Browsing by Subject "RATE CONSTANTS"

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  • D'Ambro, Emma L.; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Gaston, Cassandra J.; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D.; Lee, Ben H.; Liu, Jiumeng; Zelenyuk, Alla; Bell, David; Cappa, Christopher D.; Helgestad, Taylor; Li, Ziyue; Guenther, Alex; Wang, Jian; Wise, Matthew; Caylor, Ryan; Surratt, Jason D.; Riedel, Theran; Hyttinen, Noora; Salo, Vili-Taneli; Hasan, Galib; Kurten, Theo; Shilling, John E.; Thornton, Joel A. (2019)
    We present measurements utilizing the Filter Inlet for Gases and Aerosols (FIGAERO) applied to chamber measurements of isoprene-derived epoxydiol (IEPOX) reactive uptake to aqueous acidic particles and associated secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Similar to recent field observations with the same instrument, we detect two molecular components desorbing from the IEPOX SOA in high abundance: C5H12O4 and C5H10O3. The thermal desorption signal of the former, presumably 2-methyltetrols, exhibits two distinct maxima, suggesting it arises from at least two different SOA components with significantly different effective volatilities. Isothermal evaporation experiments illustrate that the most abundant component giving rise to C5H12O4 is semi-volatile, undergoing nearly complete evaporation within 1 h while the second, less volatile component remains unperturbed and even increases in abundance. We thus confirm, using controlled laboratory studies, recent analyses of ambient SOA measurements showing that IEPOX SOA is of very low volatility and commonly measured IEPOX SOA tracers such as C5H12O4 and C5H10O3, presumably 2-methyltetrols and C5-alkene triols or 3-MeTHF-3,4-diols, result predominantly from thermal decomposition in the FIGAERO-CIMS. We infer that other measurement techniques using thermal desorption or prolonged heating for analysis of SOA components may also lead to reported 2-methyltetrols and C5-alkene triols or 3-MeTHF-3,4-diol structures. We further show that IEPOX SOA volatility continues to evolve via acidity-enhanced accretion chemistry on the timescale of hours, potentially involving both 2-methyltetrols and organosulfates.
  • Hasan, Galib; Salo, Vili-Taneli; Valiev, Rashid; Kubecka, Jakub; Kurten, Theo (2020)
    Organic peroxy radicals (RO2) are key intermediates in the chemistry of the atmosphere. One of the main sink reactions of RO2 is the recombination reaction RO2 + R'O-2, which has three main channels (all with O-2 as a coproduct): (1) R-H=O + R'OH, (2) RO + R'O, and (3) ROOR'. The RO + R'O "alkoxy" channel promotes radical and oxidant recycling, while the ROOR' "dimer" channel leads to low-volatility products relevant to aerosol processes. The ROOR' channel has only recently been discovered to play a role in the gas phase. Recent computational studies indicate that all of these channels first go through an intermediate complex( 1)(RO center dot center dot center dot O-3(2)center dot center dot center dot OR'). Here, O-3(2) is very weakly bound and will likely evaporate from the system, giving a triplet cluster of two alkoxy radicals: (3)(RO center dot center dot center dot OR'). In this study, we systematically investigate the three reaction channels for an atmospherically representative set of RO + R'O radicals formed in the corresponding RO2+ R'O-2 reaction. First, we systematically sample the possible conformations of the RO center dot center dot center dot OR' clusters on the triplet potential energy surface. Next, we compute energetic parameters and attempt to estimate reaction rate coefficients for the three channels: evaporation/dissociation to RO + R'O, a hydrogen shift leading to the formation of R'(-H)=O + ROH, and "spin-flip" (intersystem crossing) leading to, or at least allowing, the formation of ROOR' dimers. While large uncertainties in the computed energetics prevent a quantitative comparison of reaction rates, all three channels were found to be very fast (with typical rates greater than 10 6 s(-1)). This qualitatively demonstrates that the computationally proposed novel RO2 + R'O-2 reaction mechanism is compatible with experimental data showing non-negligible branching ratios for all three channels, at least for sufficiently complex RO2.
