Browsing by Subject "RAT-LIVER"

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  • Toledo, Miriam; Batista-Gonzalez, Ana; Merheb, Emilio; Aoun, Marie Louise; Tarabra, Elena; Feng, Daorong; Sarparanta, Jaakko; Merlo, Paola; Botre, Francesco; Schwartz, Gary J.; Pessin, Jeffrey E.; Singh, Rajat (2018)
    The circadian clock coordinates behavioral and circadian cues with availability and utilization of nutrients. Proteasomal degradation of clock repressors, such as cryptochrome (CRY) 1, maintains periodicity. Whether macroautophagy, a quality control pathway, degrades circadian proteins remains unknown. Here we show that circadian proteins BMAL1, CLOCK, REV-ERB alpha, and CRY1 are lysosomal targets, and that macroautophagy affects the circadian clock by selectively degrading CRY1. Autophagic degradation of CRY1, an inhibitor of gluconeogenesis, occurs in a diurnal window when rodents rely on gluconeogenesis, suggesting that CRY1 degradation is timeimprinted to maintenance of blood glucose. High-fat feeding accelerates autophagic CRY1 degradation and contributes to obesity-associated hyperglycemia. CRY1 contains several light chain 3 (LC3)-interacting region (LIR) motifs, which facilitate the interaction of cargo proteins with the autophagosome marker LC3. Using mutational analyses, we identified two distinct LIRs on CRY1 that exert circadian glycemic control by regulating CRY1 degradation, revealing LIRs as potential targets for controlling hyperglycemia.
  • Sun, Ren X.; Chong, Lauren C.; Simmons, Trent T.; Houlahan, Kathleen E.; Prokopec, Stephenie D.; Watson, John D.; Moffat, Ivy D.; Lensu, Sanna; Lindén, Jere; P'ng, Christine; Okey, Allan B.; Pohjanvirta, Raimo; Boutros, Paul C. (2014)
  • Harjumäki, Riina; Pridgeon, Chris S.; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus (2021)
    CYP2E1 is one of the fifty-seven cytochrome P450 genes in the human genome and is highly conserved. CYP2E1 is a unique P450 enzyme because its heme iron is constitutively in the high spin state, allowing direct reduction of, e.g., dioxygen, causing the formation of a variety of reactive oxygen species and reduction of xenobiotics to toxic products. The CYP2E1 enzyme has been the focus of scientific interest due to (i) its important endogenous function in liver homeostasis, (ii) its ability to activate procarcinogens and to convert certain drugs, e.g., paracetamol and anesthetics, to cytotoxic end products, (iii) its unique ability to effectively reduce dioxygen to radical species causing liver injury, (iv) its capability to reduce compounds, often generating radical intermediates of direct toxic or indirect immunotoxic properties and (v) its contribution to the development of alcoholic liver disease, steatosis and NASH. In this overview, we present the discovery of the enzyme and studies in humans, 3D liver systems and genetically modified mice to disclose its function and clinical relevance. Induction of the CYP2E1 enzyme either by alcohol or high-fat diet leads to increased severity of liver pathology and likelihood to develop ALD and NASH, with subsequent influence on the occurrence of hepatocellular cancer. Thus, fat-dependent induction of the enzyme might provide a link between steatosis and fibrosis in the liver. We conclude that CYP2E1 has many important physiological functions and is a key enzyme for hepatic carcinogenesis, drug toxicity and liver disease.
  • Nowak, Christoph; Salihovic, Samira; Ganna, Andrea; Brandmaier, Stefan; Tukiainen, Taru; Broeckling, Corey D.; Magnusson, Patrik K.; Prenni, Jessica E.; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin; Meitinger, Thomas; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Arnlov, Johan; Berne, Christian; Gieger, Christian; Ripatti, Samuli; Lind, Lars; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Sundstrom, Johan; Ingelsson, Erik; Fall, Tove (2016)
    Insulin resistance (IR) and impaired insulin secretion contribute to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Both are associated with changes in the circulating metabolome, but causal directions have been difficult to disentangle. We combined untargeted plasma metabolomics by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in three non-diabetic cohorts with Mendelian Randomization (MR) analysis to obtain new insights into early metabolic alterations in IR and impaired insulin secretion. In up to 910 elderly men we found associations of 52 metabolites with hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp-measured IR and/or beta-cell responsiveness (disposition index) during an oral glucose tolerance test. These implicated bile acid, glycerophospholipid and caffeine metabolism for IR and fatty acid biosynthesis for impaired insulin secretion. In MR analysis in two separate cohorts (n = 2,613) followed by replication in three independent studies profiled on different metabolomics platforms (n = 7,824 / 8,961 / 8,330), we discovered and replicated causal effects of IR on lower levels of palmitoleic acid and oleic acid. A trend for a causal effect of IR on higher levels of tyrosine reached significance only in meta-analysis. In one of the largest studies combining "gold standard" measures for insulin responsiveness with non-targeted metabolomics, we found distinct metabolic profiles related to IR or impaired insulin secretion. We speculate that the causal effects on monounsaturated fatty acid levels could explain parts of the raised cardiovascular disease risk in IR that is independent of diabetes development.
