Browsing by Subject "RADICALS"

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  • Baer, Robin M.; Kirschner, Stefan; Nieger, Martin; Bräse, Stefan (2018)
    Herein the addition of different thiols to the strained carbon-carbon bond of [1.1.1]propellane (1) is reported. The reaction pathway was investigated, addition reactions with substituted thiols, hydrogen sulfide and protected cysteine were performed, and further modifications of the products were verified. The clean reaction proceeds by a radical chain process, which was confirmed by different deuterium labelling experiments. It shows high functional-group tolerance, since halo-, hydroxy-, methoxy-, carboxy-, amino- and nitro-substituted thiols could be added to 1 with few by-products in 16-90% yield. Oxidation of the products allows tuning of the polarity and subsequent reactions of the products. The click-type reaction proceeds even faster with selenols, as was shown in a proof of concept. Thiol addition to 1 offers a facile tool for surface modification, conjugation and tuning of hydrophilicity in bio- and medicinal chemistry.
  • Liebmann, Jonathan; Sobanski, Nicolas; Schuladen, Jan; Karu, Einar; Hellen, Heidi; Hakola, Hannele; Zha, Qiaozhi; Ehn, Mikael; Riva, Matthieu; Heikkinen, Liine; Williams, Jonathan; Fischer, Horst; Lelieyeld, Jos; Crowley, John N. (2019)
    The formation of alkyl nitrates in various oxidation processes taking place throughout the diel cycle can represent an important sink of reactive nitrogen and mechanism for chain termination in atmospheric photo-oxidation cycles. The low-volatility alkyl nitrates (ANs) formed from biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), especially terpenoids, enhance rates of production and growth of secondary organic aerosol. Measurements of the NO3 reactivity and the mixing ratio of total alkyl nitrates (6 ANs) in the Finnish boreal forest enabled assessment of the relative importance of NO3-, O-3- and OH-initiated formation of alkyl nitrates from BVOCs in this environment. The high reactivity of the forest air towards NO3 resulted in reactions of the nitrate radical, with terpenes contributing substantially to formation of ANs not only during the night but also during daytime. Overall, night-time reactions of NO3 accounted for 49% of the local production rate of ANs, with contributions of 21 %, 18% and 12% for NO3, OH and O-3 during the day. The lifetimes of the gas-phase ANs formed in this environment were on the order of 2 h due to efficient uptake to aerosol (and dry deposition), resulting in the transfer of reactive nitrogen from anthropogenic sources to the forest ecosystem.
  • Soikkeli, Maiju; Kettunen, Mikko I.; Nivajärvi, Riikka; Olsson, Venla; Ronkko, Seppo; Laakkonen, Johanna P.; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka; Kavakka, Jari; Heikkinen, Sami (2019)
    Magnetic resonance imaging examinations are frequently carried out using contrast agents to improve the image quality. Practically all clinically used contrast agents are based on paramagnetic metals and lack in selectivity and specificity. A group of stable organic radicals, nitroxides, has raised interest as new metal-free contrast agents for MRI. Their structures can easily be modified to incorporate different functionalities. In the present study, a stable nitroxide TEEPO (2,2,6,6-tetraethylpiperidin-1-oxyl) was linked to a glucose moiety (Glc) to construct a water-soluble, potentially tumor-targeting compound with contrast-enhancing ability. The ability was assessed with in vivo MRI experiments. The constructed TEEPO-Glc agent proved to shorten the T-1 relaxation time in tumor, while the T-1 time in healthy brain tissue remained the same. The results indicate the potential of TEEPO-Glc as a valuable addition to the growing field of metal-free contrast enhancement in MRI-based diagnostics.
