Browsing by Subject "RADIATIVE-TRANSFER"

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  • Feher, O.; Juvela, M.; Lunttila, T.; Montillaud, J.; Ristorcelli, I.; Zahorecz, S.; Toth, L. V. (2017)
    Context. The physical state of cold cloud clumps has a great impact on the process and efficiency of star formation and the masses of the forming stars inside these objects. The sub-millimetre survey of the Planck space observatory and the far-infrared follow-up mapping of the Herschel space telescope provide an unbiased, large sample of these cold objects. Aims. We have observed (CO)-C-12(1-0) and (CO)-C-13(1-0) emission in 35 high-density clumps in 26 Herschel fields sampling different environments in the Galaxy. Here, we aim to derive the physical properties of the objects and estimate their gravitational stability. Methods. The densities and temperatures of the clumps were calculated from both the dust continuum and the molecular line data. Kinematic distances were derived using (CO)-C-13(1-0) line velocities to verify previous distance estimates and the sizes and masses of the objects were calculated by fitting 2D Gaussian functions to their optical depth distribution maps on 250 mu m. The masses and virial masses were estimated assuming an upper and lower limit on the kinetic temperatures and considering uncertainties due to distance limitations. Results. The derived excitation temperatures are between 8.5-19.5 K, and for most clumps between 10 15 K, while the Herschel-derived dust colour temperatures are more uniform, between 12 16 K. The sizes (0.1-3 pc), (CO)-C-13 column densities (0.5-44 x 10(15) cm(-2)) and masses (from less than 0.1 M-circle dot to more than 1500 M-circle dot) of the objects all span broad ranges. We provide new kinematic distance estimates, identify gravitationally bound or unbound structures and discuss their nature. Conclusions. The sample contains objects on a wide scale of temperatures, densities and sizes. Eleven gravitationally unbound clumps were found, many of them smaller than 0.3 pc, but large, parsec-scale clouds with a few hundred solar masses appear as well. Colder clumps have generally high column densities but warmer objects appear at both low and higher column densities. The clump column densities derived from the line and dust observations correlate well, but are heavily affected by uncertainties of the dust properties, varying molecular abundances and optical depth effects.
  • Fiedler, Stephanie; Kinne, Stefan; Huang, Wan Ting Katty; Räisänen, Petri; O'Donnell, Declan; Bellouin, Nicolas; Stier, Philip; Merikanto, Joonas; van Noije, Twan; Makkonen, Risto; Lohmann, Ulrike (2019)
    This study assesses the change in anthropogenic aerosol forcing from the mid-1970s to the mid-2000s. Both decades had similar global-mean anthropogenic aerosol optical depths but substantially different global distributions. For both years, we quantify (i) the forcing spread due to model-internal variability and (ii) the forcing spread among models. Our assessment is based on new ensembles of atmosphere-only simulations with five state-of-the-art Earth system models. Four of these models will be used in the sixth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6; Eyring et al., 2016). Here, the complexity of the anthropogenic aerosol has been reduced in the participating models. In all our simulations, we prescribe the same patterns of the anthropogenic aerosol optical properties and associated effects on the cloud droplet number concentration. We calculate the instantaneous radiative forcing (RF) and the effective radiative forcing (ERF). Their difference defines the net contribution from rapid adjustments. Our simulations show a model spread in ERF from -0.4 to -0.9 W m(-2). The standard deviation in annual ERF is 0.3 W m(-2), based on 180 individual estimates from each participating model. This result implies that identifying the model spread in ERF due to systematic differences requires averaging over a sufficiently large number of years. Moreover, we find almost identical ERFs for the mid-1970s and mid-2000s for individual models, although there are major model differences in natural aerosols and clouds. The model-ensemble mean ERF is -0.54 W m(-2) for the pre-industrial era to the mid-1970s and -0.59 W m(-2) for the pre-industrial era to the mid-2000s. Our result suggests that comparing ERF changes between two observable periods rather than absolute magnitudes relative to a poorly constrained pre-industrial state might provide a better test for a model's ability to represent transient climate changes.
