Browsing by Subject "RABBITS"

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  • Toropainen, Elisa; Fraser-Miller, Sara J.; Novakovic, Dunja; Del Amo, Eva M.; Vellonen, Kati-Sisko; Ruponen, Marika; Viitala, Tapani; Korhonen, Ossi; Auriola, Seppo; Hellinen, Laura; Reinisalo, Mika; Tengvall, Unni; Choi, Stephanie; Absar, Mohammad; Strachan, Clare; Urtti, Arto (2021)
    Eye drops of poorly soluble drugs are frequently formulated as suspensions. Bioavailability of suspended drug depends on the retention and dissolution of drug particles in the tear fluid, but these factors are still poorly understood. We investigated seven ocular indomethacin suspensions (experimental suspensions with two particle sizes and three viscosities, one commercial suspension) in physical and biological tests. The median particle size (d(50)) categories of the experimental suspensions were 0.37-1.33 and 3.12-3.50 mu m and their viscosity levels were 1.3, 7.0, and 15 mPa center dot s. Smaller particle size facilitated ocular absorption of indomethacin to the aqueous humor of albino rabbits. In aqueous humor the AUC values of indomethacin suspensions with different particle sizes, but equal viscosity, differed over a 1.5 to 2.3-fold range. Higher viscosity increased ocular absorption 3.4-4.3-fold for the suspensions with similar particle sizes. Overall, the bioavailability range for the suspensions was about 8-fold. Instillation of larger particles resulted in higher tear fluid AUC values of total indomethacin (suspended and dissolved) as compared to application of smaller particles. Despite these tear fluid AUC values of total indomethacin, instillation of the larger particles resulted in smaller AUC levels of indomethacin in the aqueous humor. This suggests that the small particles yielded higher concentrations of dissolved indomethacin in the tear fluid, thereby leading to improved ocular bioavailability. This new conclusion was supported by ocular pharmacokinetic modeling. Both particle size and viscosity have a significant impact on drug concentrations in the tear fluid and ocular drug bioavailability from topical suspensions. Viscosity and particle size are the key players in the complex interplay of drug retention and dissolution in the tear fluid, thereby defining ocular drug absorption and bioequivalence of ocular suspensions.
  • Ma, Liang; Chen, Zehua; Huang, Da Wei; Cisse, Ousmane H.; Rothenburger, Jamie L.; Latinne, Alice; Bishop, Lisa; Blair, Robert; Brenchley, Jason M.; Chabe, Magali; Deng, Xilong; Hirsch, Vanessa; Keesler, Rebekah; Kutty, Geetha; Liu, Yueqin; Margolis, Daniel; Morand, Serge; Pahar, Bapi; Peng, Li; Van Rompay, Koen K. A.; Song, Xiaohong; Song, Jun; Sukura, Antti; Thapar, Sabrina; Wang, Honghui; Weissenbacher-Lang, Christiane; Xu, Jie; Lee, Chao-Hung; Jardine, Claire; Lempicki, Richard A.; Cushion, Melanie T.; Cuomo, Christina A.; Kovacs, Joseph A. (2020)
    Pneumocystis, a major opportunistic pathogen in patients with a broad range of immunodeficiencies, contains abundant surface proteins encoded by a multicopy gene family, termed the major surface glycoprotein (Msg) gene superfamily. This superfamily has been identified in all Pneumocystis species characterized to date, highlighting its important role in Pneumocystis biology. In this report, through a comprehensive and in-depth characterization of 459 msg genes from 7 Pneurnocystis species, we demonstrate, for the first time, the phylogeny and evolution of conserved domains in Msg proteins and provide a detailed description of the classification, unique characteristics, and phylogenetic relatedness of five Msg families. We further describe, for the first time, the relative expression levels of individual msg families in two rodent Pneumocystis species, the substantial variability of the msg repertoires in P. coda from laboratory and wild rats, and the distinct features of the expression site for the classic msg genes in Pneumocystis from 8 mammalian host species. Our analysis suggests multiple functions for this superfamily rather than just conferring antigenic variation to allow immune evasion as previously believed. This study provides a rich source of information that lays the foundation for the continued experimental exploration of the functions of the Msg superfamily in Pneumocystis biology. IMPORTANCE Pneumocystis continues to be a major cause of disease in humans with immunodeficiency, especially those with HIV/AIDS and organ transplants, and is being seen with increasing frequency worldwide in patients treated with immunode-pleting monoclonal antibodies. Annual health care associated with Pneumocystis pneumonia costs similar to$475 million dollars in the United States alone. In addition to causing overt disease in immunodeficient individuals, Pneumocystis can cause subclinical infection or colonization in healthy individuals, which may play an important role in species preservation and disease transmission. Our work sheds new light on the diversity and complexity of the msg superfamily and strongly suggests that the versatility of this superfamily reflects multiple functions, including antigenic variation to allow immune evasion and optimal adaptation to host environmental conditions to promote efficient infection and transmission. These findings are essential to consider in developing new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.
  • Herajarvi, Johanna; Anttila, Tuomas; Sarja, Henna; Mustonen, Caius; Haapanen, Henri; Makela, Tuomas; Yannopoulos, Fredrik; Starck, Tuomo; Kallio, Mika; Tuominen, Hannu; Puistola, Ulla; Karihtala, Peeter; Kiviluoma, Kai; Anttila, Vesa; Juvonen, Tatu (2017)
    Background. Paraplegia is one of the most severe complications occurring after the repair of thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms. Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) has been shown to mitigate neurologic damage, and this study assessed its efficacy in preventing spinal cord ischemia. Methods. The study randomized 16 female pigs into an RIPC group (n = 8) and a control group (n = 8). The RIPC group underwent four cycles of 5-minute ischemia-reperfusion episodes by intermittent occlusion of the left iliac artery. All animals underwent systematic closure of the left subclavian artery and segmental arteries of the descending thoracic aorta to the level of diaphragm. Motor-evoked potential monitoring was performed in both hind limbs. Continuous electrocardiogram and hemodynamics were monitored, and pulmonary artery blood samples were collected. A neurologic assessment was performed 6 hours after the procedure. The thoracic and lumbar portions of the spinal cord were collected for histologic and immunohistochemical analysis. Results. The bilateralmotor-evoked potential amplitude responses were higher in the RIPC group (p <0.05) than in the control group; the difference was detected already before spinal cord ischemia. Paraplegia occurred in 1 control animal. Immunohistochemical total scores of antioxidant response regulator nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 were better in the RIPC group (11.0; range, 8.5 to 14.0) than in the control group (5.2; range, 1.0 to 9.0; p = 0.023). Conclusions. RIPC induces electrophysiologic changes in the central nervous system that may confer spinal cord protection extending the resistance to ischemia. The significantly higher nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 scores suggest better neuronal cell protection against oxidative stress in the RIPC group. (C) 2017 by The Society of Thoracic Surgeons