  • Hansel, Armin; Scholz, Wiebke; Mentler, Bernhard; Fischer, Lukas; Bernd, Torsten (2018)
    The performance of the novel ammonium chemical ionization time of flight mass spectrometer (NH4+-CI3-TOF) utilizing NH4+ adduct ion chemistry to measure first generation oxidized product molecules (OMs) as well as highly oxidized organic molecules (HOMs) was investigated for the first time. The gas-phase ozonolysis of cyclohexene served as a first test system. Experiments have been carried out in the TROPOS free-jet flow system at close to atmospheric conditions. Product ion signals were simultaneously observed by the NH4+-CI3-TOF and the acetate chemical ionization atmospheric pressure interface time of flight mass spectrometer (acetate-CI-APITOF). Both instruments are in remarkable good agreement within a factor of two for HOMs. For OMs not containing an OOH group the acetate technique can considerably underestimate OM concentrations by 2-3 orders of magnitude. First steps of cyclohexene ozonolysis generate ten different main products, detected with the ammonium-CI3-TOF, comprising 93% of observed OMs. The remaining 7% are distributed over several minor products that can be attributed to HOMs, predominately to highly oxidized RO2 radicals. Summing up, observed ammonium-CI3-TOF products yield 5.6 x le molecules cm" in excellent agreement with the amount of reacted cyclohexene of 4.5 x 10(9) molecules cm(-3) for reactant concentrations of [O-3] = 2.25 x 10(12) molecules cm(-3) and [cyclohexene] = 2.0 x 10(12) molecules cm(-3) and a reaction time of 7.9 s. NH4+ adduct ion chemistry is a promising CIMS technology for achieving carbon-closure due to the unique opportunity for complete detection of the whole product distribution including also peroxy radicals, and consequently, for a much better understanding of oxidation processes.
  • Berndt, Torsten; Herrmann, Hartmut; Kurten, Theo (2017)
    Criegee intermediates (CIs), mainly formed from gas-phase ozonolysis of alkenes, are considered as atmospheric oxidants besides OH and NO3 radicals as well as ozone. Direct CI measurement techniques are inevitably needed for reliable assessment of CIs' role in atmospheric processes. We found that CIs from ozonolysis reactions can be directly probed by means of chemical ionization mass spectrometry with a detection limit of about 10(4)-10(5) molecules cm(-3). Results from quantum chemical calculations support the experimental findings. The simplest CI, CH2OO, is detectable as an adduct with protonated ethers, preferably with protonated tetrahydrofuran. Kinetic measurements yielded k(CH2OO + SO2) = (3.3 +/- 0.9) X 10(-11) and k(CH2OO + acetic acid) = (1.25 +/- 0.30) x 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 295 +/- 2 K, in very good agreement with recent measurements using diiodomethane photolysis for CH2OO generation. CIs from the ozonolysis of cydohexene, acting as surrogate for cyclic terpenes, are followed as protonated species (CI)H+ using protonated amines as reagent ions. Kinetic investigations indicate a different reactivity of cydohexene-derived CIs compared with that of simple CIs, such as CH2OO. It is supposed that the aldehyde group significantly influences the CI reactivity of the cydohexene-derived CIs. The direct CI detection method presented here should allow study of the formation and reactivity of a wide range of different CIs formed from atmospheric ozonolysis reactions.
  • Valiev, R. R.; Nasibullin, R. T.; Cherepanov, V. N.; Baryshnikov, G.; Sundholm, D.; Ågren, H.; Minaev, B. F.; Kurten, T. (2020)
    A new method for calculating internal conversion rate constants (k_(IC)), including anharmonic effects and using the Lagrangian multiplier technique, is proposed. The deuteration effect on k_(IC) is investigated for naphthalene, anthracene, free-base porphyrin (H2P) and tetraphenylporphyrin (H2TPP). The results show that anharmonic effects are important when calculating k_(IC) for transitions between electronic states that are energetically separated (Delta E) by more than 20 000-25 000 cm(-1). Anharmonic effects are also important when Delta E <20 000-25 000 cm(-1) and when the accepting modes are X-H stretching vibrations with a frequency larger than 2000 cm(-1). The calculations show that there is mixing between the S-1 and S-2 states of naphthalene induced by non-adiabatic interactions. The non-adiabatic interaction matrix element between the S-1 and S-2 states is 250 cm(-1) and 50 cm(-1) for the normal and fully deuterated naphthalene structure and this difference significantly affects the estimated fluorescence quantum yield. Besides aromatic hydrocarbons H2P and H2TPP, the k_(IC) rate constant is also calculated for pyrometene (PM567) and tetraoxa[8]circulene (4B) with a detailed analysis of the effect of the vibrational anharmonicity.