  • Zieger, P.; Weingartner, E.; Henzing, J.; Moerman, M.; de Leeuw, G.; Mikkilä, Jyri; Ehn, Mikael; Petäjä, Tuukka; Clemer, K.; van Roozendael, M.; Yilmaz, S.; Friess, U.; Irie, H.; Wagner, T.; Shaiganfar, R.; Beirle, S.; Apituley, A.; Wilson, K.; Baltensperger, U. (2011)
  • Harju, Jorma; Sipilä, Olli; Brunken, Sandra; Schlemmer, Stephan; Caselli, Paola; Juvela, Mika; Menten, Karl M.; Stutzki, Juergen; Asvany, Oskar; Kaminski, Tomasz; Okada, Yoko; Higgins, Ronan (2017)
    We report on the detection of the ground-state rotational line of ortho-D2H+ at 1.477 THz (203 mu m) using the German REceiver for Astronomy at Terahertz frequencies (GREAT) on. board the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). The line is seen in absorption against. far-infrared continuum from the protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 in Ophiuchus. The para-D2H+ line at 691.7 GHz was not detected with the APEX telescope toward this position. These D2H+ observations complement our previous detections of para-H2D+ and ortho-H2D+ using SOFIA and APEX. By modeling chemistry and radiative transfer in the dense core surrounding the protostars, we find that the ortho-D2H+ and para-H2D+ absorption features mainly originate in the cool (T <18 K) outer envelope of the core. In contrast, the ortho-H2D+ emission from the core is significantly absorbed by the ambient molecular cloud. Analyses of the combined D2H+ and H2D+ data result in an age estimate of similar to 5. x. 10(5) yr for the core, with an uncertainty of similar to 2. x. 10(5) yr. The core material has probably been pre-processed for another 5. x. 10(5) years in conditions corresponding to those in the ambient molecular cloud. The inferred timescale is more than 10 times the age of the embedded protobinary. The D2H+ and H2D+ ions have large and nearly equal total (ortho+ para) fractional abundances of similar to 10(-9) in the outer envelope. This confirms the central role of H-3 + in the deuterium chemistry in cool, dense gas, and adds support to the prediction of chemistry models that also D-3(+) should be abundant in these conditions.
  • Wang, Xiaobin; Muinonen, Karri (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2018)
    Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series
    The ground-based photometric observations of asteroids still is the main source to understand their basic physical properties, even though some space mission and space-based instruments have been applied in physical studies of asteroids. Owing to developments on scattering theories and 3D shape models of asteroid, we can carry out determination for basic physical parameters of asteroids from the photometric data. Here, we present photometric observations for some selected asteroids and light inversion results for these asteroids. In detail, they are: (1) To determine photometric phase functions of asteroids (107)Camilla and (106) Dione considering an ellipsoid shape and a cellinoid shape respectively; and (2) To inverse convex shape of main-belt slow rotating asteroids (168) Sibylla and (346)Hermentaria and a near Earth asteroid (3200) Phaethon. Based on derived photometric phase functions, the geometric albedo, and even rough taxonomic classification of asteroids are inferred. With the virtual photometry Monta Carlo method, the uncertainties of spin parameters of selected asteroids were compared.
  • Laigle, C.; Davidzon, I.; Ilbert, O.; Devriendt, J.; Kashino, D.; Pichon, C.; Capak, P.; Arnouts, S.; de la Torre, S.; Dubois, Y.; Gozaliasl, G.; Le Borgne, D.; Lilly, S.; McCracken, H. J.; Salvato, M.; Slyz, A. (2019)
    Using the light-cone from the cosmological hydrodynamical simulation horizon-AGN, we produced a photometric catalogue over 0 <z <4 with apparent magnitudes in COSMOS, Dark Energy Survey, Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST)-like, and Euclid-like filters at depths comparable to these surveys. The virtual photometry accounts for the complex star formation history (SFH) and metal enrichment of horizon-AGN galaxies, and consistently includes magnitude errors, dust attenuation, and absorption by intergalactic medium. The COSMOS-like photometry is fitted in the same configuration as the COSMOS2015 catalogue. We then quantify random and systematic errors of photometric redshifts, stellar masses, and star formation rates (SFR). Photometric redshifts and redshift errors capture the same dependencies on magnitude and redshift as found in COSMOS2015, excluding the impact of source extraction. COSMOS-like stellar masses are well recovered with a dispersion typically lower than 0.1 dex. The simple SFHs and metallicities of the templates induce a systematic underestimation of stellar masses at z <1.5 by at most 0.12 dex. SFR estimates exhibit a dust-induced bimodality combined with a larger scatter (typically between 0.2 and 0.6 dex). We also use our mock catalogue to predict photometric redshifts and stellar masses in future imaging surveys. We stress that adding Euclid near-infrared photometry to the LSST-like baseline improves redshift accuracy especially at the faint end and decreases the outlier fraction by a factor similar to 2. It also considerably improves stellar masses, reducing the scatter up to a factor 3. It would therefore be mutually beneficial for LSST and Euclid to work in synergy.