  • Isenberg, Stefan; Weller, Stefan; Kargin, Denis; Valic, Srecko; Schwederski, Brigitte; Kelemen, Zsolt; Bruhn, Clemens; Krekic, Kristijan; Maurer, Martin; Feil, Christoph M.; Nieger, Martin; Gudat, Dietrich; Nyulaszi, Laszlo; Pietschnig, Rudolf (2019)
    Invited for this month's cover picture are the groups of Professors Rudolf Pietschnig at the University of Kassel, Professor Dietrich Gudat at the University of Stuttgart and Professor Laszlo Nyulaszi at the Budapest University of Technology and Economics. The cover picture shows the thermally induced homolytic cleavage of the central P-P bond in a phosphorus-rich bis-ferrocenophane furnishing P-centered radicals (as evidenced by the computed spin-density highlighted in blue). The central P-6 unit in the title compound is a structural analog of the connecting unit in Hittorf's violet phosphorus, which links the orthogonally arranged tubular entities. A portrait of the German physicist Johann Wilhelm Hittorf is included. Read the full text of their Full Paper at 10.1002/open.201900182.
  • Hasan, Galib; Valiev, Rashid; Salo, Vili-Taneli; Kurten, Theo (2021)
    The formation of accretion products ("dimers") from recombination reactions of peroxyl radicals (RO2) is a key 5 3 step in the gas-phase generation of low-volatility vapors, leading to atmospheric aerosol particles. We have recently demonstrated that S 1 this recombination reaction very likely proceeds via an intermediate complex of two alkoxy radicals (RO center dot center dot center dot OR') and that the accretion product pathway involves an intersystem crossing (ISC) of this complex from the triplet to the singlet surface. However, ISC rates have hitherto not been computed for large and chemically complex RO center dot center dot center dot OR' systems actually relevant to atmospheric aerosol formation. Here, we carry out systematic conformational sampling and ISC rate calculations on (3)(RO center dot center dot center dot OR') clusters formed in the recombination reactions of different diastereomers of the first-generation peroxyl radicals originating in both OH- and NO3 -initiated reactions of alpha-pinene, a key biogenic hydrocarbon for atmospheric aerosol formation. While we find large differences between the ISC rates of different diastereomer pairs, all systems have ISC rates of at least 10(6) s(-1), and many have rates exceeding 10(10) s(-1). Especially the latter value demonstrates that accretion product formation via the suggested pathway is a competitive process also for alpha-pinene-derived RO2 and likely explains the experimentally observed gas-phase formation of C-20 compounds in alpha-pinene oxidation.
  • Minwegen, Heiko; Döntgen, Malte; Hemken, Christian; Büttgen, Rene Daniel; Leonhard, Kai; Heufer, Karl Alexander (2019)
    Recently the possibility of hot beta-scission pathways gained attention. These reactions give a shortcut during the important fuel consumption phase in combustion processes leading from H-atom abstraction directly to the beta-scission products without fuel radical thermalization. Methyl formate (MF) was shown to be prone to hot beta-scission due to a low beta-scission barrier height. Furthermore, MF as smallest methyl ester can be considered as biodiesel surrogate and it is an important intermediate product during combustion of various ethers. In this work a predominantly ab-initio derived detailed kinetic model of MF combustion is developed including hot beta-scission pathways and compared to a sophisticated literature model based on classical estimation methods. For this, new stoichiometric MF in air ignition delay time measurements in a shock tube and a rapid compression machine over a wide temperature range (790 K-1250 K) and pressures of 10, 20 and 40 bar served as validation targets. The experimental ignition delay times (IDT) show Arrhenius type behavior in both facilities at all conditions. The newly developed quantum-based model catches the pressure dependency and low-temperature reactivity well although overpredicting the IDT at higher temperatures. It was found that hot beta-scission is the major depletion pathway of formate group-centered MF radicals. This, however, does not change the overall reactivity of MF combustion due to the low stability of the alkyl peroxide (RO2) at the formate group. For species with competing thermal beta-scission and RO2 formation, however, hot beta-scission may have a significant impact. (C) 2018 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Eskola, Arkke J.; Reijonen, Timo T.; Pekkanen, Timo T.; Heinonen, Petri; Joshi, Satya P.; Timonen, Raimo S. (2021)
