Browsing by Subject "RADIOTHERAPY"

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  • Tuohinen, Suvi Sirkku; Skyttä, Tanja; Huhtala, Heini; Poutanen, Tuija; Virtanen, Vesa; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Raatikainen, Pekka (2021)
    BACKGROUND Radiation therapy (RT) results in myocardial changes consisting of diffuse fibrosis, which may result in changes in diastolic function. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to explore RT-associated changes in left ventricular (LV) diastolic function. METHODS Sixty chemotherapy-naive patients with left-sided, early-stage breast cancer were studied with speckle tracking echocardiography at 3 time points: prior to, immediately after, and 3 years after RT. Global and regional early diastolic strain rate (SRe) were quantified, as were parameters of systolic function. RESULTS Regional changes in SRe, particularly the apical and anteroseptat segments, were observed over time and were more evident than global changes. The apical SRe declined from a median of 1.24 (interquartile range: 1.01 to 1.39) s(-1) at baseline to 1.02 (interquartile range: 0.79 to 1.15) s(-1) at 3 years of follow-up (p < 0.001). This decline was associated with the left ventricular maximal radiation dose (beta = 0.36, p = 0.007). The global SRe was CONCLUSIONS RT resulted in changes in the SRe in the apical and anteroseptat segments over 3 years of follow-up. Changes in SRe apical segments were present even in patients with preserved systolic function and were independently associated with RT dose and cardiovascular comorbidities. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier on behalf of the American College of Cardiology Foundation.
  • Tuohinen, Suvi Sirkku; Aula, Hanna; Skyttä, Tanja; Huhtala, Heini; Keski-Pukkila, Konsta; Nikus, Kjell; Virtanen, Vesa; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Raatikainen, Pekka (2022)
    Background/Aim: Radiotherapy (RT) induces late changes in all cardiac structures. Most studies of early changes focus on individual parameters. Patients and Methods: Data from eighty early-stage breast cancer patients at baseline, post-RT and three-year follow-up visit were assessed prospectively. Changes in ten cardiac parameters were collected including electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography, and biomarkers. A percentage of abnormal changes was calculated. Results: The mean heart radiation dose (Dmean) was independently associated with the increased incidence of changes post-RT (?? =0.403, p
  • Seibold, Petra; Schmezer, Peter; Behrens, Sabine; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Nevanlinna, Heli; Fagerholm, Rainer; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Lambrechts, Diether; Wildiers, Hans; Kristensen, Vessela; Alnaes, Grethe Grenaker; Nord, Silje; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Jager, Agnes; Seynaeve, Caroline; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Jianjun; Humphreys, Keith; Dunning, Alison M.; Rhenius, Valerie; Shah, Mitul; Kabisch, Maria; Torres, Diana; Ulmer, Hans-Ulrich; Hamann, Ute; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Purrington, Kristen S.; Couch, Fergus J.; Hall, Per; Pharoah, Paul; Easton, Doug F.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Popanda, Odilia (2015)
    Background: Personalized therapy considering clinical and genetic patient characteristics will further improve breast cancer survival. Two widely used treatments, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, can induce oxidative DNA damage and, if not repaired, cell death. Since base excision repair (BER) activity is specific for oxidative DNA damage, we hypothesized that germline genetic variation in this pathway will affect breast cancer-specific survival depending on treatment. Methods: We assessed in 1,408 postmenopausal breast cancer patients from the German MARIE study whether cancer specific survival after adjuvant chemotherapy, anthracycline chemotherapy, and radiotherapy is modulated by 127 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in 21 BER genes. For SNPs with interaction terms showing p <0.1 (likelihood ratio test) using multivariable Cox proportional hazard analyses, replication in 6,392 patients from nine studies of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) was performed. Results: rs878156 in PARP2 showed a differential effect by chemotherapy (p = 0.093) and was replicated in BCAC studies (p = 0.009; combined analysis p = 0.002). Compared to non-carriers, carriers of the variant G allele (minor allele frequency = 0.07) showed better survival after chemotherapy (combined allelic hazard ratio (HR) = 0.75, 95 % 0.53-1.07) and poorer survival when not treated with chemotherapy (HR = 1.42, 95 % 1.08-1.85). A similar effect modification by rs878156 was observed for anthracycline-based chemotherapy in both MARIE and BCAC, with improved survival in carriers (combined allelic HR = 0.73, 95 % CI 0.40-1.32). None of the SNPs showed significant differential effects by radiotherapy. Conclusions: Our data suggest for the first time that a SNP in PARP2, rs878156, may together with other genetic variants modulate cancer specific survival in breast cancer patients depending on chemotherapy. These germline SNPs could contribute towards the design of predictive tests for breast cancer patients.
