Browsing by Subject "Questionnaire"

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  • Lahtela, Eero (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Municipal environmental authorities are required to conduct environmental monitoring. Unmanned aerial vehicles, UAVs, may be helpful in environmental monitoring but their applicability as a tool for municipal environmental monitoring has not been studied. In this thesis it was studied, how municipalities have been utilizing UAVs. Additionally, UAVs applicability for environmental monitoring and inspection work was tested using a litter monitoring experiment as an example. In the first part of the study, a questionnaire was sent to municipal environmental authorities in Finland, to municipalities in Sweden and to those participating in Eurocities WG Waste group (n = 512), covering the used applications, their utilization frequencies and successfulness, reasons for failures and future plans. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. In the second part of the study, a UAV was utilized in a litter monitoring experiment on four sites in Helsinki. Litter by category and leaves were counted based on visual observations from UAV imagery. The accuracy of UAV imagery detection was assessed by comparing its and ground assessment (GA) results. On one site, a control group also carried out UAV imagery detections in order to assess the magnitude of bias or offset occurring when both the GA and the litter detection from UAV imagery are conducted by a single individual. The Wilcoxon signed rank and Cronbach’s α reliability tests were used for statistical analysis of the results. Response rate of the questionnaire was low, 3.7% (n = 19). The pool of used applications was extensive and covered a variety of monitoring and inspecting targets with emphasis on the presumably manually piloted applications. Utilization was very successful. The most important reasons for failures were poor weather followed by lack of information and expertise. UAVs were included in the future plans of most participants for municipal environmental monitoring purposes. The UAV imagery detection accuracies of litter and leaves compared to the GA results were high, 90.5% for litter and 87.5% for litter and leaves, and no statistically significant differences existed between the assessment results. Especially leaves proved challenging to detect from UAV imagery. The control group’s detection accuracies were 67.9% without and 49.0% with leaves, and with leaves the results differed with statistical significance (p = 0.028). The internal reliability of the control group was relatively high, α = 0.776 without and α = 0.805 with leaves. UAVs are deemed sufficiently accurate and versatile as monitoring and inspecting tools for municipal environmental authorities. They have the capability to complement ground assessments or, with certain prerequisites, even function as an independent monitoring method. Further application and detection method development and research on municipal UAV utilization are needed.
  • Karlgren, Klas; Lakkala, Minna; Toom, Auli; Ilomäki, Liisa; Lahti-Nuuttila, Pekka; Muukkonen, Hanni (2020)
    The Collaborative Knowledge Practices Questionnaire (CKP) is an instrument designed to measure the learning of knowledge-work competence in education. The focus is on qualities of knowledge work which can be learned and taught in multiple educational settings and which may be especially important for courses with collaborative assignments. The original instrument was theoretically based on the knowledge-creation metaphor of learning. The instrument has been validated in Finnish based on student responses from a large number of higher education courses. The validation of the instrument resulted in seven scales relating to different aspects of interdisciplinary, collaborative development of knowledge-objects using digital technology. This study aimed to cross-culturally translate and adapt the original instrument into English and perform an exploratory structural equation modelling (ESEM) analysis in order to investigate whether the same factorial solution of the instrument also works in English in higher education courses in international settings. The original instrument was translated according to established guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. The translated version has been tested in courses in medical education, online teaching and problem solving. The results provided evidence that the latent factor model found in the original instrument provided a good fit also for the adapted questionnaire.
  • Savelieva, Kateryna; Marttila, Tero; Lampi, Jussi; Ung-Lanki, Sari; Elovainio, Marko; Pekkanen, Juha (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background The associations between indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in homes and symptom reporting of children have been extensively studied, but only few large-scale studies have been done in schools. We examined associations between expert-assessed IEQ in schools and pupils’ reporting of different symptoms, and whether associations were stronger if participants relate symptoms to the school environment. Methods The questionnaire survey was done in all primary and secondary schools in two areas of Helsinki, Finland. Primary school pupils (grade 3–6, n = 8775, 99 school-buildings) and secondary school pupils (grade 7–9, n = 3410, 30 school-buildings) reported their symptoms. Symptoms were combined into respiratory, lower respiratory, eye, skin, and general symptom groups. Surveys were also done among the parents of the primary school pupils (grade 1–6, n = 3540, 88 school buildings), but results are reported only in the supplement due to the low response rate (20% in 2017 and 13% in 2018). The associations between IEQ and symptoms were analyzed using multilevel logistic regression analysis. Results Several of the IEQ indicators were highly correlated and indicators were therefore mainly analyzed by combining them into a summary score and into latent classes. Dose-response associations were found between IEQ problems and higher reporting of respiratory and general symptoms among both primary and secondary school pupils. Some associations were also observed with lower respiratory and skin symptoms, but not with eye symptoms. The associations were somewhat stronger with symptoms related to the school environment compared to symptoms reported without such relation: for a unit change in IEQ summary score and respiratory symptoms in primary schools, odds ratios were 1.07 (95% CI 1.02–1.06) and 1.04 (95% CI 1.04–1.10), and in secondary schools 1.09 (95% CI 1.01–1.09) and 1.05 (95% CI 1.02–1.17), respectively. Conclusions Expert-assessed IEQ problems in schools were associated with increased reporting of especially respiratory and general symptoms. The associations were only somewhat stronger in magnitude for symptoms reported in relation to the school environment compared to symptoms reported without such relation.
