Browsing by Subject "RATES"

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  • Hällfors, Eerik; Saku, Sami A.; Mäkinen, Tatu J.; Madanat, Rami (2018)
    Background: Different measures for reducing costs after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) have gained attention lately. At our institution, a free-of-charge consultation phone service was initiated that targeted patients with TJA. This service aimed at reducing unnecessary emergency department (ED) visits and, thus, potentially improving the cost-effectiveness of TJAs. To our knowledge, a similar consultation service had not been described previously. We aimed at examining the rates and reasons for early postdischarge phone calls and evaluating the efficacy of this consultation service. Methods: During a 2-month period, we gathered information on every call received by the consultation phone service from patients with TJAs within 90 days of the index TJA procedure. Patients were followed for 2weeks aftermaking a call to detectmajor complications and self-initiated EDvisits. Datawere collected fromelectronic medical charts regarding age, gender, type of surgery, date of discharge, and length of hospital stay. Results: We analyzed 288 phone calls. Calls were mostly related to medication (41%), wound complications (17%), and mobilization issues (15%). Most calls were resolved in the phone consultation. Few patients (13%) required further evaluation in the ED. The consultation service failed to detect the need for an ED visit in 2 cases (0.7%) that required further care. Conclusion: The consultation phone service clearly benefitted patients with TJAs. The service reduced the number of unnecessary ED visits and functioned well in detecting patients who required further care. Most postoperative concernswere related to prescribed medications, wound complications, and mobilization issues. (c) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Yli-Juuti, Taina; Tikkanen, Olli-Pekka; Manninen, Hanna E.; Nieminen, Tuomo; Kulmala, Markku (2016)
    We analyzed nanoparticle growth during new-particle-formation events based on ten years of measurements carried out at a boreal forest site in Hyytiala, Finland, concentrating on the sub-3 nm particles and the role of sulfuric acid in their growth. Growth rates of 1.5-3 nm diameter particles were determined from ion spectrometer measurements and compared with parameterized sulfuric acid concentration and other atmospheric parameters. The calculated growth rates from sulfuric acid condensation were on average 7.4% of the observed growth rates and the two did not correlate. These suggest that neither sulfuric acid monomer condensation nor coagulation of small sulfuric acid clusters was the primary growth mechanism in these atmospheric conditions. Also no clear sign of organic condensation being the single main growth mechanism was seen. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that several factors have comparative roles in the sub-3 nm growth.
  • Moustgaard, Heta; Joutsenniemi, Kaisla; Myrskyla, Mikko; Martikainen, Pekka (2014)
  • Vikstedt, T; Arffman, M; Heliovaara-Peippo, S; Manderbacka, K; Reissell, E; Keskimaki, I (2021)
    Background A persistent research finding in Finland and elsewhere has been variation in medical practices both between and within countries. Variation seems to exist especially if medical decision making involves discretion and the best treatment cannot be identified unambiguously. This is true for hysterectomy when performed for benign causes. The aim of the current study was to investigate regional trends in hysterectomy in Finland and the potential convergence of rates over time. Methods We used hospital discharge register data on hysterectomies performed, diagnoses, age, and region of residence to examine hospital discharges for women undergoing hysterectomy in 2001-2018 among total female population aged 25 years or older in Finland. We examined hysterectomy rates among biannual cohorts by indication, calculated age-standardised rates and used multilevel models to analyse potential convergence over time. Results Altogether 131,695 hysterectomies were performed in Finland 2001-2018. We found a decreasing trend, with the age-adjusted overall hysterectomy rate decreasing from 553/100,000 person years in 2001-2002 to 289/100,000 py in 2017-2018. Large but converging regional differences were found. The correlations between hospital district intercepts and slopes in time ranged from - 0.71 to - 0.97 (p < 0.001) suggesting diminishing variation. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that change in hysterectomy practices and more uniformity across regions are achievable goals. Regional variation still exists suggesting differences in medical practices.