  • Ng, Wai Tong; But, Barton; Choi, Horace C. W.; de Bree, Remco; Lee, Anne W. M.; Lee, Victor H. F.; Lopez, Fernando; Mäkitie, Antti A.; Rodrigo, Juan P.; Saba, Nabil F.; Tsang, Raymond K. Y.; Ferlito, Alfio (2022)
    Introduction: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is endemic to Eastern and South-Eastern Asia, and, in 2020, 77% of global cases were diagnosed in these regions. Apart from its distinct epidemiology, the natural behavior, treatment, and prognosis are different from other head and neck cancers. With the growing trend of artificial intelligence (AI), especially deep learning (DL), in head and neck cancer care, we sought to explore the unique clinical application and implementation direction of AI in the management of NPC. Methods: The search protocol was performed to collect publications using AI, machine learning (ML) and DL in NPC management from PubMed, Scopus and Embase. The articles were filtered using inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the quality of the papers was assessed. Data were extracted from the finalized articles. Results: A total of 78 articles were reviewed after removing duplicates and papers that did not meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria. After quality assessment, 60 papers were included in the current study. There were four main types of applications, which were auto-contouring, diagnosis, prognosis, and miscellaneous applications (especially on radiotherapy planning). The different forms of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) accounted for the majority of DL algorithms used, while the artificial neural network (ANN) was the most frequent ML model implemented. Conclusion: There is an overall positive impact identified from AI implementation in the management of NPC. With improving AI algorithms, we envisage AI will be available as a routine application in a clinical setting soon.
  • Hirvonen, Outi M.; Leskelä, Riikka-Leena; Gronholm, Lotta; Haltia, Olli; Rissanen, Antti; Tyynela-Korhonen, Kristiina; Rahko, Eeva K.; Lehto, Juho T.; Saarto, Tiina (2019)
    Background: To avoid aggressive treatments at the end-of-life and to provide palliative care (PC), physicians need to terminate futile anti-cancer treatments and define the palliative goal of the treatment in time. This single center study assesses the practices used to make the decision that leads to treatment with a palliative goal, i.e., the PC decision and its effect on anti-cancer treatments at the end of life. Material and methods: Patients with a cancer diagnosis treated in tertiary hospital during 1st January 2013 - 31st December 2014 and deceased by the end of 2014 were identified in the hospital database (N = 2737). Of these patients, 992 were randomly selected for this study. The PC decision was screened from patient records, i.e., termination of cancer-specific treatments and a focus on symptom-centered PC. Results: The PC decision was defined in 82% of the patients during the last year of life (49% >30 days and 33%
  • Atallah, Sarah; Marc, Morgane; Schernberg, Antoine; Huguet, Florence; Wagner, Isabelle; Mäkitie, Antti; Baujat, Bertrand (2022)
    Introduction: Adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) is a rare tumour as it accounts for about 10% of all salivary gland neoplasms. It occurs in all age groups with a predominance of women, but no risk factors have been identified to date. Although AdCC behaves as a slow-growing tumour, it is characterized by multiple and late recurrences. Therefore, we aim to update the knowledge of the treatment options in advanced and recurrent cases. Materials and Methods: We performed a systematic literature review to provide a synthesis of the practical knowledge required for AdCC non-surgical management. Altogether, 99 out of the 1208 available publications were selected for analysis. Results: AdCC is described as a basaloid tumour consisting of epithelial and myoepithelial cells. Immunohistochemistry is useful for diagnosis (PS100, Vimentin, CD117, CKit, muscle actin, p63) and for prognosis (Ki67). Identified mutations could lead to therapeutic opportunities (MYB-NFIB, Notch 1). The work-up is mainly based on neck and chest CT scan and MRI, and PET-CT with 18-FDG or PSMA can be considered. Surgical treatment remains the gold standard in resectable cases. Post-operative intensity modulated radiotherapy is the standard of care, but hadron therapy may be used in specific situations. Based on the available literature, no standard chemotherapy regimen can be recommended. Conclusion: There is currently no consensus on the use of chemotherapy in AdCC, either concomitantly to RT in a postoperative setting or at a metastatic stage. Further, the available targeted therapies do not yet provide significant tumour response.