  • Lu, P.; Cao, X.; Wang, Q.; Leppäranta, M.; Cheng, B.; Li, Z. (2018)
    To investigate the influence of a surface ice lid on the optical properties of a melt pond, a radiative transfer model was employed that includes four plane-parallel layers: an ice lid, a melt pond, the underlying ice, and the ocean beneath the ice. The thickness H-s and the scattering coefficient sigma(s) of the ice lid are altered. Variations in the spectral albedo and transmittance T due to H-s for a transparent ice lid are limited, and scattering in the ice lid has a pronounced impact on the albedo of melt ponds as well as the vertical distribution of spectral irradiance in ponded sea ice. The thickness of the ice lid determines the amount of solar energy absorbed. A 2-cm-thick ice lid can absorb 13% of the incident solar energy, half of the energy absorbed by a 30-cm-deep meltwater layer below the lid. This has an influence on the thermodynamics of melting sea ice. The color and spectral albedo of refreezing melt ponds depend on the value of the dimensionless number sigma(s) H- s. Good agreement between field measurements and our model simulations is found. The number sigma(s) H- s is confirmed to be a good index showing that the influence of an ice lid with sigma(s) H- s Plain Language Summary Melt ponds are pools of open water that form on sea ice in the warm months of the Arctic Ocean, and they will frequently be refrozen due to loss of heat and then covered by an ice lid or snow even in summer. This lid is very important to the optical properties of melt ponds. If the ice lid is very thin, the change in the reflective characteristics of the melt pond is minimal; that is, the influence of the ice lid is negligible. If snow accumulates on the ice lid, the reflective characteristics of the melt pond change completely. How about the situation between the above two extreme cases? In this study, we find that a dimensionless number is a good index to quantify the impact of the ice lid. Visual inspections on the color of refreezing melt ponds also help to judge the significance of the influence of the ice lid. This will allow for an accurate estimation on the role of surface ice lid during field investigations on the optical properties of melt ponds.
  • Redaelli, E.; Bizzocchi, L.; Caselli, P.; Harju, J.; Chacon-Tanarro, A.; Leonardo, E.; Dore, L. (2018)
    Context. The N-15 fractionation has been observed to show large variations among astrophysical sources, depending both on the type of target and on the molecular tracer used. These variations cannot be reproduced by the current chemical models. Aims. Until now, the N-14/N-15 ratio in N2H+ has been accurately measured in only one prestellar source, L1544, where strong levels of fractionation, with depletion in N-15, are found (N-14/N-15 approximate to 1000). In this paper, we extend the sample to three more bona fide prestellar cores, in order to understand if the antifractionation in N2H+ is a common feature of this kind of source. Methods. We observed N2H+, (NNH+)-N-15, and (NNH+)-N-15 in L183, L429, and L694-2 with the IRAM 30m telescope. We modelled the emission with a non-local radiative transfer code in order to obtain accurate estimates of the molecular column densities, including the one for the optically thick N2H+. We used the most recent collisional rate coefficients available, and with these we also re-analysed the L1544 spectra previously published. Results. The obtained isotopic ratios are in the range 580-770 and significantly differ with the value, predicted by the most recent chemical models, of approximate to 440, close to the protosolar value. Our prestellar core sample shows a high level of depletion of N-15 in diazenylium, as previously found in L1544. A revision of the N chemical networks is needed in order to explain these results.
