Browsing by Subject "Quarantine"

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  • Anttila, Veli-Jukka (2020)
    Tiedot koronaviruspotilaita hoitavan henkilökunnan sairastumisriskistä ovat erikoissairaanhoidon näkökulmasta kiinnostavia. Kävin läpi 85 Helsingin ja Uudenmaan sairaanhoitopiirissä (HUS) tapahtunutta työntekijöiden ja potilaiden altistustilannetta. Yli 600 altistuneesta työntekijästä vain kymmenen (1,6 %) sairastui koronavirusinfektioon karanteeniaikana, altistuneista potilaista sairastui kaksi (2/81, 2,5 %). Lisäksi selvitin erikseen koronaviruspotilaita hoitavien kohorttiosastojen työntekijöiden sairastumiset. Näillä osastoilla sairastui 37 työntekijää, joista 31 oli sairaanhoitajia. Kukaan ei sairastunut vakavasti. Noin kolmessa neljästä tapauksesta altistumisen lähde oli toinen työntekijä ja vain neljäsosassa tapauksista potilas. Selvityksen perusteella erikoissairaanhoidon työntekijöiden määrääminen rutiinimaisesti THL:n nykykriteerien mukaiseen karanteeniin ei ole mielekästä eikä tarpeellista erikoissairaanhoidon epidemioiden torjunnassa.
  • Green, Sarah (Manchester University Press, 2021)
    Rethinking Borders
    When governments have to decide what to do about the threat of infection or contagion, their political concerns and, in particular, their understanding of the relationship between territory and people, are bound to inform their decisions. Drawing on accounts of how different political regimes responded to outbreaks of infectious disease in the Mediterranean region in the past, this chapter focuses on how different regimes understand the spread of the disease: its movement across space. The rapid spread of COVID-19 during 2020 and the highly diverse political responses to it have demonstrated the importance of this point. Close the borders or not? Quarantine the population or not? The issue here is how people understand, organize and structure spatial relations and separations, as well as how they understand the disease in itself. Given that the spread of a disease involves movement across space, including the crossing of political borders, the way that location is understood and organized is important to how diverse peoples and regimes respond to the spread of disease. The question the chapter deals with is how diseases are located – in the Mediterranean region, in this case.
  • Strona, Giovanni; Castellano, Claudio; Fattorini, Simone; Ponti, Luigi; Gutierrez, Andrew Paul; Beck, Pieter S.A. (2020)
    Outbreaks of a plant disease in a landscape can be meaningfully modelled using networks with nodes representing individual crop-fields, and edges representing potential infection pathways between them. Their spatial structure, which resembles that of a regular lattice, makes such networks fairly robust against epidemics. Yet, it is well-known how the addition of a few shortcuts can turn robust regular lattices into vulnerable ‘small world’ networks. Although the relevance of this phenomenon has been shown theoretically for networks with nodes corresponding to individual host plants, its real-world implications at a larger scale (i.e. in networks with nodes representing crop fields or other plantations) remain elusive. Focusing on realistic spatial networks connecting olive orchards in Andalusia (Southern Spain), the world’s leading olive producer, we show how even very small probabilities of long distance dispersal of infectious vectors result in a small-world effect that dramatically exacerbates a hypothetical outbreak of a disease targeting olive trees (loosely modelled on known epidemiological information on the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, an important emerging threat for European agriculture). More specifically, we found that the probability of long distance vector dispersal has a disproportionately larger effect on epidemic dynamics compared to pathogen’s intrinsic infectivity, increasing total infected area by up to one order of magnitude (in the absence of quarantine). Furthermore, even a very small probability of long distance dispersal increased the effort needed to halt a hypothetical outbreak through quarantine by about 50% in respect to scenarios modelling local/short distance pathogen’s dispersal only. This highlights how identifying (and disrupting) long distance dispersal processes may be more efficacious to contain a plant disease epidemic than surveillance and intervention concentrated on local scale transmission processes.
  • Aaltonen, Kari; Saarni, Suoma; Holi, Matti; Paananen, Markus (2023)
    Objective Major public and scientific interest exists on, whether quarantine as a containment measure, could have adverse effects on individual's mental health. We investigated psychic well-being and distress, symptoms of depression and anxiety among individuals imposed to home quarantine. Methods By total population sampling in a Finnish suburban city, a total of 57 quarantined cases (participation rate 97%) were identified and followed up for two weeks until expiration of the quarantine. A randomized control group (n = 53) was formed of people seeking laboratory testing for suspected Sars-CoV-2 infection. Primary outcome was the psychic well-being and distress experienced during quarantine measured by the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation - Outcome Measure (CORE-OM). The cases were followed up by the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-10 (CORE-10), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and by the Overall Anxiety Severity and Impairment Scale (OASIS). Results The median CORE-OM score for the cases was 3.53 (95% CI: 2.23-4.66), and for the controls 3.24 (1.76-3.82), being mostly in the nonclinical to mild range. The difference between the groups was statistically nonsignificant (p = .19). Higher levels of psychic distress were explained by previous psychiatric disorders and living alone, but not having been quarantined. In comparison to controls, the quarantined participants experienced significantly, but slightly lower level of life functioning. At the follow-up, the quarantined participants rated further low on the CORE-10 (median 2.00; 95% CI: 1.00-3.00), the PHQ-9 (1.50; 0.00-3.00), and the OASIS (0.00; 0.00-0.00). Conclusions The distress associated with short-term home quarantine may not be to the degree of a mental disorder.