  • Kallio, Pauliina; Jokinen, Elina; Högström, Jenny; Das, Suvendu; Heino, Sarika; Lähde, Marianne; Brodkin, Jefim; Korhonen, Emilia A.; Alitalo, Kari (2020)
    Abnormal vasculature in tumors leads to poor tissue perfusion and cytostatic drug delivery. Although drugs inducing vascular normalization, for example, angiopoietin-2 (Ang2)-blocking antibodies, have shown promising results in preclinical tumor models, clinical studies have so far shown only little efficacy. Because Ang2 is known to play a protective role in stressed endothelial cells, we tested here whether Ang2 blocking could enhance radiation-induced tumor vascular damage. Tumor-bearing mice were treated with anti-Ang2 antibodies every 3 or 4 days starting 3 days before 3 x 2 Gy or 4 x 0.5 Gy whole-body or tumor-focused radiation. Combination treatment with anti-Ang2 and radiation improved tumor growth inhibition and extended the survival of mice with melanoma or colorectal tumors. Single-cell RNA-sequencing revealed that Ang2 blocking rescued radiation-induced decreases inT cells and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. In addition, anti-Ang2 enhanced radiation-induced apoptosis in cultured endothelial cells. In vivo, combination treatment decreased tumor vasculature and increased tumor necrosis in comparison with tumors treated with monotherapies. These results suggest that a combination of Ang2-blocking antibodies with radiation increases tumor growth inhibition and extends the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Significance: These findings offer a preclinical rationale for further testing of the use of radiation in combination with Ang2-blocking antibodies to improve the overall outcome of cancer treatment.
  • Koivunoro, Hanna; Kankaanranta, Leena; Seppälä, Tiina; Haapaniemi, Aaro; Mäkitie, Antti; Joensuu, Heikki (2019)
    Background and purpose: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) that recurs locally is a therapeutic challenge. We investigated the efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in the treatment of such patients and the factors associated with treatment response and survival. Methods and materials: Seventy-nine patients with inoperable, locally recurred HNSCC were treated with L-boronophenylalanine-mediated BNCT in Espoo, Finland, between February, 2003 and January, 2012. Prior treatments consisted of surgery and conventionally fractionated radiotherapy to a median cumulative dose of 66 Gy (interquartile range [IQR], 59-70 Gy) administered with or without concomitant chemotherapy. Tumor response was assessed using the RECISTv. 1.0 criteria. Results: Forty patients received BNCT once (on 1 day), and 39 twice. The median time between the 2 treatments was 6 weeks. Forty-seven (68%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 57-79%) of the 69 evaluable patients responded; 25 (36%) had a complete response, 22 (32%) a partial response, 17 (25%) a stable disease lasting for a median of 4.2 months, and 5 (7%) progressed. The patients treated with BNCT twice responded more often than those treated once. The median follow-up time after BNCT was 7.8 years. The 2-year locoregional progression-free survival rate was 38% and the overall survival rate 21%. A high minimum tumor dose and a small volume were independently associated with long survival in a multi-variable analysis. Conclusions: Most patients responded to BNCT. A high minimum tumor dose from BNCT was predictive for response and survival. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Nieminen, M.; Aro, K.; Jouhi, L.; Bäck, L.; Mäkitie, A.; Atula, T. (2018)
    Background: Head and neck cancers are often diagnosed at a late stage, thus resulting in a generally poor prognosis. This is partly attributable to patients' hesitancy in seeking treatment. However, the length and causes of these patient delays remain relatively unknown. Material and methods: We included all new head and neck cancer patients treated at our tertiary care center between 2016 and 2017. Using a patient questionnaire, we collected data on patients' symptoms and other factors related to seeking medical care, and recorded both patient- and primary health care-related delays. We then compared the data collected from these patients to patient and tumor characteristics collected from hospital records, and analyzed various causes for delay before a specialist consultation to the Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery. Results: Among the patients (n = 142) in our study, the median patient delay was 35 d with 73% of patients seeking medical care within 3 months. In comparison, the median primary health-care delay was 20 d. Certain symptoms influenced patient delay. Hoarseness and breathing difficulties correlated with longer patient delay while patients with a lump on the neck had a shorter delay. Patient delay was associated with certain tumor-related factors such as the tumor site and the presence of regional metastases, which resulted in shorter patient delay. None of the patient-related factors appeared to impact delay. Important factors influencing primary health-care delay included the initial location visited and whether any follow-up visit was scheduled or not. Conclusions: Although most patients sought medical advice without a major delay and were adequately referred, we found that long delays existed. Raising awareness of the symptoms of head and neck cancer among general population and health-care providers is probably the best way to get patients to curative treatment without delay.