  • Saajasto, Mika; Juvela, Mika; Malinen, Johanna (2018)
    Context. Regarding the evolution of dust grains from diffuse regions of space to dense molecular cloud cores, many questions remain open. Scattering at near-infrared wavelengths, or "cloudshine", can provide information on cloud structure, dust properties, and the radiation field that is complementary to mid-infrared "coreshine" and observations of dust emission at longer wavelengths. Aims. We examine the possibility of using near-infrared scattering to constrain the local radiation field and the dust properties, the scattering and absorption efficiency, the size distribution of the grains, and the maximum grain size. Methods. We use radiative transfer modelling to examine the constraints provided by the J, H, and K bands in combination with mid-infrared surface brightness at 3.6 mu m. We use spherical one-dimensional and elliptical three-dimensional cloud models to study the observable effects of different grain size distributions with varying absorption and scattering properties. As an example, we analyse observations of a molecular cloud in Taurus, TMC-1N. Results. The observed surface brightness ratios of the bands change when the dust properties are changed. However, even a change of +/- 10% in the surface brightness of one band changes the estimated power-law exponent of the size distribution gamma by up to similar to 30% and the estimated strength of the radiation field K-ISRF by up to similar to 60%. The maximum grain size A(max) and gamma are always strongly anti-correlated. For example, overestimating the surface brightness by 10% changes the estimated radiation field strength by similar to 20% and the exponent of the size distribution by similar to 15%. The analysis of our synthetic observations indicates that the relative uncertainty of the parameter distributions are on average A(max), gamma similar to 25%, and the deviation between the estimated and correct values Delta Q <15%. For the TMC-1N observations, a maximum grain size A(max) > 1.5 mu m and a size distribution with gamma > 4.0 have high probability. The mass weighted average grain size is <a(m)> = 0.113 mu m. Conclusions. We show that scattered infrared light can be used to derive meaningful limits for the dust parameters. However, errors in the surface brightness data can result in considerable uncertainties on the derived parameters.
  • Riuttanen, Laura; Bister, Marja; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; John, Viju O.; Sundstrom, Anu-Maija; Dal Maso, Miikka; Räisänen, Jouni; Sinclair, Victoria A.; Makkonen, Risto; Xausa, Filippo; De Leeuw, Gerrit; Kulmala, Markku (2016)
    Aerosol-cloud interactions are the largest source of uncertainty in the radiative forcing of the global climate. A phenomenon not included in the estimates of the total net forcing is the potential increase in upper tropospheric humidity (UTH) by anthropogenic aerosols via changes in the microphysics of deep convection. Using remote sensing data over the ocean east of China in summer, we show that increased aerosol loads are associated with an UTH increase of 2.2 +/- 1.5 in units of relative humidity. We show that humidification of aerosols or other meteorological covariation is very unlikely to be the cause of this result, indicating relevance for the global climate. In tropical moist air such an UTH increase leads to a regional radiative effect of 0.5 +/- 0.4 W m(-2). We conclude that the effect of aerosols on UTH should be included in future studies of anthropogenic climate change and climate sensitivity.
  • Väisänen, T.; Markkanen, J.; Hadamcik, E.; Renard, J-B; Lasue, J.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Blum, J.; Muinonen, K. (2020)
    We model the measured phase function and degree of linear polarization of a macroscopic agglomerate made of micrometer-scale silica spheres using the methodology of multiple scattering. In the laboratory work, the agglomerate is produced ballistically, characterized by scanning electron microscopy, and measured with the PROGRA(2) instrument to obtain the light scattering properties. The model phase function and degree of polarization are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. To our best knowledge, this is the first time the degree of linear polarization has been modeled well for a large, densely packed agglomerate composed of small particles with known sizes and shapes. The study emphasizes the relevance of the degree of linear polarization and gives insights into the effects of particle aggregation on the scattering characteristics. (C) 2020 Optical Society of America
  • Mõttus, Matti; Rautiainen, Miina; Schaepman, Michael E. (2012)
    Spectral and directional reflectance properties of coniferous forests are known to differ from those of broadleaf forests. Many reasons have been proposed for this, including differences in the optical properties of leaves and shoots, the latter being considered the basic unit in radiative transfer modeling of a coniferous canopy. Unfortunately, very little empirical data is available on the spectrodirectional scattering properties of shoots. Here, we present results of angular measurements (using an ASD FieldSpec 3 spectroradiometer mounted on LAGOS) of ten Scots pine shoots in the spectral range 400--2000 nm. The shoots were found to scatter anisotropically with most of the radiation reflected back into the hemisphere where the radiation source was positioned. To describe the measured directional scattering pattern, we propose a phase function consisting of isotropic and Lambertian scattering components. Next, we used the proposed scattering phase function in a Monte Carlo radiative transfer model. Angular reflectance of a modeled horizontally homogeneous shoot canopy has, due to shoot scattering anisotropy, an enhanced “dark spot” as compared with a canopy composed of isotropic scatterers and a quantitatively similar leaf canopy.