  • Tran, Quoc Ty; Jatsenko, Tatjana; Poolamets, Olev; Tsuiko, Olga; Lubenets, Dmitri; Reimand, Tiia; Punab, Margus; Peters, Maire; Salumets, Andres (2019)
    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to develop a feasible approach for single sperm isolation and chromosome analysis by next-generation sequencing (NGS).MethodsSingle sperm cells were isolated from semen samples of normozoospermic male and an infertile reciprocal translocation (RcT) carrier with the 46,XY,t(7;13)(p12;q12.1) karyotype using the optimized fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) technique. Genome profiling was performed using NGS.ResultsFollowing whole-genome amplification, NGS,and quality control, the final chromosome analysis was performed on 31 and 6 single cell samples derived from the RcT carrier and normozoospermic male, respectively. All sperm cells from normozoospermic male showed a normal haploid 23-chromosome profile. For the RcT carrier, the sequencing data revealed that 64.5% of sperm cells harbored different variants of chromosome aberrations, involving deletion of 7p or 7q, duplication of 7p, and duplication of 13q, which is concordant with the expected chromosome segregation patterns observed in balanced translocation carriers. In one sample, a duplication of 9q was also detected.ConclusionsWe optimized FACS protocol for simple and efficient isolation of single human sperm cells that subsequently enabled a successful genome-wide chromosome profiling and identification of segmental aneuploidies from these individual cells, following NGS analysis. This approach may be useful for analyzing semen samples of infertile men or chromosomal aberration carriers to facilitate the reproductive risk assessment.
  • Salmela, Jouni; Saarni, Saija; Blafield, Linnea; Katainen, Markus; Kasvi, Elina; Alho, Petteri (2022)
    In this study, we investigated sedimentation differences between two distinctive cold seasons, in terms of hydmmeteorological and hydrodynamic conditions, in a coastal area of the Northern Baltic Sea in 2018-2020. A combination of sediment trap data, hydmmeteorological data and hydrodynamic modelling provided a unique set-up to discover differences in sedimentation rates and compositions. Our study shows that the averaged sedimentation accumulation rate (SAR) was nearly three times higher during warmer cold season (30.9 g m(-2) day(-1)), characterised by higher precipitation, especially rain and discharge, as well as snowless and open water conditions, compared to regular cold season (10.6 g m(-2) day(-1)). While sedimentation was higher during the warmer season, the mean sediment grain size (D-50) was higher during the regular cold season with permanent snow and ice cover. Similarly, while sediments of the regular cold season were organically rich, the total amount of organic matter accumulation was larger during the warmer cold season. Sediments consisted mostly of elastic matter (85-89%), of which the mean grain size varied from clay to fine silt (0.3-3.0 mu m). Sedimentation differences between the cold seasons can be explained by differences in precipitation, river flow, wind-induced resuspension and a low air pressure system forcing sea level changes. Sedimentation differences along the study bay were found to be connected to channel cross-sectional area and flow conditions caused by river input and sea level changes.
  • Virtanen, Sonja; Kapp, Karmen; Rautamo, Maria M; Lotta, Schepel; Linden-Lahti, Carita; Cruz, Cristina D.; Tammela, Päivi (2021)
    Parenteral products must be compounded using an aseptic technique to ensure sterility of the medicine. We compared the effect of three clinical environments as compounding areas as well as different aseptic techniques on the sterility of the compounded parenteral product. Clinical pharmacists and pediatric nurses compounded 220 samples in total in three clinical environments: a patient room, a medicine room and biological safety cabinet. The study combined four methods: observation, environmental monitoring (settle plates), monitoring of personnel (finger dab plates) and sterility testing (membrane filtration). Of the compounded samples, 99% were sterile and no significant differences emerged between the clinical environments. Based on the settle plates, the biological safety cabinet was the only area that fulfilled the requirements for eliminating microbial contamination. Most of the steps on the observation form for aseptic techniques were followed. All participants disinfected their hands, wore gloves and disinfected the septum of the vial. Non-contaminated finger dab plates were mostly detected after compounding in the biological safety cabinet. Aseptic techniques were followed relatively well in all environments. However, these results emphasize the importance of good aseptic techniques and support the recommendation of compounding parenteral products in biological safety cabinets in clinical environments.