  • Savelieva, Kateryna; Marttila, Tero; Lampi, Jussi; Ung-Lanki, Sari; Elovainio, Marko; Pekkanen, Juha (2019)
  • Oristo, Satu; Rönnqvist, Maria; Aho, Mika; Sovijärvi, Ava; Hannila-Handelberg, Tuula; Horman, Ari; Nikkari, Simo; Kinnunen, Paula M.; Maunula, Leena (2017)
    This study investigated the presence of norovirus and adenovirus, especially enteric adenovirus, on the environmental surfaces (n = 481) and military conscripts' hands (n = 109) in two Finnish garrisons (A and B) in 2013 and 2014. A questionnaire study was conducted to reveal possible correlations between viral findings on the conscripts' hands and their acute gastroenteritis symptoms. In addition to the swab samples, 14 fecal samples were obtained for viral analysis. In total, norovirus was present in 9.0 % of the surface swabs in 2013, whereas enteric adenovirus was present in 0.0 % and non-enteric adenovirus in 9.4 %. In the same year, 2.6 % of the hand swabs contained norovirus, 2.6 % enteric adenovirus, and 40.3 % non-enteric adenovirus. Norovirus GI.6 was continually detected on the surfaces of garrison A, and identical virus was detected in some of the fecal samples. In garrison B, two slightly different norovirus GII.4 strains were present on the surfaces. The questionnaires revealed no recent acute gastroenteritis cases in garrison A, but in garrison B, where the norovirus-positive hand swabs were collected, 30.6 % of the conscripts reported of recent symptoms. In 2014, norovirus was rarely detected, but adenovirus was again frequently present, both on the surfaces and hands. Taken together, our results suggest that gastroenteritis outbreaks occurred in 2013, but not in 2014. Due to the low number of hand swabs positive for enteric viruses, no conclusions about associations between viral findings and gastroenteritis symptoms could be drawn. This study increased our understanding of the possible transmission of viruses via contaminated environment and hands.
  • Cao, Christopher; Frick, Anna E.; Ilonen, Ilkka; McElnay, Phil; Guerrero, Francesco; Tian, David H.; Lim, Eric; Rocco, Gaetano (2018)
    OBJECTIVES: Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has emerged as a safe and efficacious alternative approach to conventional thoracotomy for selected patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. The aim of the present study was to assess the current clinical practice of VATS among the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) members. METHODS: A standardized questionnaire was sent to thoracic surgeons on the ESTS mailing list, with collection of data on demographics, use of multiportal or uniportal VATS, institutional experience with VATS procedures and proportion of operations performed by different approaches. Analysis was performed using SPSS statistical software. RESULTS: Complete questionnaire results were collected from 100 unique institutions in 31 countries, representing data on the clinical practice of 461 board-certified thoracic surgeons. Three hundred and twenty-four of the 461 (70%) surgeons claimed to perform anatomical VATS resections, with a total estimated caseload of 9519 resections per year. Two hundred and thirty-one (50%) surgeons reported to have performed lobectomies primarily through the VATS approach. The case volume was significantly correlated to the number (P = 0.019) and proportion (P = 0.001) of surgeons who performed VATS anatomical resections. Overall, 47% of the centres performing anatomical VATS resections reported some use of uniportal approach. There was no association between the number of thoracic surgeons within an institution and the likelihood of performing uniportal VATS lobectomy. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to previous surveys, results of the present European study suggested that there is a strong trend favouring VATS for a range of thoracic procedures in the current clinical setting. However, the use of uniportal VATS is still not yet widespread. The evolving adoption of VATS in Europe should be further assessed with regard to clinical outcomes in the form of large standardized registries.