  • Sipilae, O.; Harju, J.; Caselli, P. (2017)
    Aims. We study whether or not rotational excitation can make a large difference to chemical models of the abundances of the H-3(+) isotopologs, including spin states, in physical conditions corresponding to starless cores and protostellar envelopes. Methods. We developed a new rate coefficient set for the chemistry of the H-3(+) isotopologs, allowing for rotational excitation, using previously published state-to-state rate coefficients. These new so-called species-to-species rate coefficients are compared with previously-used ground-state-to-species rate coefficients by calculating chemical evolution in variable physical conditions using a pseudo-time-dependent chemical code. Results. We find that the new species-to-species model produces different results to the ground state-to-species model at high density and toward increasing temperatures (T > 10 K). The most prominent difference is that the species-to-species model predicts a lower H-3(+) deuteration degree at high density owing to an increase of the rate coefficients of endothermic reactions that tend to decrease deuteration. For example at 20 K, the ground-state-to-species model overestimates the abundance of H2D+ by a factor of about two, while the abundance of D-3(+) can differ by up to an order of magnitude between the models. The spin-state abundance ratios of the various H-3(+) isotopologs are also a ffected, and the new model better reproduces recent observations of the abundances of ortho and para H2D+ and D2H+. The main caveat is that the applicability regime of the new rate coefficients depends on the critical densities of the various rotational transitions which vary with the abundances of the species and the temperature in dense clouds. Conclusions. The difference in the abundances of the H-3(+) isotopologs predicted by the species-to-species and ground state-to-species models is negligible at 10K corresponding to physical conditions in starless cores, but inclusion of the excited states is very important in studies of deuteration at higher temperatures, for example in protostellar envelopes. The species-to-species rate coefficients provide a more realistic approach to the chemistry of the H-3(+) isotopologs than the ground-state-to-species rate coefficients do, and so the former should be adopted in chemical models describing the chemistry of the H-3(+)+H-2 reacting system.
  • Padoan, Paolo; Juvela, Mika; Pan, Liubin; Haugbolle, Troels; Nordlund, Åke (2016)
    We present a comparison of molecular clouds (MCs) from a simulation of supernova (SN) driven interstellar medium (ISM) turbulence with real MCs from the Outer Galaxy Survey. The radiative transfer calculations to compute synthetic CO spectra are carried out assuming that the CO relative abundance depends only on gas density, according to four different models. Synthetic MCs are selected above a threshold brightness temperature value, T-B,T-min = 1.4 K, of the J = 1 - 0 (CO)-C-12 line, generating 16 synthetic catalogs (four different spatial resolutions and four CO abundance models), each containing up to several thousands MCs. The comparison with the observations focuses on the mass and size distributions and on the velocity-size and mass-size Larson relations. The mass and size distributions are found to be consistent with the observations, with no significant variations with spatial resolution or chemical model, except in the case of the unrealistic model with constant CO abundance. The velocity-size relation is slightly too steep for some of the models, while the mass-size relation is a bit too shallow for all models only at a spatial resolution dx approximate to 1 pc. The normalizations of the Larson relations show a clear dependence on spatial resolution, for both the synthetic and the real MCs. The comparison of the velocity-size normalization suggests that the SN rate in the Perseus arm is approximately 70% or less of the rate adopted in the simulation. Overall, the realistic properties of the synthetic clouds confirm that SN-driven turbulence can explain the origin and dynamics of MCs.