  • Nousiainen, Katri Ilona; Mäkelä, Teemu Olavi; Peltonen, Juha (2022)
    Objective Phantoms are often used to estimate the geometric accuracy in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, the distortions may differ between anatomical and phantom images. This study aimed to investigate the applicability of a phantom-based and a test-subject-based method in evaluating geometric distortion present in clinical head-imaging sequences. Materials and methods We imaged a 3D-printed phantom and test subjects with two MRI scanners using two clinical head-imaging 3D sequences with varying patient-table positions and receiver bandwidths. The geometric distortions were evaluated through nonrigid registrations: the displaced acquisitions were compared against the ideal isocenter positioning, and the varied bandwidth volumes against the volume with the highest bandwidth. The phantom acquisitions were also registered to a computed tomography scan. Results Geometric distortion magnitudes increased with larger table displacements and were in good agreement between the phantom and test-subject acquisitions. The effect of increased distortions with decreasing receiver bandwidth was more prominent for test-subject acquisitions. Conclusion Presented results emphasize the sensitivity of the geometric accuracy to positioning and imaging parameters. Phantom limitations may become an issue with some sequence types, encouraging the use of anatomical images for evaluating the geometric accuracy.
  • Vento, Seija Inkeri; Vähämurto, Pauli; Silventoinen, Kaija; Karjalainen-Lindsberg, Marja-Liisa; Mannisto, Susanna; Leppa, Sirpa; Makitie, Antti Aarni (2017)
    Objectives: Extramedullary plasmacytoma in the sinonasal tract or nasopharynx is rare. The aim of the study was to review data on symptoms, clinical findings, treatment and follow-up of plasmacytomas in the sinonasal and nasopharyngeal regions in order to delineate the main clinical characteristics and the optimal management. Method: Twenty-five patients with sinonasal or nasopharyngeal plasmacytoma, diagnosed and treated at the Helsinki University Hospital during a 39-year period from 1975 to 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Results: There were 18 males and 7 females with a median age of 66 years (range, 36-80). Sixty-eight percent received only radiotherapy or (chemo)radiotherapy. Forty-seven percent of them had a complete response to primary radiotherapy and one patient had a complete response after receiving additional brachytherapy. Four patients were treated primarily with surgery only. Two of them had a local recurrence, but were then successfully treated with radiotherapy. Altogether, four patients received a combination of surgery and (chemo)radiotherapy. Forty-four percent were alive with no evidence of disease after a median follow-up time of 78 months. Forty percent died of their disease and 16% died of other causes. Conclusions: Our study supports radiotherapy as a treatment of choice, but for small tumours surgery alone or in combination with radiotherapy may also be considered. Chinese abstract
  • Golusinski, Pawel; Corry, June; Vander Poorten, Vincent; Simo, Ricard; Sjogren, Elisabeth; Mäkitie, Antti; Kowalski, Luis Paulo; Langendijk, Johannes; Braakhuis, Boudewijn J. M.; Takes, Robert P.; Coca-Pelaz, Andres; Rodrigo, Juan P.; Willems, Stefan M.; Forastiere, Arlene A.; De Bree, Remco; Saba, Nabil F.; Teng, Yong; Sanabria, Alvaro; Di Maio, Pasquale; Szewczyk, Mateusz; Ferlito, Alfio (2021)
    Human papilloma virus (HPV) is a well-established causative factor in a subset of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCC). Although HPV can be detected in various anatomical subsites, HPV-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is the most common HPV-related malignancy of the head and neck, and its worldwide incidence is constantly rising. Patients with OPSCC are generally younger, have less co-morbidities and generally have better prognosis due to different biological mechanisms of carcinogenesis. These facts have generated hypotheses on potential treatment modifications, aiming to minimize treatmentrelated toxicities without compromising therapy efficacy. Numerous randomized clinical trials have been designed to verify this strategy and increasingly realworld evidence data from retrospective, observational studies is becoming available. Until now, the data do not support any modification in contemporary treatment protocols. In this narrative review, we outline recent data provided by both randomized controlled trials and real-world evidence of HPV-positive OPSCC in terms of clinical value. We critically analyze the potential value and drawbacks of the available data and highlight future research directions. This article was written by members and invitees of the International Head and Neck Scientific Group. (www.IHNSG.com)
  • Gregoire, Vincent; Evans, Mererid; Quynh-Thu Le; Bourhis, Jean; Budach, Volker; Chen, Amy; Eisbruch, Abraham; Feng, Mei; Giralt, Jordi; Gupta, Tejpal; Hamoir, Marc; Helito, Juliana K.; Hu, Chaosu; Hunter, Keith; Johansen, Jorgen; Kaanders, Johannes; Laskar, Sarbani Ghosh; Lee, Anne; Maingon, Philippe; Mäkitie, Antti; Micciche, Francesco; Nicolai, Piero; O'Sullivan, Brian; Poitevin, Adela; Porceddu, Sandro; Skiadowski, Krzysztof; Tribius, Silke; Waldron, John; Wee, Joseph; Yao, Min; Yom, Sue S.; Zimmermann, Frank; Grau, Cai (2018)