  • Ruiz, Mario; Bodhicharla, Rakesh; Stahlman, Marcus; Svensk, Emma; Busayavalasa, Kiran; Palmgren, Henrik; Ruhanen, Hanna; Boren, Jan; Pilon, Marc (2019)
    The human AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 proteins, as well as their C. elegans homolog PAQR-2, protect against cell membrane rigidification by exogenous saturated fatty acids by regulating phospholipid composition. Here, we show that mutations in the C. elegans gene acs-13 help to suppress the phenotypes of paqr-2 mutant worms, including their characteristic membrane fluidity defects. acs-13 encodes a homolog of the human acyl-CoA synthetase ACSL1, and localizes to the mitochondrial membrane where it likely activates long chains fatty acids for import and degradation. Using siRNA combined with lipidomics and membrane fluidity assays (FRAP and Laurdan dye staining) we further show that the human ACSL1 potentiates lipotoxicity by the saturated fatty acid palmitate: silencing ACSL1 protects against the membrane rigidifying effects of palmitate and acts as a suppressor of AdipoR2 knockdown, thus echoing the C. elegans findings. We conclude that acs-13 mutations in C. elegans and ACSL1 knockdown in human cells prevent lipotoxicity by promoting increased levels of polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing phospholipids.
  • Bickert, Andreas; Ginkel, Christina; Kol, Matthijs; vom Dorp, Katharina; Jastrow, Holger; Degen, Joachim; Jacobs, Rene L.; Vance, Dennis E.; Winterhager, Elke; Jiang, Xian-Cheng; Doermann, Peter; Somerharju, Pentti; Holthuis, Joost C. M.; Willecke, Klaus (2015)
    Besides bulk amounts of SM, mammalian cells produce small quantities of the SM analog ceramide phosphoethanolamine (CPE). Little is known about the biological role of CPE or enzymes responsible for CPE production. Heterologous expression studies revealed that SM synthase (SMS) 2 is a bifunctional enzyme producing both SM and CPE, whereas SMS-related protein (SMSr) serves as monofunctional CPE synthase. Acute disruption of SMSr catalytic activity in cultured cells causes a rise in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ceramides, fragmentation of ER exit sites, and induction of mitochondrial apoptosis. To address the relevance of CPE biosynthesis in vivo, we analyzed the tissue-specific distribution of CPE in mice and generated mouse lines lacking SMSr and SMS2 catalytic activity. We found that CPE levels were >300-fold lower than SM in all tissues examined. Unexpectedly, combined inactivation of SMSr and SMS2 significantly reduced, but did not eliminate, tissue-specific CPE pools and had no obvious impact on mouse development or fertility. While SMSr is widely expressed and serves as the principal CPE synthase in the brain, blocking its catalytic activity did not affect ceramide levels or secretory pathway integrity in the brain or any other tissue. Our data provide a first inventory of CPE species and CPE-biosynthetic enzymes in mammals.
