Browsing by Subject "RAPID DETECTION"

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  • Jääskeläinen, Anne J.; Sironen, Tarja; Kaloinen, Minttu; Kakkola, Laura; Julkunen, Ilkka; Hewson, Roger; Weidmann, Manfred W.; Mirazimi, Ali; Watson, Robert; Vapalahti, Olli (2020)
    In last five years, the Africa has faced two outbreaks of Zaire ebolavirus. These outbreaks have been the largest so far, and latest outbreak is still ongoing and affecting the Democratic Republic of the Congo. We tested in parallel three different Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) realtime RT-PCRs targeting the nucleoprotein gene (EBOV NP-RT-qPCRs) described by Trombley et al. (2010); Huang et al. (2012) and Weidmann et al. (2004). These assays are used regularly in diagnostic laboratories. The limit of detection (LOD), intra-assay repeatability using different matrixes, sensitivity and specificity were determined. In addition, the primers and probes were aligned with the sequences available in ongoing and past outbreaks in order to check the mismatches. The specificity of all three EBOV NP-RT-qPCRs were excellent (100 %), and LODs were under or 10 copies per PCR reaction. Intra-assay repeatability was good in all assays, however the Ct-values were bit higher using the EDTA-blood based matrix. All of the primers and probes in EBOV NP-RT-qPCR assays have one or more mismatches in the probes and primers when the 2267 Zaire EBOV NP sequences, including strains Ituri from DRC outbreak (year 2018), was aligned. The EBOV strain of Bikoro (year 2018) circulating in DRC was 100 % match in Trombley and Weidmann assay, but had one mismatch in Huang assay.
  • Uusitalo, S.; Kogler, M.; Välimaa, A. -L.; Popov, A.; Ryabchikov, Yu.; Kontturi, V.; Siitonen, S.; Petäjä, J.; Virtanen, T.; Laitinen, R.; Kinnunen, M.; Meglinski, I.; Kabashin, A.; Bunker, A.; Viitala, T.; Hiltunen, J. (2016)
    The rapid and accurate detection of food pathogens plays a critical role in the early prevention of foodborne epidemics. Current bacteria identification practices, including colony counting, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunological methods, are time consuming and labour intensive; they are not ideal for achieving the required immediate diagnosis. Different SERS substrates have been studied for the detection of foodborne microbes. The majority of the approaches are either based on costly patterning techniques on silicon or glass wafers or on methods which have not been tested in large scale fabrication. We demonstrate the feasibility of analyte specific sensing using mass-produced, polymer-based low-cost SERS substrate in analysing the chosen model microbe with biological recognition. The use of this novel roll-to-roll fabricated SERS substrate was combined with optimised gold nanoparticles to increase the detection sensitivity. Distinctive SERS spectral bands were recorded for Listeria innocua ATCC 33090 using an in-house build (785 nm) near infra red (NIR) Raman system. Results were compared to both those found in the literature and the results obtained from a commercial time-gated Raman system with a 532 nm wavelength laser excitation. The effect of the SERS enhancer metal and the excitation wavelength on the detected spectra was found to be negligible. The hypothesis that disagreements within the literature regarding bacterial spectra results from conditions present during the detection process has not been supported. The sensitivity of our SERS detection was improved through optimization of the concentration of the sample inside the hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) wells. Immunomagnetic separation (IMS) beads were used to assist the accumulation of bacteria into the path of the beam of the excitation laser. With this combination we have detected Listeria with gold enhanced SERS in a label free manner from such low sample concentrations as 10(4) CFU ml(-1).
  • Pyöriä, Lari; Jokinen, Maija; Toppinen, Mari; Salminen, Henri; Vuorinen, Tytti; Hukkanen, Veijo; Schmotz, Constanze; Elbasani, Endrit; Ojala, Päivi M.; Hedman, Klaus; Välimaa, Hannamari; Perdomo, Maria F. (2020)
    Infections with the nine human herpesviruses (HHVs) are globally prevalent and characterized by lifelong persistence. Reactivations can potentially manifest as life-threatening conditions for which the demonstration of viral DNA is essential. In the present study, we developed HERQ-9, a pan-HHV quantitative PCR designed in triplex reactions to differentiate and quantify each of the HHV-DNAs: (i) herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 and varicella-zoster virus; (ii) Epstein-Barr virus, human cytomegalovirus, and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus; and (iii) HHV-6A, -6B, and -7. The method was validated with prequantified reference standards as well as with mucocutaneous swabs and cerebrospinal fluid, plasma, and tonsillar tissue samples. Our findings highlight the value of multiplexing in the diagnosis of many unsuspected, yet clinically relevant, herpesviruses. In addition, we report here frequent HHV-DNA co-occurrences in clinical samples, including some previously unknown. HERQ-9 exhibited high specificity and sensitivity (LOD95 of similar to 10 to similar to 17 copies/reaction), with a dynamic range of 10' to 10 6 copies/p.I. Moreover, it performed accurately in the coamplification of both high- and low-abundance targets in the same reaction. In conclusion, we demonstrated that HERQ-9 is suitable for the diagnosis of a plethora of herpesvirus-related diseases. Besides its significance to clinical management, the method is valuable for the assessment of hitherto-unexplored synergistic effects of herpesvirus coinfections. Furthermore, its high sensitivity enables studies on the human virome, often dealing with minute quantities of persisting HHVs. IMPORTANCE By adulthood, almost all humans become infected by at least one herpesvirus (HHV). The maladies inflicted by these microbes extend beyond the initial infection, as they remain inside our cells for life and can reactivate, causing severe diseases. The diagnosis of active infection by these ubiquitous pathogens includes the detection of DNA with sensitive and specific assays. We developed the first quantitative PCR assay (HERQ-9) designed to identify and quantify each of the nine human herpesviruses. The simultaneous detection of HHVs in the same sample is important since they may act together to induce life-threatening conditions. Moreover, the high sensitivity of our method is of extreme value for assessment of the effects of these viruses persisting in our body and their long-term consequences on our health.
  • Leon-Velarde, Carlos G.; Jun, Jin Woo; Skurnik, Mikael (2019)
    One of the human- and animal-pathogenic species in genus Yersinia is Yersinia enterocolitica, a food-borne zoonotic pathogen that causes enteric infections, mesenteric lymphadenitis, and sometimes sequelae such as reactive arthritis and erythema nodosum. Y. enterocolitica is able to proliferate at 4 degrees C, making it dangerous if contaminated food products are stored under refrigeration. The most common source of Y. enterocolitica is raw pork meat. Microbiological detection of the bacteria from food products is hampered by its slow growth rate as other bacteria overgrow it. Bacteriophages can be exploited in several ways to increase food safety with regards to contamination by Y. enterocolitica. For example, Yersinia phages could be useful in keeping the contamination of food products under control, or, alternatively, the specificity of the phages could be exploited in developing rapid and sensitive diagnostic tools for the identification of the bacteria in food products. In this review, we will discuss the present state of the research on these topics.