    Purpose: Few studies have reported large inter-observer variations in target volume selection and delineation in patients treated with radiotherapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Consensus guidelines have been published for the neck nodes (see Gregoire et al., 2003, 2014), but such recommendations are lacking for primary tumour delineation. For the latter, two main schools of thoughts are prevailing, one based on geometric expansion of the Gross Tumour Volume (GTV) as promoted by DAHANCA, and the other one based on anatomical expansion of the GTV using compartmentalization of head and neck anatomy. Method: For each anatomic location within the larynx, hypopharynx, oropharynx and oral cavity, and for each T-stage, the DAHANCA proposal has been comprehensively reviewed and edited to include anatomic knowledge into the geometric Clinical Target Volume (CTV) delineation concept. A first proposal was put forward by the leading authors of this publication (VG and CG) and discussed with opinion leaders in head and neck radiation oncology from Europe, Asia, Australia/New Zealand, North America and South America to reach a worldwide consensus. Results: This consensus proposes two CTVs for the primary tumour, the so called CTV-P1 and CVT-P2, corresponding to a high and lower tumour burden, and which should be associated with a high and a lower dose prescription, respectively. Conclusion: Implementation of these guidelines in the daily practice of radiation oncology should contribute to reduce treatment variations from clinicians to clinicians, facilitate the conduct of multi institutional clinical trials, and contribute to improved care of patients with head and neck carcinoma. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Andritsch, Elisabeth; Beishon, Marc; Bielack, Stefan; Bonvalot, Sylvie; Casali, Paolo; Crul, Mirjam; Delgado-Bolton, Roberto; Donatih, Davide Maria; Douis, Hassan; Haas, Rick; Hogendoorn, Pancras; Kozhaeva, Olga; Lavender, Verna; Lovey, Jozsef; Negrouk, Anastassia; Pereira, Philippe; Roca, Pierre; de Lempdes, Godelieve Rochette; Saarto, Tiina; van Berck, Bert; Vassal, Gilles; Wartenberg, Markus; Yared, Wendy; Costa, Alberto; Naredi, Peter (2017)
    Background: ECCO essential requirements for quality cancer care (ERQCC) are checklists and explanations of organisation and actions that are necessary to give high-quality care to patients who have a specific tumour type. They are written by European experts representing all disciplines involved in cancer care. ERQCC papers give oncology teams, patients, policymakers and managers an overview of the elements needed in any healthcare system to provide high quality of care throughout the patient journey. References are made to clinical guidelines and other resources where appropriate, and the focus is on care in Europe. Sarcoma: essential requirements for quality care Sarcomas - which can be classified into soft tissue and bone sarcomas - are rare, but all rare cancers make up more than 20% of cancers in Europe, and there are substantial inequalities in access to high-quality care. Sarcomas, of which there are many subtypes, comprise a particularly complex and demanding challenge for healthcare systems and providers. This paper presents essential requirements for quality cancer care of soft tissue sarcomas in adults and bone sarcomas. High-quality care must only be carried out in specialised sarcoma centres (including paediatric cancer centres) which have both a core multidisciplinary team and an extended team of allied professionals, and which are subject to quality and audit procedures. Access to such units is far from universal in all European countries. It is essential that, to meet European aspirations for high-quality comprehensive cancer control, healthcare organisations implement the requirements in this paper, paying particular attention to multidisciplinarity and patient-centred pathways from diagnosis and follow-up, to treatment, to improve survival and quality of life for patients. Conclusion: Taken together, the information presented in this paper provides a comprehensive description of the essential requirements for establishing a high-quality service for soft tissue sarcomas in adults and bone sarcomas. The ECCO expert group is aware that it is not possible to propose a 'one size fits all' system for all countries, but urges that access to multidisciplinary teams is guaranteed to all patients with sarcoma. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
  • Nieminen, Markus; Atula, Timo; Bäck, Leif; Mäkitie, Antti; Jouhi, Lauri; Aro, Katri (2020)
    The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)–associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is increasing. Patients with HPV-associated and HPV-unassociated OPSCC differ in many aspects, which may also impact their diagnostic and management timelines. This study aims at studying the patient, primary health care (PHC) and specialist-care (SC) delays and possible differences between these two patient groups in seeking medical care.