  • Simon, Mario; Heinritzi, Martin; Herzog, Stephan; Leiminger, Markus; Bianchi, Federico; Praplan, Arnaud; Dommen, Josef; Curtius, Joachim; Kuerten, Andreas (2016)
    Amines are potentially important for atmospheric new particle formation, but their concentrations are usually low with typical mixing ratios in the pptv range or even smaller. Therefore, the demand for highly sensitive gas-phase amine measurements has emerged in the last several years. Nitrate chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) is routinely used for the measurement of gas-phase sulfuric acid in the sub-pptv range. Furthermore, extremely low volatile organic compounds (ELVOCs) can be detected with a nitrate CIMS. In this study we demonstrate that a nitrate CIMS can also be used for the sensitive measurement of dimethylamine (DMA, (CH3)(2)NH) using the NO3-center dot(HNO3)(1-2)center dot(DMA) cluster ion signal. Calibration measurements were made at the CLOUD chamber during two different measurement campaigns. Good linearity between 0 and similar to 120 pptv of DMA as well as a sub-pptv detection limit of 0.7 pptv for a 10 min integration time are demonstrated at 278 K and 38% RH.
  • Suetake, Mizuki; Nakano, Yuriko; Furuki, Genki; Ikehara, Ryohei; Komiya, Tatsuki; Kurihara, Eitaro; Morooka, Kazuya; Yamasaki, Shinya; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Horie, Kenji; Takehara, Mami; Law, Gareth T.W.; Bower, William; Grambow, Bernd; Ewing, Rodney C.; Utsunomiya, Satoshi (2019)
    To understand the chemical durability of highly radioactive cesium-rich microparticles (CsMPs) released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in March 2011, we have, for the first time, performed systematic dissolution experiments with CsMPs isolated from Fukushima soils (one sample with 108 Bq and one sample with 57.8 Bq of Cs-137) using three types of solutions: simulated lung fluid, ultrapure water, and artificial sea water, at 25 and 37 degrees C for 1-63 days. The Cs-137 was released rapidly within three days and then steady-state dissolution was achieved for each solution type. The steady-state Cs-137 release rate at 25 degrees C was determined to be 4.7 x 10(3), 1.3 x 10(3), and 1.3 x 10(3) Bq . m(-2)s(-1) for simulated lung fluid, ultrapure water, and artificial sea water, respectively. This indicates that the simulated lung fluid promotes the dissolution of CsMPs. The dissolution of CsMPs is similar to that of Si-based glass and is affected by the surface moisture conditions. In addition, the Cs release from the CsMPs is constrained by the rate-limiting dissolution of silicate matrix. Based on our results, CsMPs with similar to 2 Bq, which can be potentially inhaled and deposited in the alveolar region, are completely dissolved after >35 years. Further, CsMPs could remain in the environment for several decades; as such, CsMPs are important factors contributing to the long-term impacts of radioactive Cs in the environment. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Toivonen, Jaakko; Fortelius, Mikael; Žliobaite, Indrė (2022)
    A species factory refers to the source that gives rise to an exceptionally large number of species. However, what is it exactly: a place, a time or a combination of places, times and environmental conditions, remains unclear. Here we search for species factories computationally, for which we develop statistical approaches to detect origination, extinction and sorting hotspots in space and time in the fossil record. Using data on European Late Cenozoic mammals, we analyse where, how and how often species factories occur, and how they potentially relate to the dynamics of environmental conditions. We find that in the Early Miocene origination hotspots tend to be located in areas with relatively low estimated net primary productivity. Our pilot study shows that species first occurring in origination hotspots tend to have a longer average longevity and a larger geographical range than other species, thus emphasizing the evolutionary importance of the species factories.
