi parameter gamma and reduces to the identity for gamma = infinity. Using this twistorial representation, we study the action of the conformal group SU(2,2) on the classical phase space of loop quantum gravity, described by twisted geometry. The generators of translations and conformal boosts do not preserve the geometric structure, whereas the dilatation generator does. It corresponds to a one-parameter family of embeddings of T*SL(2, C) in twistor space, and its action preserves the intrinsic geometry while changing the extrinsic one-that is the boosts among polyhedra. We discuss the implication of this action from a dynamical point of view and compare it with a discretization of the dilatation generator of the continuum phase space, given by the Lie derivative of the group character. At leading order in the continuum limit, the latter reproduces the same transformation of the extrinsic geometry, while also rescaling the areas and volumes and preserving the angles associated with the intrinsic geometry. Away from the continuum limit, its action has an interesting nonlinear structure but is in general incompatible with the closure constraint needed for the geometric interpretation. As a side result, we compute the precise relation between the extrinsic geometry used in twisted geometries and the one defined in the gauge-invariant parametrization by Dittrich and Ryan and show that the secondary simplicity constraints they posited coincide with those dynamically derived in the toy model of [Classical Quantum Gravity 32, 195015 (2015)].