    The kinetics of the i -C 4 H 5 (buta-1,3-dien-2-yl) radical reaction with molecular oxygen has been measured over a wide temperature range (275-852 K) at low pressures (0.8-3 Torr) in direct, time-resolved experiments. The measurements were performed using a laminar flow reactor coupled to photoionization mass spectrometer (PIMS), and laser photolysis of either chloroprene (2-chlorobuta-1,3-diene) or isoprene was used to produce the resonantly stabilized i -C 4 H 5 radical. Under the experimental conditions, the measured bimolecular rate coefficient of i -C 4 H 5 + O 2 reaction is independent of bath gas density and exhibits weak, negative temperature dependency, and can be described by the expression k 3 = (1.45 +/- 0.05) & times; 10 & minus;12 & times; ( T /298 K) & minus;(0.13 +/- 0.05) cm 3 s & minus;1 . The measured bimolecular rate coefficient is surprisingly fast for a resonantly stabilized radical. Under combustion conditions, the reactions of i -C 4 H 5 radical with ethylene and acetylene are believed to play an important role in forming the first aromatic ring. However, the current measurements show that i C 4 H 5 + O 2 reaction is significantly faster under combustion conditions than previous estimations suggest and, consequently, inhibits the soot forming propensity of i -C 4 H 5 radicals. The bimolecular rate coefficient estimates used for the i -C 4 H 5 + O 2 reaction in recent combustion simulations show significant variation and are up to two orders of magnitude slower than the current, measured value. All estimates, in contrast to our measurements, predict a positive temperature dependency. The observed products for the i -C 4 H 5 + O 2 reaction were formaldehyde and ketene. This is in agreement with the one theoretical study available for i C 4 H 5 + O 2 reaction, which predicts the main bimolecular product channels to be H 2 CO + C 2 H 3 + CO and H 2 CCO + CH 2 CHO. (c) 2020 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Hyttinen, Noora; Kupiainen-Maatta, Oona; Rissanen, Matti P.; Muuronen, Mikko; Ehn, Mikael; Kurten, Theo (2015)
    Several extremely low volatility organic compounds (ELVOCs) formed in the ozonolysis of endocyclic alkenes have recently been detected in laboratory and field studies. These experiments have been carried out with chemical ionization atmospheric pressure interface time-of-flight mass spectrometers (CI-APi-TOP) with nitrate ions as reagent ions. The nitrate ion binds to the detected species through hydrogen bonds, but it also binds very strongly to one or two neutral nitric acid molecules. This makes the measurement highly selective when there is an excess amount of neutral nitric acid in the instrument. In this work, we used quantum-chemical methods to calculate the binding energies between a nitrate ion and several highly oxidized ozonolysis products of cydohexene. These were then compared with the binding energies of nitrate ion nitric acid clusters. Systematic configurational sampling of the molecules and clusters was carried out at the B3LYP/6-31+G* and omega B97xD/aug-cc-pVTZ levels, and the final single-point energies were calculated with DLPNO-CCSD(T)/def2-QZVPP. The binding energies were used in a kinetic simulation of the measurement system to determine the relative ratios of the detected signals. Our results indicate that at least two hydrogen bond donor functional groups (in this case, hydroperoxide, OOH) are needed for an ELVOC molecule to be detected in a nitrate ion CI-APi-TOP. Also, a double bond in the carbon backbone makes the nitrate cluster formation less favorable.
  • Blum, M.; Puntigam, O.; Plebst, S.; Ehret, F.; Bender, J.; Nieger, M.; Gudat, D. (2016)
    The homolytic P-P bond fission in a series of sterically congested tetraaminodiphosphanes (R2N)(2)P-P-(NR2)(2) ({4}(2)-{9}(2), two of which were newly synthesized and fully characterized) into diaminophosphanyl radicals (R2N)(2)P-center dot (4-9) was monitored by VT EPR spectroscopy. Determination of the radical concentration from the EPR spectra permitted to calculate free dissociation energies Delta G(Diss)(295) as well as dissociation enthalpies Delta H-Diss and entropies Delta S-Diss, respectively. Large positive values of Delta G(Diss)(295) indicate that the degree of dissociation is in most cases low, and the concentration of persistent radicals - even if they are spectroscopically observable at ambient temperature - remains small. Appreciable dissociation was established only for the sterically highly congested acyclic derivative {9}(2). Analysis of the trends in experimental data in connection with DFT studies indicate that radical formation is favoured by large entropy contributions and the energetic effect of structural relaxation (geometrical distortions and conformational changes in acyclic derivatives) in the radicals, and disfavoured by attractive dispersion forces. Comparison of the energetics of formation for CC-saturated N-heterocyclic diphosphanes and the 7 pi-radical 3c indicates that the effect of energetic stabilization by pi-electron delocalization in the latter is visible, but stands back behind those of steric and entropic contributions. Evaluation of spectroscopic and computational data indicates that diaminophosphanyl radicals exhibit, in contrast to aminophosphenium cations, no strong energetic preference for a planar arrangement of the (R2N)(2)P unit.