  • Zhang, Teng; Elomaa, Paula (2021)
    The sunflower or daisy family, Asteraceae, comprises of approximately 10% of all angiosperm species. Their inflorescences form dense flower-like structures, pseudanthia or false flowers that may combine hundreds of individual flowers into a single structure. Recent data suggest that pseudanthia are analogs of single flowers not only morphologically but also at developmental and genetic level, and cannot merely be considered as condensed inflorescences. The large meristem size provides an advantage to study basic principles of patterning as well as inflorescence diversity in this evolutionary successful family. This knowledge has also practical importance in the commercially important crops of the family.
  • Hognert, Helena; Skjeldestad, Finn Egil; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Heikinheimo, Oskari; Milsom, Ian; Lidegaard, Ojvind; Lindh, Ingela (2018)
    Objectives Compare hormonal contraceptive use, birth and abortion rates among teenagers in the Nordic countries. A secondary aim was to explore plausible explanations for possible differences between countries. Design Ecological study using national registry data concerning births and abortions among all women aged 15-19 years residing in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden 2008-2015. Age-specific data on prescriptions for hormonal contraceptives for the period 2008-2015 were obtained from national databases in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Setting Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. Participants Women 15-19 years old in all Nordic countries (749 709) and 13-19 years old in Denmark, Norway and Sweden (815 044). Results Both annual birth rates and abortion rates fell in all the Nordic countries during the study period. The highest user rate of hormonal contraceptives among 15-19-year-olds was observed in Denmark (from 51% to 47%) followed by Sweden (from 39% to 42%) and Norway (from 37% to 41%). Combined oral contraceptives were the most commonly used methods in all countries. The use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC), implants and the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems, were increasing, especially in Sweden and Norway. In the subgroup of 18-19-year-old teenagers, the user rates of hormonal contraceptives varied between 63% and 61% in Denmark, 56% and 61% in Norway and 54% and 56% in Sweden. In the same subgroup, the steepest increase of LARC was seen, from 2% to 6% in Denmark, 2% to 9% in Norway and 7% to 17% in Sweden. Conclusions Birth and abortion rates continuously declined in the Nordic countries among teenagers. There was a high user rate of hormonal contraceptives, with an increase in the use of LARC especially among the oldest teenagers.
  • Neitola, Kimmo; Brus, David; Makkonen, Ulla; Sipila, Mikko; Lihavainen, Heikki; Kulmala, Markku (2014)
  • Rondo, L.; Ehrhart, S.; Kuerten, A.; Adamov, A.; Bianchi, F.; Breitenlechner, M.; Duplissy, J.; Franchin, A.; Dommen, J.; Donahue, N. M.; Dunne, E. M.; Flagan, R. C.; Hakala, J.; Hansel, A.; Keskinen, H.; Kim, J.; Jokinen, T.; Lehtipalo, K.; Leiminger, M.; Praplan, A.; Riccobono, F.; Rissanen, M. P.; Sarnela, N.; Schobesberger, S.; Simon, M.; Sipilä, M.; Smith, J. N.; Tome, A.; Trostl, J.; Tsagkogeorgas, G.; Vaattovaara, P.; Winkler, P. M.; Williamson, C.; Wimmer, D.; Baltensperger, U.; Kirkby, J.; Kulmala, M.; Petäjä, T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Curtius, J. (2016)
    Sulfuric acid is widely recognized as a very important substance driving atmospheric aerosol nucleation. Based on quantum chemical calculations it has been suggested that the quantitative detection of gas phase sulfuric acid (H2SO4) by use of Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) could be biased in the presence of gas phase amines such as dimethylamine (DMA). An experiment (CLOUD7 campaign) was set up at the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) chamber to investigate the quantitative detection of H2SO4 in the presence of dimethylamine by CIMS at atmospherically relevant concentrations. For the first time in the CLOUD experiment, the monomer sulfuric acid concentration was measured by a CIMS and by two CI-APi-TOF (Chemical Ionization-Atmospheric Pressure interface-Time Of Flight) mass spectrometers. In addition, neutral sulfuric acid clusters were measured with the CI-APi-TOFs. The CLOUD7 measurements show that in the presence of dimethylamine (