  • Pawlik, M. M.; McAlpine, S.; Trayford, J. W.; Wild, V.; Bower, R.; Crain, R. A.; Schaller, M.; Schaye, J. (2019)
    About 35 years ago a class of galaxies with unusually strong Balmer absorption lines and weak emission lines was discovered in distant galaxy clusters(1,2). These objects, alternatively referred to as post-starburst, E+A or k+a galaxies, are now known to occur in all environments and at all redshifts(3-7), with many exhibiting compact morphologies and low-surface brightness features indicative of past galaxy mergers(3,8). They are commonly thought to represent galaxies that are transitioning from blue to red sequence, making them critical to our understanding of the origins of galaxy bimodality(9-14). However, recent observational studies have questioned this simple interpretation(15-18). From observations alone, it is challenging to disentangle the different mechanisms that lead to the quenching of star formation in galaxies. Here we present examples of three different evolutionary pathways that lead to galaxies with strong Balmer absorption lines in the Evolution and Assembly of Galaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) simulation(19,20): classical blue -> red quenching, blue -> blue cycle and red -> red rejuvenation. The first two are found in both post-starburst galaxies and galaxies with truncated star formation. Each pathway is consistent with scenarios hypothesized for observational samples(2,15,18,21,22). The fact that 'post-starburst' signatures can be attained via various evolutionary channels explains the diversity of observed properties, and lends support to the idea that slower quenching channels are important at low redshift(23,24).
  • Sipilä, O.; Caselli, P.; Redaelli, E.; Juvela, M.; Bizzocchi, L. (2019)
    We carried out a parameter-space exploration of the ammonia abundance in the pre-stellar core L1544, where it has been observed to increase toward the centre of the core with no signs of freeze-out onto grain surfaces. We considered static and dynamical physical models coupled with elaborate chemical and radiative transfer calculations, and explored the effects of varying model parameters on the (ortho + para) ammonia abundance profile. None of our models are able to reproduce the inward-increasing tendency in the observed profile; ammonia depletion always occurs in the centre of the core. In particular, our study shows that including the chemical desorption process, where exothermic association reactions on the grain surface can result in the immediate desorption of the product molecule, leads to ammonia abundances that are over an order of magnitude above the observed level in the innermost 15 000 au of the core - at least when one employs a constant efficiency for the chemical desorption process, irrespective of the ice composition. Our results seemingly constrain the chemical desorption efficiency of ammonia on water ice to below 1 per cent. It is increasingly evident that time-dependent effects must be considered so that the results of chemical models can be reconciled with observations.
  • Vilhu, Osmi; Kallman, T. R.; Koljonen, K. I. I.; Hannikainen, D. C (2021)
    Context. The radiatively driven wind of the primary star in wind-fed X-ray binaries can be suppressed by the X-ray irradiation of the compact secondary star. This causes feedback between the wind and the X-ray luminosity of the compact star.Aims. We aim to estimate how the wind velocity on the face-on side of the donor star depends on the spectral state of the high-mass X-ray binary Cygnus X-3.Methods. We modeled the supersonic part of the wind by computing the line force (force multiplier) with the Castor, Abbott & Klein formalism and XSTAR physics and by solving the mass conservation and momentum balance equations. We computed the line force locally in the wind considering the radiation fields from both the donor and the compact star in each spectral state. We solved the wind equations at different orbital angles from the line joining the stars and took the effect of wind clumping into account. Wind-induced accretion luminosities were estimated using the Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton formalism and computed wind velocities at the compact star. We compared them to those obtained from observations.Results. We found that the ionization potentials of the ions contributing the most to the line force fall in the extreme-UV region (100-230 angstrom). If the flux in this region is high, the line force is weak, and consequently, the wind velocity is low. We found a correlation between the luminosities estimated from the observations for each spectral state of Cyg X-3 and the computed accretion luminosities assuming moderate wind clumping and a low mass of the compact star. For high wind clumping, this correlation disappears. We compared the XSTAR method used here with the comoving frame method and found that they agree reasonably well with each other.Conclusions. We show that soft X-rays in the extreme-UV region from the compact star penetrate the wind from the donor star and diminish the line force and consequently the wind velocity on the face-on side. This increases the computed accretion luminosities qualitatively in a similar manner as observed in the spectral evolution of Cyg X-3 for a moderate clumping volume filling factor and a compact star mass of a few (2-3) solar masses.