  • Huang, Xin; Sontag-Strohm, Tuula; Stoddard, Frederick L.; Kato, Yoji (2017)
    Elimination of celiac-toxic prolamin peptides and proteins is essential for Triticeae products to be gluten-free. Instead of enzymatic hydrolysis, in this study we investigated metal-catalyzed oxidation of two model peptides, QQPFP, and PQPQLPY, together with a hordein isolate from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). We established a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) LC-MS method to detect and quantify proline oxidation fragments. In addition to fragmentation, aggregation and side chain modifications were identified, including free thiol loss, carbonyl formation, and dityrosine formation. The immunoreactivity of the oxidized hordein isolate was considerably decreased in all metal-catalyzed oxidation systems. Cleavage of peptides or protein fragments at the numerous proline residues partially accounts for the decrease. Metal-catalyzed oxidation can thus be used in the modification and elimination of celiac-toxic peptides and proteins. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Wang, Sainan; Riva, Matthieu; Yan, Chao; Ehn, Mikael; Wang, Liming (2018)
    It is generally assumed that isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors are mainly formed from the secondary reactions of intermediate products with OH radicals in the gas phase and multiphase oxidation in particles. In this paper, we predicted a theoretical mechanism for the primary formation of highly oxygenated molecules (HOM) in the gas phase through successive intramolecular H-shifts and O-2 addition in the specific Z-delta isomer of hydroxyl-peroxy radicals and alkoxy radicals. The position of O-2 addition is different from that in forming hydroperoxy aldehydes. The prediction was further supported experimentally by successfully identifying a few highly oxidized peroxy radicals and closed-shell products such as C5H9O7,9, C5H10O6,7,8, and C4H8O5 in a flow reactor by chemical ionization mass spectrometry at air pressure. These HOM products could serve as important precursors to isoprene-derived SOA. Further modeling studies on the effect of NO concentration suggested that HOM formation could account for up to, similar to 11% of the branching ratio (similar to 9% from the 4-OH channel and similar to 2% from the 1-OH channel) in the reaction of isoprene with OH when the lifetimes of peroxy radicals due to bimolecular reactions are similar to 100 s, which is typical in forest regions.
  • Cao, Qian; Berski, Slawomir; Latajka, Zdzislaw; Räsänen, Markku; Khriachtchev, Leonid (2014)
  • Mäkelä, Noora; Sontag-Strohm, Tuula; Schiehser, Sonja; Potthast, Antje; Maaheimo, Hannu; Maina, Ndegwa H. (2017)
    Oxidation of cereal beta-glucans may affect their stability in food products. Generally, polysaccharides oxidise via different pathways leading to chain cleavage or formation of oxidised groups within the polymer chain. In this study, oxidation pathways of oat and barley beta-glucans were assessed with different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or ascorbic acid (Asc) with ferrous iron (Fe2+) as a catalyst. Degradation of beta-glucans was evaluated using high performance size exclusion chromatography and formation of carbonyl groups using carbazole-9-carbonyloxyamine labelling. Furthermore, oxidative degradation of glucosyl residues was studied. Based on the results, the oxidation with Asc mainly resulted in glycosidic bond cleavage. With H2O2, both glycosidic bond cleavage and formation of carbonyl groups within the beta-glucan chain was found. Moreover, H2O2 oxidation led to production of formic acid, which was proposed to result from Ruff degradation where oxidised glucose (gluconic acid) is decarboxylated to form arabinose. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Eskola, Arrke J.; Blitz, Mark A.; Pilling, Michael J.; Seakins, Paul W.; Shannon, Robin J. (2020)