  • Cairns, Johannes; Jousset, Alexandre; Becks, Lutz; Hiltunen, Teppo (2022)
    Mutation supply can influence evolutionary and thereby ecological dynamics in important ways which have received little attention. Mutation supply influences features of population genetics, such as the pool of adaptive mutations, evolutionary pathways and importance of processes, such as clonal interference. The resultant trait evolutionary dynamics, in turn, can alter population size and species interactions. However, controlled experiments testing for the importance of mutation supply on rapid adaptation and thereby population and community dynamics have primarily been restricted to the first of these aspects. To close this knowledge gap, we performed a serial passage experiment with wild-type Pseudomonas fluorescens and a mutant with reduced mutation rate. Bacteria were grown at two resource levels in combination with the presence of a ciliate predator. A higher mutation supply enabled faster adaptation to the low-resource environment and anti-predatory defence. This was associated with higher population size at the ecological level and better access to high-recurrence mutational targets at the genomic level with higher mutation supply. In contrast, mutation rate did not affect growth under high-resource level. Our results demonstrate that intrinsic mutation rate influences population dynamics and trait evolution particularly when population size is constrained by extrinsic conditions.
  • TeaComposition Network; Kwon, TaeOh; Shibata, Hideaki; Kepfer-Rojas, Sebastian; Schmidt, Inger K.; Larsen, Klaus S.; Beier, Claus; Berg, Björn; Verheyen, Kris; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Hagedorn, Frank; Eisenhauer, Nico; Djukic, Ika; Loehr, John; Virkkala, Anna-Maria; Luoto, Miska (2021)
    Litter decomposition is a key process for carbon and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems and is mainly controlled by environmental conditions, substrate quantity and quality as well as microbial community abundance and composition. In particular, the effects of climate and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition on litter decomposition and its temporal dynamics are of significant importance, since their effects might change over the course of the decomposition process. Within the TeaComposition initiative, we incubated Green and Rooibos teas at 524 sites across nine biomes. We assessed how macroclimate and atmospheric inorganic N deposition under current and predicted scenarios (RCP 2.6, RCP 8.5) might affect litter mass loss measured after 3 and 12 months. Our study shows that the early to mid-term mass loss at the global scale was affected predominantly by litter quality (explaining 73% and 62% of the total variance after 3 and 12 months, respectively) followed by climate and N deposition. The effects of climate were not litter-specific and became increasingly significant as decomposition progressed, with MAP explaining 2% and MAT 4% of the variation after 12 months of incubation. The effect of N deposition was litter-specific, and significant only for 12-month decomposition of Rooibos tea at the global scale. However, in the temperate biome where atmospheric N deposition rates are relatively high, the 12-month mass loss of Green and Rooibos teas decreased significantly with increasing N deposition, explaining 9.5% and 1.1% of the variance, respectively. The expected changes in macroclimate and N deposition at the global scale by the end of this century are estimated to increase the 12-month mass loss of easily decomposable litter by 1.1-3.5% and of the more stable substrates by 3.8-10.6%, relative to current mass loss. In contrast, expected changes in atmospheric N deposition will decrease the mid-term mass loss of high-quality litter by 1.4-2.2% and that of low-quality litter by 0.9-1.5% in the temperate biome. Our results suggest that projected increases in N deposition may have the capacity to dampen the climate-driven increases in litter decomposition depending on the biome and decomposition stage of substrate.