  • Lambe, Andrew T.; Krechmer, Jordan E.; Peng, Zhe; Casar, Jason R.; Carrasquillo, Anthony J.; Raff, Jonathan D.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Worsnop, Douglas R. (2019)
    Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) are an emerging technique for studying the formation and oxidative aging of organic aerosols and other applications. In these flow reactors, hydroxyl radicals (OH), hydroperoxyl radicals (HO2), and nitric oxide (NO) are typically produced in the following ways: photolysis of ozone (O-3) at), = 254 nm, photolysis of H2O at), = 185 nm, and via reactions of O(D-1) with H2O and nitrous oxide (N2O); O(D-1) is formed via photolysis of O-3 at = 254 nm and/or N2O at = 185 nm. Here, we adapt a complementary method that uses alkyl nitrite photolysis as a source of OH via its production of HO2 and NO followed by the reaction NO + HO2 -> NO2 + OH. We present experimental and model characterization of the OH exposure and NO, levels generated via photolysis of C3 alkyl nitrites (isopropyl nitrite, perdeuterated isopropyl nitrite, 1,3-propyl dinitrite) in the Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) OFR as a function of photolysis wavelength (7, = 254 to 369 nm) and organic nitrite concentration (0.5 to 20 ppm). We also apply this technique in conjunction with chemical ionization mass spectrometer measurements of multifunctional oxidation products generated following the exposure of a-Pinene to HO, and NO, obtained using both isopropyl nitrite and O-3 + H2O + N2O as the radical precursors.
  • Valiev, Rashid R.; Kurten, Theo (2020)
    Peroxyl radicals (ROO.) are key intermediates in atmospheric chemistry, with relatively long lifetimes compared to most other radical species. In this study, we use multireference quantum chemical methods to investigate whether photolysis can compete with well-established ROO. sink reactions. We assume that the photolysis channel is always ROO. + h nu => RO + O(P-3). Our results show that the maximal value of the cross-section for this channel is sigma = 1.3 x 10(-18) cm(2) at 240 nm for five atmospherically representative peroxyl radicals: CH3OO., C(O)HCH2OO., CH3CH2OO., HC(O)OO. and CH3C(O)OO.. These values agree with experiments to within a factor of 2. The rate constant of photolysis in the troposphere is around 10(-5) s(-1) for all five ROO.. As the lifetime of peroxyl radicals in the troposphere is typically less than 100 s, photolysis is thus not a competitive process. Furthermore, we investigate whether or not electronic excitation to the first excited state (D-1) by infrared radiation can facilitate various H-shift reactions, leading, for example, in the case of CH3OO. to formation of O.H and CH2O or HOO. and CH2 products. While the activation barriers for H-shifts in the D-1 state may be lower than in the ground state (D-0), we find that H-shifts are unlikely to be competitive with decay back to the D-0 state through internal conversion, as this has a rate of the order of 10(13) s(-1) for all studied systems.