  • Martinez-Sanchez, Noelia; Seoane-Collazo, Patricia; Contreras, Cristina; Varela, Luis; Villarroya, Joan; Rial-Pensado, Eva; Buque, Xabier; Aurrekoetxea, Igor; Delgado, Teresa C.; Vazquez-Martinez, Rafael; Gonzalez-Garcia, Ismael; Roa, Juan; Whittle, Andrew J.; Gomez-Santos, Beatriz; Velagapudi, Vidya; Loraine Tung, Y. C.; Morgan, Donald A.; Voshol, Peter J.; Martinez de Morentin, Pablo B.; Lopez-Gonzalez, Tania; Linares-Pose, Laura; Gonzalez, Francisco; Chatterjee, Krishna; Sobrino, Tomas; Medina-Gomez, Gema; Davis, Roger J.; Casals, Nuria; Oresic, Matej; Coll, Anthony P.; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Mittag, Jens; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Malagon, Maria M.; Dieguez, Carlos; Martinez-Chantar, Maria Luz; Aspichueta, Patricia; Rahmouni, Kamal; Nogueiras, Ruben; Sabio, Guadalupe; Villarroya, Francesc; Lopez, Miguel (2017)
    Thyroid hormones (THs) act in the brain to modulate energy balance. We show that central triiodothyronine (T3) regulates de novo lipogenesis in liver and lipid oxidation in brown adipose tissue (BAT) through the parasympathetic (PSNS) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS), respectively. Central T3 promotes hepatic lipogenesis with parallel stimulation of the thermogenic program in BAT. The action of T3 depends on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-induced regulation of two signaling pathways in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH): decreased ceramide-induced endoplasmic reticulum(ER) stress, which promotes BAT thermogenesis, and increased c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, which controls hepatic lipid metabolism. Of note, ablation of AMPK alpha 1 in steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) neurons of the VMH fully recapitulated the effect of central T3, pointing to this population in mediating the effect of central THs on metabolism. Overall, these findings uncover the underlying pathways through which central T3 modulates peripheral metabolism.
  • Sidorova, Yulia A.; Perepechaeva, Maria L.; Pivovarova, Elena N.; Markel, Arkady L.; Lyakhovich, Vyacheslav V.; Grishanova, Alevtina Y. (2016)
    Oxidative reactions that are catalyzed by cytochromes P450 1A (CYP1A) lead to formation of carcinogenic derivatives of arylamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as the widespread environmental pollutant benzo(a) pyrene (BP). These compounds upregulate CYP1A at the transcriptional level via an arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-dependent signaling pathway. Because of the involvement of AhR-dependent genes in chemically induced carcinogenesis, suppression of this signaling pathway could prevent tumor formation and/or progression. Here we show that menadione (a water-soluble analog of vitamin K-3) inhibits BP-induced expression and enzymatic activity of both CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 in vivo (in the rat liver) and BP-induced activity of CYP1A1 in vitro. Coadministration of BP and menadione reduced DNA-binding activity of AhR and increased DNA-binding activity of transcription factors Oct-1 and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), which are known to be involved in negative regulation of AhR-dependent genes, in vivo. Expression of another factor involved in downregulation of CYP1A-pAhR repressor (AhRR)-was lower in the liver of the rats treated with BP and menadione, indicating that the inhibitory effect of menadione on CYP1A is not mediated by this protein. Furthermore, menadione was well tolerated by the animals: no signs of acute toxicity were detected by visual examination or by assessment of weight gain dynamics or liver function. Taken together, our results suggest that menadione can be used in further studies on animal models of chemically induced carcinogenesis because menadione may suppress tumor formation and possibly progression.
  • Tigistu-Sahle, Feven; Lampinen, Milla; Kilpinen, Lotta; Holopainen, Minna; Lehenkari, Petri; Laitinen, Saara; Käkelä, Reijo (2017)
    High arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and low n-3 PUFA levels impair the capacity of cultured human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs) to modulate immune functions. The capacity of the hBMSCs to modify PUFA structures was found to be limited. Therefore, different PUFA supplements given to the cells resulted in very different glycerophospholipid (GPL) species profiles and substrate availability for phospholipases, which have preferences for polar head group and acyl chains when liberating PUFA precursors for production of lipid mediators. When supplemented with 20:4n-6, the cells increased prostaglandin E2 secretion. However, they elongated 20:4n-6 to the less active precursor, 22:4n-6, and also incorporated it into triacylglycerols, which may have limited the proinflammatory signaling. The n-3 PUFA precursor, 18:3n-3, had little potency to reduce the GPL 20:4n-6 content, while the eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) acid supplements efficiently displaced the 20:4n-6 acyls, and created diverse GPL species substrate pools allowing attenuation of inflammatory signaling.(Jlr) The results emphasize the importance of choosing appropriate PUFA supplements for in vitro hBMSC expansion and suggests that for optimal function they require an exogenous fatty acid source providing 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 sufficiently, but 20:4n-6 moderately, which calls for specifically designed optimal PUFA supplements for the cultures.