  • 2019 World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) Nijmegen splenic injury collaboration group; Amico, Francesco; Anning, Rebecca; Bendinelli, Cino; Balogh, Zsolt J.; Leppäniemi, Ari; Tolonen, Matti I A (2020)
    Background Recent trauma guidelines recommend non-operative management for grade III splenic injury without contrast extravasation on computed tomography. Nevertheless, such recommendations rely on low-quality evidence, and practice variation characterizes clinical management for this type of injury. We aimed to identify the role of eleven selected clinical factors influencing the management of grade III splenic injury without contrast extravasation by expert consensus and a modified Delphi approach. Methods A questionnaire was developed with the endorsement of the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES). This was delivered and answered live by acute care surgeons attending the 6(th)WSES congress in Nijmegen in 2019. A dedicated mobile phone application was utilized to collect the answers. All answers were evaluated for areas of discrepancy with an 80% threshold for consensus between respondents. Results Three factors generated discrepancy in opinion for managing this pattern of injury: the patients' injury severity, the presence of a bleeding diathesis, and an associated intra-abdominal injury. Agreement was obtained for the other eight factors. Conclusion Researchers should focus their efforts on the identified area of discrepancy. Clinicians should use additional care in the presence of the three factors for which discordant opinions were found.
  • Pihlaja, Sanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Tutkimuksen perusteella haluttiin selvittää, miten Helsingin yliopiston hammaslääketieteen opintojen kliinisen vaiheen opiskelijat kokevat perehdytyksensä klinikkaan. Tutkimusta varten heille jaettiin vastattavaksi kyselylomake: "Minkälaisen perehdytyksen klinikkaan tulevat opiskelijat tarvitsisivat?" Kyselyn vastausprosentti oli 50,6 %. Lomakkeen kysymykset ja väittämäkohdat analysoitiin Excelillä (versio 2014). Tuloksista laskettiin prosentit ja keskiarvot sekä avoimista kohdista kerättiin suoria sitaatteja. Tutkimuksesta selvisi, että Helsingin yliopiston hammaslääketieteen opiskelijoiden perehdytys klinikkaan ei ole riittävää. Tutkimus auttoi hahmottamaan sitä, mitkä asiat perehdytyksessä on koettu erityisen ongelmalliseksi. Tutkimuksesta saatujen tulosten perusteella voidaan kehittää Helsingin yliopiston hammaslääketieteen suu- ja leukasairauksien osaston perehdytysohjelmaa. Tutkimuksessa saatujen tulosten, omien ja opiskelukollegoiden kokemusten perusteella, sekä aiemman julkaistun kirjallisuuden avulla laadimme yhdessä Maaret Sirkkalan (HLK) kanssa Kandioppaan, joka jaettiin syksyllä 2014 uusille kliiniset opintonsa aloittaville hammaslääketieteen opiskelijoille.
  • Sirkkala, Maaret (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Hammaslääkärin työtä ja hammaslääketieteen opintoja pidetään yleisesti stressaavina. Tämän tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää, mitä asioita Helsingin Yliopiston hammaslääketieteen kliinisen vaiheen opiskelijat pitävät opinnoissaan suurimpina stressin aiheuttajina ja kuormittajina. Tutkimusaineisto kerättiin laatimalla kyselylomake, joka jaettiin kaikille Helsingin yliopiston kliinisen vaiheen opiskelijoille. Useissa kansainvälisissä tutkimuksissa suurimmiksi stressinaiheuttajiksi hammaslääketieteen opinnoissa on todettu tentit, työmäärän aiheuttama paine, konfliktit opetushenkilökunnan tai laitoksen kanssa, vapaa-ajan puute ja opintosuoritteiden kerääminen. Osa näistä samoista stressinaiheuttajista osoittautui myös Helsingin hammaslääketieteen opiskelijoiden suurimmiksi stressin aiheuttajiksi. Helsingin yliopiston hammaslääketieteen opiskelijoiden keskuudessa suurimmaksi yksittäiseksi stressin aiheuttajaksi koettiin suoritteiden kerääminen. Tutkimuksesta saatuja tuloksia käytetään hyödyksi 3. vuosikurssin opiskelijoille laadittavaa Kandiopasta varten.