  • Rissanen, Matti P.; Eskola, Arkke J.; Timonen, Raimo S. (American Chemical Society, 2010)
  • Liu, Yang; Schallhart, Simon; Taipale, Ditte; Tykkä, Toni; Räsänen, Matti; Merbold, Lutz; Hellén, Heidi; Pellikka, Petri (2021)
    The East African lowland and highland areas consist of water-limited and humid ecosystems. The magnitude and seasonality of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions and concentrations from these functionally contrasting ecosystems are limited due to a scarcity of direct observations. We measured mixing ratios of BVOCs from two contrasting ecosystems, humid highlands with agroforestry and dry lowlands with bushland, grassland, and agriculture mosaics, during both the rainy and dry seasons of 2019 in southern Kenya. We present the diurnal and seasonal characteristics of BVOC mixing ratios and their reactivity and estimated emission factors (EFs) for certain BVOCs from the African lowland ecosystem based on field measurements. The most abundant BVOCs were isoprene and monoterpenoids (MTs), with isoprene contributing > 70 % of the total BVOC mixing ratio during daytime, while MTs accounted for > 50 % of the total BVOC mixing ratio during nighttime at both sites. The contributions of BVOCs to the local atmospheric chemistry were estimated by calculating the reactivity towards the hydroxyl radical (OH), ozone (O-3), and the nitrate radical (NO3). Isoprene and MTs contributed the most to the reactivity of OH and NO3, while sesquiterpenes dominated the contribution of organic compounds to the reactivity of O-3. The mixing ratio of isoprene measured in this study was lower than that measured in the relevant ecosystems in western and southern Africa, while that of monoterpenoids was similar. Isoprene mixing ratios peaked daily between 16:00 and 20:00 (all times are given as East Africa Time, UTC+3), with a maximum mixing ratio of 809 pptv (parts per trillion by volume) and 156 pptv in the highlands and 115 and 25 pptv in the lowlands during the rainy and dry seasons, respectively. MT mixing ratios reached their daily maximum between midnight and early morning (usually 04:00 to 08:00), with mixing ratios of 254 and 56 pptv in the highlands and 89 and 7 pptv in the lowlands in the rainy and dry seasons, respectively. The dominant species within the MT group were limonene, alpha-pinene, and beta-pinene. EFs for isoprene, MTs, and 2-Methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) were estimated using an inverse modeling approach. The estimated EFs for isoprene and beta-pinene agreed very well with what is currently assumed in the world's most extensively used biogenic emissions model, the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), for warm C-4 grass, but the estimated EFs for MBO, alpha-pinene, and especially limonene were significantly higher than that assumed in MEGAN for the relevant plant functional type. Additionally, our results indicate that the EF for limonene might be seasonally dependent in savanna ecosystems.
  • Hakola, Hannele; Tarvainen, Virpi; Praplan, Arnaud P.; Jaars, Kerneels; Hemmilä, Marja; Kulmala, Markku; Bäck, Jaana; Hellen, Heidi (2017)
    We present spring and summer volatile organic compound (VOC) emission rate measurements from Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) growing in a boreal forest in southern Finland. The measurements were conducted using in situ gas chromatograph with 1 to 2 h time resolution to reveal quantitative and qualitative short-term and seasonal variability of the emissions. The measurements cover altogether 14 weeks in years 2011, 2014 and 2015. Monoterpene (MT) and sesquiterpene (SQT) emission rates were measured all the time, but isoprene only in 2014 and 2015 and acetone and C-4-C-10 aldehydes only in 2015. The emission rates of all the compounds were low in spring, but MT, acetone, and C-4-C-10 aldehyde emission rates increased as summer proceeded, reaching maximum emission rates in July. Late summer mean values (late July and August) were 29, 17, and 33 ng g(dw)(-1) h(-1) for MTs, acetone, and aldehydes respectively. SQT emission rates increased during the summer and highest emissions were measured in late summer (late summer mean value 84 ng g(dw)(-1) h(-1)) concomitant with highest linalool emissions most likely due to stress effects. The between-tree variability of emission pattern was studied by measuring seven different trees during the same afternoon using adsorbent tubes. Especially the contributions of limonene, terpinolene, and camphene were found to vary between trees, whereas proportions of alpha-pinene (25 +/- 5 %) and beta-pinene (7 +/- 3 %) were more stable. Our results show that it is important to measure emissions at canopy level due to irregular emission pattern, but reliable SQT emission data can be measured only from enclosures. SQT emissions contributed more than 90% of the ozone reactivity most of the time, and about 70% of the OH reactivity during late summer. The contribution of aldehydes to OH reactivity was comparable to that of MT during late summer, 10-30% most of the time.