  • Niemistö, Juha; Silvonen, Soila; Horppila, Jukka (2020)
    Effects of hypolimnetic aeration (pumping of epilimnetic water into the hypolimnion) on the quantity of settling material in eutrophied Lake Vesijarvi, Finland were studied by comparing spatially comprehensive gross sedimentation rates as dry and organic matter prior to aeration activity and during two aerated years. Possible changes in the organic matter (as loss on ignition, LOI), carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents and changes in the C/N ratio of the settling material and surface sediment were quantified. Thermal stratification broke up earlier due to aeration and was followed by sedimentation peaks. The absolute amount of dry and organic matter as well as C and N settling to the lake bottom were significantly higher in the aerated years. Increased sedimentation rates were especially pronounced in the deep zones indicating enhanced sediment focusing. Increased sedimentation of C and N reflected higher primary production during the aerated years, which most likely was associated with increased temperature and turbulence and the subsequent regeneration and recycling of nutrients in the water body. Aeration seemed to slightly enhance degradation, but contrary to its ultimate aim, it failed to decrease the phosphorus content of the water column and deposits of organic material in the deep zones of the lake.
  • Peltola, Mikko; Malmivaara, Antti; Paavola, Mika; Seitsalo, Seppo (2016)
    Background and purpose - The effects of launch or closure of an entire arthroplasty unit on the first or last patients treated in these units have not been studied. Using a 3-year follow-up, we investigated whether patients who were treated at the launch or closure stage of an arthroplasty unit of a hospital would have a higher risk of reoperation than patients treated in-between at the same units. Patients and methods - From the Finnish Arthroplasty Register, we identified all the units that had performed total joint arthroplasty and the units that were launched or closed in Finland between 1998 and 2011. The risks of reoperation within 3 years for the 41,748 total hip and knee replacements performed due to osteoarthritis in these units were modeled with Cox proportional-hazards regression, separately for hip and knee and for the launch and the closure stage. Results - The unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for total hip and knee replacements performed in the initial stage of activity of the units that were launched were similar to the reoperation risks in patients who were operated in these units after the early stage of activity. The unadjusted and risk-adjusted HRs for early reoperation after total hip replacement (THR) were increased at the closure stage (adjusted HR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2-2.8). The reoperation risk at the closure stage after total knee replacement (TKR) was not increased. Interpretation - The results indicate that closure of units performing total hip replacements poses an increased risk of reoperation. Closures need to be managed carefully to prevent the quality from deteriorating when performing the final arthroplasties.
  • Irfan, Furqan B.; Bhutta, Zain Ali; Castren, Maaret; Straney, Lahn; Djarv, Therese; Tariq, Tooba; Thomas, Stephen Hodges; Alinier, Guillaume; Al Shaikh, Loua; Owen, Robert Campbell; Al Suwaidi, Jassim; Shuaib, Ashfaq; Singh, Rajvir; Cameron, Peter Alistair (2016)
    Background: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) studies from the Middle East and Asian region are limited. This study describes the epidemiology, emergency health services, and outcomes of OHCA in Qatar. Methods: This was a prospective nationwide population-based observational study on OHCA patients in Qatar according to Utstein style guidelines, from June 2012 to May 2013. Data was collected from various sources; the national emergency medical service, 4 emergency departments, and 8 public hospitals. Results: The annual crude incidence of presumed cardiac OHCA attended by EMS was 23.5 per 100,000. The age sex standardized incidence was 87.8 per 100,000 population. Of the 447 OHCA patients included in the final analysis, most were male (n = 360, 80.5%) with median age of 51 years (IQR = 39-66). Frequently observed nationalities were Qatari (n = 89, 19.9%), Indian (n = 74, 16.6%) and Nepalese (n = 52, 11.6%). Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was carried out in 92 (20.6%) OHCA patients. Survival rate was 8.1% (n = 36) and multivariable logistic regression indicated that initial shockable rhythm (OR 13.4, 95% CI 5.4-33.3, p = 0.001) was associated with higher odds of survival while male gender (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.1-0.8, p = 0.01) and advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) (OR 0.15, 95% CI 0.04-0.5, p = 0.02) were associated with lower odds of survival. Conclusions: Standardized incidence and survival rates were comparable to Western countries. Although expatriates comprise more than 80% of the population, Qataris contributed 20% of the total cardiac arrests observed. There are significant opportunities to improve outcomes, including community-based CPR and defibrillation training. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.