  • Niemenmaa, Arri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Tausta Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on selvittää Helsingin kaupungilla ikääntyneitä potilaita laitosolosuhteissa hoitavan henkilökunnan koulutusta, resursseja sekä asenteita potilaidensa suunterveydenhoitoon liittyvissä kysymyksissä. Vastaavia tutkimuksia on tehty aiemmin muualla, ja näiden konsensus on ollut, että hoitava henkilökunta saa koulutusta suuterveyteen liittyvissä asioissa vaihtelevasti ja että henkilökunnan kouluttamisella myös heidän hoidossa olevien henkilöiden suuterveys paranee. Menetelmät Tutkimus suoritettiin syksyllä 2013 jakamalla yhteensä 300 kyselylomaketta kolmen eri Helsingissä sijaitsevan geriatrisen hoitolaitoksen henkilökunnan edustajille. Kysely jaettiin kaikille henkilökunnan jäsenille ja palautettiin hoitoloittain anonyyminä. Kaavakkeessa kysyttiin asioita vastaajan taustoista, ja siinä oli 20 monivalintakysymystä liittyen potilaiden suunterveydenhoitoon. Tulokset Vastauksia palautettiin 180 kappaletta (60 %) hoitoloihin, josta ne toimitettiin yliopistolle. Tässä tutkielmassa käsiteltäväksi valittiin henkilökunnan koulutukseen, työpaikkojen resursseihin ja käytäntöihin sekä henkilökunnan asenteisiin liittyviä kysymyksiä. 66,3 % vastanneista kertoi saaneensa koulutusta asiakkaiden suun terveyden hoidossa, ja vastaava osuus, 66,1 %, toivoi aiheesta vielä lisäkoulutusta. Mielestään riittävät välineet oli käytettävissä 65,9 %:lla vastanneista. 63,3 % vastanneista piti suun terveyttä tärkeänä yleisterveyden ja hyvinvoinnin kannalta. Vain 2,9 % vastanneista potilaan suun puhdistaminen kuului päivittäisiin työtehtäviin. Pohdinta Hoitava henkilökunta pääasiassa mieltää suun terveyden tärkeäksi osaksi yleisterveyttä ja hyvinvointia. Koulutusta aiheesta on saatu, mutta yhtälailla sitä toivotaan saatavan lisää. Täydentävä koulutus olisi tarkoituksenmukaista järjestää kyseisissä hoitolaitoksissa, jossa resurssit ja olosuhteet ovat samat kuin hoitotyön arjessa.
  • Andersson, Ville (Helsingfors universitet, 2019)
    The Finnish Medicines Agency, Fimea, is the authority responsible for supervision pharmacies in Finland. Recently, there has been more interest in Fimea to improve its supervision of community pharmacies. For this purpose, a questionnaire was made. Prior to the making of the questionnaire, community pharmacy supervision practices were studied in Nordic countries and in the UK. Additionally, faults found in Finnish community pharmacy inspections in 2016–2018 were classified by analysing anonymized fault lists (n=94) separated from inspection reports. When the most common faults were identified, it was possible to include questions concerning these faults into the questionnaire. A modified version of the Delphi method was used when developing the questionnaire. Comments on the applicability of the questions were given by a panel of experts consisting of inspectors of Fimea. The questionnaire was subsequently edited in accordance with the given comments. Separate versions of the questionnaire form were developed for community pharmacies and for their subsidiary pharmacies. At the end of this study, the questionnaire was sent to seven pharmacies and to three subsidiary pharmacies. After the results of the questionnaire were collected, Fimea gave feedback on the questionnaire. 25 categories were created by classifying faults found from pharmacy inspections. The most common inspection observations were faults in storage condition monitoring (97 % of pharmacies), narcotics (86 %), implementation of code of conduct (86 %), product errors (86 %) and preparation of medicines ready for use (81 %). The questionnaire begins by asking basic information about the pharmacy. Following questions concern the personnel and their further adequacy training. The questionnaire also includes several questions on the code of conduct within the pharmacy. Additionally, there are questions about storage condition monitoring, dispensary and accounting of narcotics. At the end of the questionnaire, there are also a few questions about the European Medicines Verification System (EMVS) which will be implemented by February 2019. Support from the inspectors of Fimea and studying regulations of pharmacies helped identify appropriate questions for the questionnaire. However, the perspective of the questionnaire may be limited due to the questionnaire being developed based up on faults found from inspections. The faults observed from inspections across pharmacies in Finland have been very similar with some of them being also alarmingly common. Because many of the observed faults are relatively easy to fix, simple corrective measures could be implemented to improve the situation across several pharmacies. Thus, usage of questionnaires, such as one made in this study, could be considered a feasible way of improving supervision of pharmacies.