  • Korja, Miikka; Raj, Rahul; Seppä, Karri; Luostarinen, Tapio; Malila, Nea; Seppälä, Matti; Mäenpää, Hanna; Pitkäniemi, Janne (2019)
    We assessed population-level changes in glioblastoma survival between 2000 and 2013 in Finland, with focus on elderly patients (> 70 y) in order to assess if changes in treatment of glioblastoma are reflected also in population-based survival rates. We identified all patients (age 18 y) from the Finnish Cancer Registry (FCR) with a histopathological diagnosis of primary glioblastoma in 20002013. Patients were followed up until December 2015. The accuracy of register-based search of glioblastoma patients was internally validated. We report age-standardized relative survival ratios and relative excess risks (RERs) of death in 20002006 (pre-period) and 20072013 (post-period). We identified 2045 glioblastoma patients from the FCR. The accuracy of the FCR-based search was 97%. Median age was 63.3 years, and 42% were women. Incidence increased on average by 1.6% (P = 0.004) and median age by 0.4 years per calendar year. Between the pre- and post-periods, the proportion of patients > 70 years increased from 24% to 27%. In > 70-year-old patients, the median survival time increased from 3.6 months in 20002006 to 4.5 months in 20072013 (RER 0.82, 95% CI: 0.680.98). In 70-year-old patients, the median survival time increased from 9.3 months in 20002006 to 11.7 months in 20072013 (RER 0.74, 95% CI: 0.670.82). Despite the increased proportion of elderly glioblastoma patients, population-level survival of glioblastoma patients has improved since the year 2000. However, increasing incidence, increasing age of patients, and poor survival in elderly are alarming, and future studies should perhaps focus more on elderly.
  • Utriainen, Pauliina; Suominen, Anu; Mäkitie, Outi; Jahnukainen, Kirsi (2019)
    Background: Neuroblastoma is the most common extra-cranial solid tumor in children. Intensive therapy including autologous stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) has improved the poor prognosis of high-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NBL) but may impair gonadal function. Objectives: To investigate the gonadal function and fertility in long-term survivors of childhood HR-NBL. Design: A cohort including all Finnish (n = 20; 11 females) long-term (> 10 years) survivors of HR-NBL and an age-and sex-matched control group (n = 20) was examined at a median age of 22 (16-30) years. Oncologic treatments, pubertal timing, hormonal therapies and the number of off-spring were recorded, and pituitary and gonadal hormones were measured. Results: Altogether 16/20 of the long-term survivors of HR-NBL entered puberty spontaneously; puberty was hormonally induced in four survivors (three females). Among the 8/11 female survivors with spontaneous puberty, seven had spontaneous menarche, but 5/8 developed ovarian failure soon after puberty. Nine females currently needed estrogen substitution. AMH, a marker of ovarian reserve, was lower in the female survivors than controls (median 0.02 vs. 1.7 mu g/l, p <0.001). As a group, male survivors had smaller testicular size (8.5 vs. 39ml, p <0.001) and lower inhibin B ( Conclusion: Gonadal failure is common in long-term survivors of HR-NBL treated with HSCT. Fertility may be preserved in some survivors treated without total-body irradiation.