    The rate coefficient for the unimolecular decomposition of CH3OCH2,k(1), has been measured in time-resolved experiments by monitoring the HCHO product. CH3OCH2 was rapidly and cleanly generated by 248 nm excimer photolysis of oxalyl chloride, (ClCO)(2), in an excess of CH3OCH3, and an excimer pumped dye laser tuned to 353.16 nm was used to probe HCHO via laser induced fluorescence. k(1)(T,p) was measured over the ranges: 573-673 K and 0.1-4.3 x 10(18) molecule cm(-3) with a helium bath gas. In addition, some experiments were carried out with nitrogen as the bath gas. Ab initio calculations on CH3OCH2 decomposition were carried out and a transition-state for decomposition to CH3 and H2CO was identified. This information was used in a master equation rate calculation, using the MESMER code, where the zero-point-energy corrected barrier to reaction, Delta E-0,E-1, and the energy transfer parameters, x T-n, were the adjusted parameters to best fit the experimental data, with helium as the buffer gas. The data were combined with earlier measurements by Loucks and Laidler (Can J. Chem. 1967, 45, 2767), with dimethyl ether as the third body, reinterpreted using current literature for the rate coefficient for recombination of CH3OCH2. This analysis returned Delta E-0,E-1 = (112.3 +/- 0.6) kJ mol(-1), and leads to k(1)(infinity)(T) = 2.9 x 10(12) (T/300)(2)(.5) exp(-106.8 kJ mol(-1)/RT). Using this model, limited experiments with nitrogen as the bath gas allowed N-2 energy transfer parameters to be identified and then further MESMER simulations were carried out, where N-2 was the buffer gas, to generate k(1)(T,p) over a wide range of conditions: 300-1000 K and N-2 = 10(12) -10(25) molecule cm(-3). The resulting k(1)(T,p) has been parameterized using a Troe-expression, so that they can be readily be incorporated into combustion models. In addition, k(1)(T,p) has been parametrized using PLOG for the buffer gases, He, CH3OCH3 and N-2.
  • Peltola, Jari; Seal, Prasenjit; Inkilä, Anni; Eskola, Arkke (2020)
    We present a time-resolved broadband cavity-enhanced UV-absorption spectrometer apparatus that we have constructed and utilized for temperature- and pressure-dependent kinetic measurements of formaldehyde oxide (CH2OO) reactions. We also introduce and utilize a new photolytic precursor, bromoiodomethane (CH2IBr), which photolysis at 213 nm in presence of O-2 produces CH2OO. Importantly, this precursor appears to be free from secondary reactions that may regenerate CH2OO in kinetic experiments. The unimolecular decomposition rate coefficient of CH2OO has been measured over wide pressure (5-400 Torr) and temperature (296-600 K) ranges and master equation simulations of the decomposition kinetics have been performed using MESMER program. The MESMER simulations of the experimental data with the calculated zero-point energy corrected transition state energy 85.9 kJ mol(-1) for decomposition required no adjustment and returned (down) = 123.2 x (T/298 K)(0.74) cm(-1) for temperature-dependent exponential-down model of the collisional energy transfer in He. A very good agreement between results of simulations and experiments is obtained. The results are compared with the previously reported unimolecular decomposition study by Stone et al. (Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2018, 20, 24940-24954). Current master equation simulations suggest about 61% decomposition yield for the predominant H-2 + CO2 channel, whereas the yields of two other channels, H2O + CO, and HCO + OH, are sensitive on the parameters involved in the simulations. The kinetics of CH2OO reaction with formic acid has also been investigated as function of pressure (5-150 Torr) and temperature (296-458 K). The bimolecular rate coefficient for CH2OO + HCOOH reaction shows a negative temperature dependency, decreasing from (1.0 +/- 0.03) x 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 296 K to (0.47 +/- 0.05) x 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 458 K with an Arrhenius activation energy of -4.9 +/- 1.6 kJ mol(-1), where statistical uncertainties shown are 2 sigma. Estimated overall uncertainty in the measured rate coefficients is about +/- 20%. Current bimolecular rate coefficient at room temperature agrees with the previously reported rate coefficients from the direct kinetic experiments. The reaction is found to be pressure independent over the range between 5 and 150 Torr at 296 K in He.