  • Bachour, Patrick; Bachour, Adel; Kauppi, Paula; Maasilta, Paula; Makitie, Antti; Palotie, Tuula (2016)
    There is an increasing tendency to use oral appliance (OA) as an alternative treatment for sleep apnea. Here we report the long-term adherence and clinical effects of OA therapy. All sleep apnea patients treated at the Department of Dentistry between the years 2006 and 2013 (n = 1208) were reviewed. A questionnaire about OA adherence, asthma symptoms (Asthma Control Test (TM), ACT), and general health was sent to all patients who continued OA therapy after the 1-month follow-up visit (n = 811). OA was adjusted to obtain at least 70 % of the maximal protrusion of the mandible. The response rate was 37.4 % (99 women, 204 men). The mean +/- SD age and BMI were 58.7 +/- 10.3 years and 27.3 +/- 4.0 kg/m(2), respectively. During the mean follow-up period of 3.3 years, there was no significant variation in BMI. Forty-one patients abandoned OA therapy yielding an adherence rate of 86 %. Ninety-seven percent of patients used OA a parts per thousand yen4 h/day, and the mean daily use was 7.2 +/- 1.1 h. The ACT score improved with OA use from 16.0 +/- 5.9 to 20.1 +/- 3.8 (p = 0.004), indicating better asthma control. The apnea and hypopnea index decreased significantly from 27 +/- 19 at baseline to 10 +/- 10 with OA therapy (p = 0.001). After a 1-month trial period, the long-term adherence to oral appliance was good. OA therapy decreased apneas and hypopneas significantly, and its long-term use was associated with an improvement in respiratory and asthma symptoms.
  • Kaipio, Johanna; Laaveri, Tinja; Hypponen, Hannele; Vainiomaki, Suvi; Reponen, Jarmo; Kushniruk, Andre; Borycki, Elizabeth; Vanska, Jukka (2017)
    Purpose: Survey studies of health information systems use tend to focus on availability of functionalities, adoption and intensity of use. Usability surveys have not been systematically conducted by any healthcare professional groups on a national scale on a repeated basis. This paper presents results from two cross-sectional surveys of physicians' experiences with the usability of currently used EHR systems in Finland. The research questions were: To what extent has the overall situation improved between 2010 and 2014? What differences are there between healthcare sectors? Methods: In the spring of 2014, a survey was conducted in Finland using a questionnaire that measures usability and respondents' user experiences with electronic health record (EHR) systems. The survey was targeted to physicians who were actively doing clinical work. Twenty-four usability-related statements, that were identical in 2010 and 2014, were analysed from the survey. The respondents were also asked to give an overall rating of the EHR system they used. The study data comprised responses from 3081 physicians from the year 2014 and from 3223 physicians in the year 2010, who were using the nine most commonly used EHR system brands in Finland. Results: Physicians' assessments of the usability of their EHR system remain as critical as they were in 2010. On a scale from 1 ('fail') to 7 ('excellent') the average of overall ratings of their principally used EHR systems varied from 3.2 to 4.4 in 2014 (and in 2010 from 2.5 to 4.3). The results show some improvements in the following EHR functionalities and characteristics: summary view of patient's health status, prevention of errors associated with medication ordering, patient's medication list as well as support for collaboration and information exchange between the physician and the nurses. Even so, support for cross-organizational collaboration between physicians and for physician-patient collaboration were still considered inadequate. Satisfaction with technical features had not improved in four years. The results show marked differences between the EHR system brands as well as between healthcare sectors (private sector, public hospitals, primary healthcare). Compared to responses from the public sector, physicians working in the private sector were more satisfied with their EHR systems with regards to statements about user interface characteristics and support for routine tasks. Overall, the study findings are similar to our previous study conducted in 2010. Conclusions: Surveys about the usability of EHR systems are needed to monitor their development at regional and national levels. To our knowledge, this study is the first national eHealth observatory questionnaire that focuses on usability and is used to monitor the long-term development of EHRs. The results do not show notable improvements in physician's ratings for their EHRs between the years 2010 and 2014 in Finland. Instead, the results indicate the existence of serious problems and deficiencies which considerably hinder the efficiency of EHR use and physician's routine work. The survey results call for considerable amount of development work in order to achieve the expected benefits of EHR systems and to avoid technology-induced errors which may endanger patient safety. The findings of repeated surveys can be used to inform healthcare providers, decision makers and politicians about the current state of EHR usability and differences between brands as well as for improvements of EHR usability. This survey will be repeated in 2017 and there is a plan to include other healthcare professional groups in future surveys. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.