  • Santti, Kirsi; Ihalainen, Hanna; Ronty, Mikko; Boehling, Tom; Karlsson, Christina; Haglund, Caj; Tarkkanen, Maija; Blomqvist, Carl (2018)
    Background and Objectives: Desmoid tumors are soft-tissue tumors originating from myofibroblasts with a tendency to recur after surgery. High expression of proliferation markers is associated with shortened progression-free and/or overall survival in many neoplasms, including soft-tissue sarcomas. We investigated the prognostic role of cyclin A and Ki67 in desmoid tumors by immunohistochemistry. Methods: The study included 76 patients with desmoid tumor operated at Helsinki University Hospital between 1987 and 2011. A tissue micro array (TMA) was constructed and the TMA sections were immunostained with cyclin A and Ki67 antibodies. A computer-assisted image analysis was performed. Results: Cyclin A expression was evaluable in 74 and Ki67 in 70 patients. Cyclin A immunopositivity varied from 0% to 9.9%, with a mean of 1.9%. Cyclin A expression correlated significantly with Ki67. Cyclin A expression was associated with recurrence-free survival (HR 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1-3.2, P = .02), as were positive margin (HR 6.0, 95% CI = 1.6-22.5, P = .008) and extremity location (HR 5.3, 95% CI = 1.7-16.8, P = 0.005). Ki67 immunopositivity varied from 0.33% to 13.8%, with a mean of 4.6%, but had no significant prognostic impact (HR 1.1, P = .2). Conclusions: Our study indicates that cyclin A may be a new prognostic biomarker in surgically treated desmoid tumors.
  • Skaga, Erlend; Kulesskiy, Evgeny; Fayzullin, Artem; Sandberg, Cecilie J.; Potdar, Swapnil; Kyttälä, Aija; Langmoen, Iver A.; Laakso, Aki; Gaal-Paavola, Emilia; Perola, Markus; Wennerberg, Krister; Vik-Mo, Einar O. (2019)
    BackgroundA major barrier to effective treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) is the large intertumoral heterogeneity at the genetic and cellular level. In early phase clinical trials, patient heterogeneity in response to therapy is commonly observed; however, how tumor heterogeneity is reflected in individual drug sensitivities in the treatment-naive glioblastoma stem cells (GSC) is unclear.MethodsWe cultured 12 patient-derived primary GBMs as tumorspheres and validated tumor stem cell properties by functional assays. Using automated high-throughput screening (HTS), we evaluated sensitivity to 461 anticancer drugs in a collection covering most FDA-approved anticancer drugs and investigational compounds with a broad range of molecular targets. Statistical analyses were performed using one-way ANOVA and Spearman correlation.ResultsAlthough tumor stem cell properties were confirmed in GSC cultures, their in vitro and in vivo morphology and behavior displayed considerable tumor-to-tumor variability. Drug screening revealed significant differences in the sensitivity to anticancer drugs (p
  • Kovacs, Monika Gabriella; Kovacs, Zsuzsanna Z. A.; Varga, Zoltan; Szucs, Gergo; Freiwan, Marah; Farkas, Katalin; Kovari, Bence; Cserni, Gabor; Kriston, Andras; Kovacs, Ferenc; Horvath, Peter; Földesi, Imre; Csont, Tamas; Kahan, Zsuzsanna; Sarkozy, Marta (2021)
    Radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) is a potential late side-effect of thoracic radiotherapy resulting in left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and fibrosis due to a complex pathomechanism leading to heart failure. Angiotensin-II receptor blockers (ARBs), including losartan, are frequently used to control heart failure of various etiologies. Preclinical evidence is lacking on the anti-remodeling effects of ARBs in RIHD, while the results of clinical studies are controversial. We aimed at investigating the effects of losartan in a rat model of RIHD. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were studied in three groups: (1) control, (2) radiotherapy (RT) only, (3) RT treated with losartan (per os 10 mg/kg/day), and were followed for 1, 3, or 15 weeks. At 15 weeks post-irradiation, losartan alleviated the echocardiographic and histological signs of LVH and fibrosis and reduced the overexpression of chymase, connective tissue growth factor, and transforming growth factor-beta in the myocardium measured by qPCR; likewise, the level of the SMAD2/3 protein determined by Western blot decreased. In both RT groups, the pro-survival phospho-AKT/AKT and the phospho-ERK1,2/ERK1,2 ratios were increased at week 15. The antiremodeling effects of losartan seem to be associated with the repression of chymase and several elements of the TGF-beta/SMAD signaling pathway in our RIHD model.