  • Eskola, Arrke J.; Blitz, Mark A.; Pilling, Michael J.; Seakins, Paul W.; Shannon, Robin J. (2020)
    The rate coefficient for the unimolecular decomposition of CH3OCH2,k(1), has been measured in time-resolved experiments by monitoring the HCHO product. CH3OCH2 was rapidly and cleanly generated by 248 nm excimer photolysis of oxalyl chloride, (ClCO)(2), in an excess of CH3OCH3, and an excimer pumped dye laser tuned to 353.16 nm was used to probe HCHO via laser induced fluorescence. k(1)(T,p) was measured over the ranges: 573-673 K and 0.1-4.3 x 10(18) molecule cm(-3) with a helium bath gas. In addition, some experiments were carried out with nitrogen as the bath gas. Ab initio calculations on CH3OCH2 decomposition were carried out and a transition-state for decomposition to CH3 and H2CO was identified. This information was used in a master equation rate calculation, using the MESMER code, where the zero-point-energy corrected barrier to reaction, Delta E-0,E-1, and the energy transfer parameters, x T-n, were the adjusted parameters to best fit the experimental data, with helium as the buffer gas. The data were combined with earlier measurements by Loucks and Laidler (Can J. Chem. 1967, 45, 2767), with dimethyl ether as the third body, reinterpreted using current literature for the rate coefficient for recombination of CH3OCH2. This analysis returned Delta E-0,E-1 = (112.3 +/- 0.6) kJ mol(-1), and leads to k(1)(infinity)(T) = 2.9 x 10(12) (T/300)(2)(.5) exp(-106.8 kJ mol(-1)/RT). Using this model, limited experiments with nitrogen as the bath gas allowed N-2 energy transfer parameters to be identified and then further MESMER simulations were carried out, where N-2 was the buffer gas, to generate k(1)(T,p) over a wide range of conditions: 300-1000 K and N-2 = 10(12) -10(25) molecule cm(-3). The resulting k(1)(T,p) has been parameterized using a Troe-expression, so that they can be readily be incorporated into combustion models. In addition, k(1)(T,p) has been parametrized using PLOG for the buffer gases, He, CH3OCH3 and N-2.
  • Holzinger, Rupert; Acton, W. Joe F.; Bloss, William J.; Breitenlechner, Martin; Crilley, Leigh R.; Dusanter, Sebastien; Gonin, Marc; Gros, Valerie; Keutsch, Frank N.; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Kramer, Louisa J.; Krechmer, Jordan E.; Languille, Baptiste; Locoge, Nadine; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe; Materic, Dusan; Moreno, Sergi; Nemitz, Eiko; Quelever, Lauriane L. J.; Esteve, Roland Sarda; Sauvage, Stephane; Schallhart, Simon; Sommariva, Roberto; Tillmann, Ralf; Wedel, Sergej; Worton, David R.; Xu, Kangming; Zaytsev, Alexander (2019)
    In September 2017, we conducted a proton-transfer-reaction mass-spectrometry (PTR-MS) intercomparison campaign at the CESAR observatory, a rural site in the central Netherlands near the village of Cabauw. Nine research groups deployed a total of 11 instruments covering a wide range of instrument types and performance. We applied a new calibration method based on fast injection of a gas standard through a sample loop. This approach allows calibrations on timescales of seconds, and within a few minutes an automated sequence can be run allowing one to retrieve diagnostic parameters that indicate the performance status. We developed a method to retrieve the mass-dependent transmission from the fast calibrations, which is an essential characteristic of PTR-MS instruments, limiting the potential to calculate concentrations based on counting statistics and simple reaction kinetics in the reactor/drift tube. Our measurements show that PTR-MS instruments follow the simple reaction kinetics if operated in the standard range for pressures and temperature of the reaction chamber (i.e. 1-4 mbar, 30-120 degrees, respectively), as well as a reduced field strength E/N in the range of 100-160 Td. If artefacts can be ruled out, it becomes possible to quantify the signals of uncalibrated organics with accuracies better than +/- 30 %. The simple reaction kinetics approach produces less accurate results at E/N levels below 100 Td, because significant fractions of primary ions form water hydronium clusters. Deprotonation through reactive collisions of protonated organics with water molecules needs to be considered when the collision energy is a substantial fraction of the exoergicity of the proton transfer reaction and/or if protonated organics undergo many collisions with water molecules.